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"Ene^lopadia AnierioaBa. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, 6BienaBS| I^iterfttur*, Kctnif Politics and 
Biography, brought down to the present Time ; including a copious Collection of Original ArticlM in American 
Biogranny ; on the Basis of the seventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Francis Lieber, 
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C/ATHOLic Epistles: a name given to. 
seven epistles of the New Testament, be- 
cause written to Christians in general, and 
not to believers of some particular place. 
They are, one of James, two of Feter, 
three of John, and one of Jude. 

Catholicism. (See Roman Catholic 

Catiline, Lucius Sergius, was just 
entering on the age of manhood wnen 
Rome became a prey to the rage of Ma- 
rina and Sylla. Of patrician birth, he 
attached himself to the cause of the 
latter, had some share in his success, and 
still more in his proscriptions. Murder, 
rapine and conflagration were the first 
deeds and pleasures of his vou^. His 
influence on the fortunes of the disorder- 
ed republic became important He ap- 
pears to have served in the army witiii 
reputaticEn. He was peculiarly danger- 
ous and formidable, as his power of 
disedmulation enabled him to throw a 
veil over his vices. Such was lus art, 
that, while he was poisoning the minds 
of the Roman youdi, he gained the 
friendship and esteem of the severe Cat- 
ulus. Equally well qualified to deceive 
the good, to mtimidate the weak, and to 
ioBjpvce his own boldness into his deprav- 
ed associates, he evaded two accusations 
brou^t agamst him by Clodius, for crim- 
inid intercourse with a vestal, and for 
nxmstrous extortions, of which he had 
been guihy while proconsul in Africa. 
He was suspected, also, of having mur- 
dered his first wife and his son. A con- 
federacy of many young men of high l^rth 
and daring diaracter, who saw no oUier 
means of extricating themselves from 
their enormous debts, than by obtaining 
die highest offices of the state, having 
been formed, Catiline was placed at their 
head. This eminence he owed chiefly 

to his connexion with the old soldiers of 
Sylla, by means of whom he kept in awe 
the towns near Borne, and even Rome 
Itself. At the same time, he numbered 
among his adherents not only the wonrt 
and lowest of the riotous populace, but 
also many of the patriciaiis, and men of 
consular rank. 'Eyerr thing favored his 
audacious scheme, rompey was pursu- 
ing the victories which I^uculliis had pre- 
pared for him ; and the latter was but a 
feeble supporter of the patriots in the 
senate, who wished him, out in vain, to 
put himself at their head. Crassus^ who 
had delivered Italy f]X)m the gladiators, 
was now striving, with mad eagerness, 
after power and riches, and, instead of 
OT>po6ing, countenanced the growing in- 
mience of Catifine, as a means of his 
own aggrandizement Ceesar, who was 
laboring to revive the party of Marius, 
spared Catiline, and, perhaps, even en- 
couraged him. Only two Ronians re- 
main^ determined to uphold their faUing 
country — Cato and Cicero; the latter of 
whom alone possessed the qualifications 
necessary for the task. The conspirators 
were now planning the elevation of Cati- 
line and one of ms accomplices to the 
consulship. When this was eflected, they 
hoped to obtain possession of the public 
treasures and the property of the citizens, 
under various pretexts, and especially 
by means of proscription. It is not prob. 
able, however, that Catiline had promis- 
ed them the liberty of burning and plun- 
dering Rome. Cicero had tne courage 
to stand candidate for the consulship, in 
spite of the impending danger, of^ the 
extent of which he was perfectly aware. 
Neither insults, nor threats^ nor even ri- 
ots and attempts to assassmate him, de- 
terred him from his puipose ; and, being 
supported by the rich citizens, he gained 

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his election, K C. 65. All that the party 
of Catiline could accomplish was the 
election of Caius Antony, one of their 
accomplices, as colleague of Cicero. This 
failure, however, did not deprive Catiline 
of the hope of gaining the consulship the 
following year. For this purpose, he ro- 
douhled the measures of terror, by which 
he had laid the foundation of his power. 
Meanwhile, he had lost some of the most 
important members of jiis conspiracy. 
Antony had been prevailed upon or com- 
pelled by Cicero to remain neutral. C»- 
sar and Crassus had resolved to do the 
same. Piso had been killed in Spain. 
Italy, however, was destitute of troops. 
The veterans of Sylla only waited the 
signal to take up arms. This signal was 
now given by Catiline. The centuri- 
on Manlius appeared among them, and 
formed a camp in Etruria. Cicero was 
on the watch : a fortunate accident dis- 
closed to him the counscbof the conspir- 
ators. One of them, Curius, was on inti- 
mate terms with a woman of doubtful 
reputation, Fulvia by name, and had ac- 
quainted her with their plans. Through 
this woman, Cicero learnt that two 
knights had undertaken to assassinate 
him at his house. On tlie day which 
they had fixed for the execution of their 
plan, they found the doors barred and 
guarded. Still Cicero delayed to make 
public the curcumstances of a conspiracy, 
the progress and resources of which he 
wished first to ascertain. He contented 
himself with warning his fellow-citizens, 
in general terms, of the impending dan- 
ger. But when the insurrection of Man- 
Fius was made known, he procured the 
passage of the celebrated decree, that '* the 
consuls should take care that the republic 
received no detriment" It w^as exceed- 
ingly difficult to seize the person of one 
who had soldiers at his command, both 
in and out of Rome ; still more difficult 
would it be to prove his guilt before those 
who were accomplices with him, or, at 
least, were willing to make use of his 

Elans to serve tlicir own interest He 
ad to choose between two evils — a revo- 
lution within the city, or a civil war : he 
E referred the latter. Catiline had the 
oldness to take liis seat in the senate, 
known as he was to be the enemy of the 
Roman state. Cicero then rose and 
delivered that bold oration against him, 
which was the means of saving Rome, by 
driving Catiline from tlie city. The con- 
spirators who remained, Lentulus Sura, 
Cethegus, and other infamous senators, 
engaged to head the insurrection in Rome 

as soon as Catiline appeared at the gates. 
According to Cicero and Sallust, it was 
the intention of the conspirators to set 
the city on fii^e, and massacre the inhab- 
itants. At any rate, these horrid conse- 
quences might have easily followed from 
the circumstances of the case, without 
any previous resolution. Lentulus, Ce- 
thegus, and the other conspirators, in tho 
meanwhile, were canying on their crimi- 
nal plots. Tliey applied to the ambasw 
dors of the Allobroges to transfer the 
war to the fit)ntiers of Italy itself. These, 
however, revealed the plot, and their dis- 
closures led to others still more impor- 
tant The correspondence of the con- 
spirators with their leader was intercepted. 
The senate had now a notorious crime to 
punish. As the circumstances of the 
case did not allow of a minute observ- 
ance of forms in the proceedings against 
the conspirators, the laws relating thereto 
were disregarded, as had been done in 
former instances of less pressing danger. 
Ceesar spoke against immediate execu- 
tion, but Cicero and Cato prevailed. Five 
of Uie conspirators wei*e put to d^ath. 
Caius Antonius was then appointfxi to 
march against Catiline, but, on thu pre- 
text of ill health, gave the command to 
his heutenant Petreius. He succeeded 
in enclosing Catiluie, who, seeing no way 
of escape, resolved to die sword in hand. 
His followers imitated his example. The 
battle was fought with bitter desperation. 
The insurgents all fell on the spot which 
their leader had assigned them, and Cati- 
line at tlieir head, at Pistoia, in Etruria, 5th 
Jan., B. C. 62. The history of Catiline's 
conspiracy has been written by Sallust 

Catinat, Nicholas, marshal of France, 
born at Paris, 1637, quitted the profes- 
sion of the law for tliat of arms, after los- 
ing a cause by a decision which appeared 
to him evidently unjust He entered the 
cavalry, attracted the notice of Louis 
XIV, at the storming of Lille (1667), and 
was promoted. By a number of splendid 
deeds, he gained the esteem and friend- 
ship of the great Cond6, particularly by, 
his conduct at the battle of Senef. He 
was sent as lieutenant-general against the 
duke of Savoy, gained tlie batdes of Btaf 
fardo (Aug. 16, 1690) and of Marsaglia 
(Oct 4, 1^3), occupied Savoy and part 
of Piedmont, and was made marshal in 
1693. In the conquered countries, his 
humanity and mildness often led him to 
spare the vanquished, contrary to the 
express commands of Lou vois. In Flan- 
ders, he displayed the same activity, and 
took Ath, in 1697. In 1701, he received 

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the command of the anny of Italy against 
pcince £u^iie ; but he was straitened by 
the orders of his court, and was destitute 
of money and proYisionSi while Eugene 
was aito^red to act with foil liberty. July 
^h, fae ^v^as defeated at Caipi. Equally 
unfortiixiate was the battle of Chian, 
where Villeroi had the chief command. 
It was here, while rallying his troops, 
after an nnsaccessfol charge, that ne 
replied to an officer who represented to 
him that death was inevitable in such an 
eDcoimter, " True, death is before us, but 
shame behind." In spite of his repre- 
sentations, the French court would not 
believe the disasters in Savoy to be owing 
to the perfidy of the duke of Savoy, and 
CannatwBs<&9graced He bore his raisfbr- 
tone with calmness, and died at St. Gra- 
tien, in 1712L He was a true philosopher, 
religious nvithout austerity, a courtier 
without intiigue, disinterested and gener- 
oiB when m fiivor, and cheerful in dis- 
grace. From his unalterable calmness 
and consideration, his soldiers called him 

Cato die Censor (Marcus Porcius), sur- 
named Priacus, also Scmiens and Mc^or 
(the Wise and the Elder), bom 232 B. C, 
at ToBeulum, inherited from his fiither, a 
I^eheian, a small estate, in the territory of 
the Sabines, which he cultivated with his 
own hands. He was a youth at the time 
of Hannibal's invasion of Italy. He 
served bis first campaign, at the age of 17, 
under Fabius Maximus, when he besieged 
Capua. Five years after, he fought under 
&e same commander at the siege of Ta- 
rentnm. After the capture of this city, 
he became acquainted with the Pythago- 
nan Nearchus, who initiated him into the 
sabfone doctrines of his philosophy, with 
which, in practice, he was already con- 
versant. After the war was ended, Cato 
netumed to his &rm. As he was versed 
in the laws, and a fluent speaker, he went, 
at day-break, to the neighboring towns, 
where he acted as counsellor and advo- 
cate to those who applied to him. Vale- 
rius Fiaccus, a noble and powerful Ro- 
man, who had an estate in the vicinity, 
observed the talents and virtues of the 
youth, conceived an afiection for him, and 
persuaded him to remove to Rome, where 
he promised to assist him with his in- 
fluence and patronage. A few rich and 
hi^-bon^faimHee tlien stood at the head 
of the republic Cato was poor and un- 
known, but his eloquence, which some 
coB^»red to that of Demosthenes, and 
the integrity and strength of his charac- 
ter, soon drew the public attention to 

him. In eooit^ and in the popular as- 
semblies, he answered to the fine defini- 
tion which he himself gave of an orator, 
and vrbich Quinctilian has preserved to 
us; *^a virtuous man skilled in the art of 
speaking well." At the age of 30, he 
went as militaiy tribune to Sicily. In the 
following year^ he was questor, at which 
period there commenced, between him 
and Scipio, a rivalry and hatred, which 
lasted till death. Cato, who had returned 
to Rome, accused Scipio of extravagance ; 
and, though his rival was acquitted of the 
charge, this zeal in the cause of the pub- 
he gained Cato a great influence over the 
people. Five years after, having been 
already edile, he was chosen pretor, and 
obtained the province of Sardinia. His 
strict moderation, integrity and love of 
justice were here still naore strongly dis- 
played than in Rome. On this Island, he 
formed an acquaintance with the poet 
Ennius, of whom he learnt Greek, and 
whom he took with him to Rome on his 
return. He was finallv made consul, 193 
B. C, with his friend Valerius Fiaccus 
ft>r his coUeaffue. He opposed, with aU his 
power, the abolition of the Oppian law, 
pissed in the pressing times of tne second 
Punic war, fi)rbidding the Roman women 
to wear more than huf an ounce of gold, 
to dress in garments of various colors, or 
to wear other ornaments; but he was 
obliged to yield to the eloquence of tlie 
tribune Valerius, and the urgent importu- 
nities of the women. Soon after, he set 
out for Spain, which was in a state of 
rebellion. His first act was to send back 
to Rome the supplies which had been 
provided for the army, declaring that the 
war ought Xf> support the sokhers. He 
gained several victories with a newly- 
raised army, reduced the province to sub- 
mission, and returned to Italy, where the 
honor of a triumph was granted to him. 
Scarcely had he descend^ from his tri- 
umphal car, when he put oft* the toga of 
the consul, arrayed himself in the sol- 
dier's habit, and followed Sempronius to 
Thrace. He afterwards put himself un- 
der the command of the consul Manius 
Acilius, to fight against Antiocbus, and to 
carry on the war in Thessaly. By a bold 
march, he made himself master of the 
Callidromus, one of the highest peaks of 
the mountain pass of Thermopylae, and 
thus decided the issue of the battle. He 
brought the inteltigence of this victory tc 
Rome, 189 B. C. Seven years after, he 
obtained, in spite of a powerful faction 
opposed to him, the most honorable, and 
at the same time the most feared, of all 

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the mamtracwB of Rome, tlie oessorsbip. 
He had not oanvaaaed for the office, but 
had only expreased his willingDess to fill 
it. In oompliaiice with his wishes, Vale- 
rius Flaocos was chosen his colleague, 
as the only person qualified to assist him 
in correcting the public disorders, and re- 
storing the ancient purity of morals. He 
fulfilled this trust with inflexible ricor; 
and, though his measures caused him 
some obloquy and opposition, thev met, 
in the end, with the highest applause; 
and, when he resigned Us office, it was 
resolved to erect a statue to him wiih on 
honorable inscription. He appears to 
have been quite mdiflerent to the honor ; 
and when, before this, some one express- 
ed his wonder that no statue had been 
erected to him, he answered, *' I would 
rather have it asked why no image has 
been erected to Cato than why one has." 
Still he was not void of self-complacency. 
** Is he a Cato, then ?" he was accustom- 
ed to say, when he would excuse the er- 
rors of another. Gate's political li& was 
a continued war&re. He was contiuuaUv 
accusing, and was himself accused with 
animosity, but was always acquitted. His 
last public conmiission was an embassy 
to Carthage, to settle the dispute between 
the Carthaginians and king Massinissa. 
It is said that this journey was the origin- 
al cause of the destruction of Cartilage ; 
for Cato was so astonished at the rapid 
recovery of this city from its losses, that 
he ever aAer ended every speech of his 
with the well-known words, ^Prmtarea 
censto^ Carthaginem esse ddendaaC^ (I am 
dso of opinion that Carthage must be de- 
stroyed). He died a year after his return 
(147 B. C), 85 yeaiB okL Cato, who was 
so fiaigal of the nuhhc revenues, was not 
indifferent to ricnes. He was rigorously 
severe towards his slaves, and conudered 
them quite in the light ^ property. He 
made every exertion to promote and im- 
prove apiculture. In his old affe, he gave 
himself up to the company of his firiends 
and the {Measures of the ti^le. To this 
the verses of Horace allude — 

Narrabir et prisci Catonis 
Sttpe mero caloisie virtos. 

He was twice married, and had a son by 
each of his wives. His conduct as a hus- 
band and a fiither was equally exemplary. 
He composed a multitude of works, of 
which the only one extant is that De Rt 
RustiecL Those of which the loss is most 
to be regretted are his orations, which 
Cicero mentions in terms of the highest 
enoomiuoEi, and his history of the origin 

of the Roman people, which is frequently 
quoted by the old historians. 

Cato, Marcus Porcius (called, to dis- 
tinguish him firom the censor, his great 
grandfather, Cato of Utica, the place 
of his death), was bom 93 B. C^ and, af- 
ter the death of his parents, was brought 
up in the house of his uncle, Livius Dru- 
sus. He early discovered great maturity 
of judgment and firmness of character. 
It is related of him, that, in his 14th year, 
when he saw the heads of several pro- 
scribed persons in tlie house of Sylla, by 
whose orders they had been murdered, 
he demanded a sword of his teacher, to 
stab the tyrant, and firee his country from 
servitude. With his brother by the 
mother's side, Ciepio, he lived in the ten- 
derest fiiendship. Cato was chosen jiriest 
of Apollo. He formed an intimacy with 
the Stoic Antipater of Tyre, and ever 
remained true to the principles of the 
Stoic philosophy. His first appearance 
in public was against the tribunes of the 
people, who wished to pull down a basil' 
tea erected by tlie censor Cato, which was 
in their way. On this occasion, he dis- 
played that powerfid eloquence, which 
afi^erwards rendered him so formidable, 
and won the cause. He served his first 
campaign as a volunteer in the war 
against Spartacus, and distinguished him- 
self so highly, that the pretor Gellius 
awarded him a prize, which he refused. 
He was sent as militaiy tribune to Mace 
donia. When the term of his ofiice had 
expired, he travelled into Asia, and car- 
ried the Stoic Athenodonis with him to 
Rome. He was next made questor, and 
executed his difficult trust with the strict- 
est integrity, while he had the spirit to 
prosecute the public officers for their acts 
of extortion and violence. His conduct 
gained him the admiration and love of 
the Romans, so that, on the last day of his 
questorship, he was escorted to his house 
m the whole assemMy of the people. 
The &me of his virtue spread far ami 
wide. In the games of Flora, the dancers 
were not allowed to lay aside their gm*- 
ments as long as Cato was present. The 
troubles of the state did not permit liim 
to remain in seclusion. The example of 
Sylla, in usurping supreme power, wa^ 
followed by many amoitious men, wJioso 
mutual dissensions were all |bat saved 
the tottering constitution fipom immediate 
ruin. Crassus hoped to purchase the 
sovereignty with his gold; Pompey ex- 
pected that it would be voluntarily con- 
ferred upon him ; and Csssar, superior to 
both in talent, united himself to both^ aoV 

Digitized by 



Doftde 118B of the ^maldi of tke one, ind 
cbe rBpotation of the other, to attain his 
own objects. At the head of the senate, 
the sole prop of the xepuMic, stood Calu- 
lusy Cicero and Cato. LucuUus, who 
Bbood Teiy high in the &Tor of tibe anny, 
vhich he had so victorionsly oomnMindea, 
mii^ alone have upheld the senate, had 
he not been more desirous to enjoy his 
wealth than to devote himself to the care 
of the commonwealth. Cato, keeling 
aloof jfrom all paities, served the common- 
wealth with sagacity and courage ; but he 
often injured the cause, which he was 
tiyjng to benefit, by the inflexibility of lus 
character. He was on the way to his 
estate, when he met Metellus Nepos,who 
was travelling to Rome to canvass for the 
tiibune^p. Knowing him to be a dan- 
gerous man, Cato returned immediatelv, 
stood candidato for the office himseu^ 
and was chosen, together with MetoUua 
About this time, thd conspiracy of Cati- 
line broke out Cato supported, with all 
his power, the consul Cicero, first gave 
him publicly the name of father of his 
couniny and urged, in a fine speech pre- 
served by SaHust, the rigorous pumrii- 
ment of the traitors. He opposed the 
proposicion of Metelhis Nepos to recall 
rompey fix>m Asia, and give him the 
command aninst CatUine, ^id came near 
losmg his life in a riot excited against him 
on this accoont by his- colleague and 
CflMar. After the return of Pompey, he 
fiiistnited many of his ambitious plans, 
and fiist predicted the consequences of 
his union wldi Crassus and Cnsar. He 
afterwBids opposed, but in vain, the di- 
vnon of lands in Campania. CsBsar at 
that time abused his power so much as 
to send Cato to prison, but was constrain- 
ed, by the murmurs of the people, to set 
him at lH>em. The triumvirate, in order 
to remove aim to a distance, had him 
sent to Cyprus, to depose king Ptolemy, 
under some frivolous pretext He was 
oompeDed to obey, and executed his com- 
misBion with so much address that he en- 
riched the treasiuy with a lar^ sum 
than had ever been deposited in it by any 
private man. in the mean time, he con- 
tinoed bis oppositbn to the triumvirate. 
Endeavoring to prevent the passage of 
the Tribonian kw, which invested Cras- 
SUB widi an ezlraordinaiy power, he was 
a Bscond tnne airssted ; but the people 
foUowed him hi a body to the pris<m,and 
Us enemies were compelled to release 
han. Bemg afterwards made pretor, he 
canried into execution a law agstost brib- 
ei7,that displeased all paitie& After the 

death of Cmbsos, the <»vil commotionB 
increased, and Cato, as the only means of 
meventinff greater evib, proposed thai 
Pompey should be made sole consul, con- 
trary to the constitution, and the proposi- 
tion was adopted. The year fbUowing, 
Cato k>8t the ocmsulship by refiising to 
take the steps necessarv for obtaining it 
At this time the civil war broke out 
Cato, then propretor in SicUy, on the ar- 
rival of Curio with three of Caesar's le- 
gions, departed fbr the camp of Pomp^, 
at Dyrrachium. He had still been m 
hopes to prevent the war by negotiation ; 
and when it broke out, he put on mourn- 
ing in token of his gnef Pompey, hav- 
ing been victorious at Dyrrachium, left 
Cato behind to guard the military chest 
and miurazine, while he pushed after his 
rival. For tlus reason, Cato was not 
present at the battle of Pharsalia, after 
which he sailed over with his troops to 
Cyrene, in Afiica. Here he learned that 
Pompey's ftther-in-law, Scipio, had cone 
to Juba, king of Maaritania, where varus 
had collected a considerable force. Cato 
immediately set off to join him, and, af- 
ter undergoinff huneer, thirst and every 
hardship, reached utica, where the two 
armies efiected a junction. The soldiers 
wished him to be their general, but he 
gave this office to Scipio, and took the 
command in Utica, while Scipio and La- 
bienus saHied out against Ceesar. Cato 
bod advised them to protract the war, 
but they ventured an engagement, in 
which they were entirely defeated, and 
Africa submitted to the victor. Cato had 
at first determined to defend himself to 
the last, with the senators in the place ; 
but he afterwards abandoned tiiis plan, 
and dismissed all who wished to leave 
him. His resolution was taken. On the 
evening before the day which he had fix- 
ed upon for executing it, he took a tran- 
(jnil meal, and discussed various philo- 
sophical subjects. He then retired to his 
chamber, and read the Phado of Plato. 
Anticipating his intenticms, his friends 
had taken away his sword. On findins 
that it was ^ne, he called his slav^ ana 
demanded it with apparent equanimitv ; 
but when they still delayed to bring it, he 
struck one of the slaves, who was en- 
deavoring to pacify him. His son and. 
his jGnenob came with tears, and besouffht 
him to refinun firom his purpose. At first 
he reproached his son ft>r disobedience, 
tiien calmly advised those present to sub- 
mit to CsBsar, and difionissed all but the 
philosophers Demetrius and ApoUonius, 
whom ne asked if they knew any way by 

Digitized by 




which he could continue to live without 
being false to his principles. Thej were 
silent, and left him, weeping. lie then 
received his sword joyfully, again read 
Phmdoy slept awhile, and, on awaking, 
sent to the port to inquire if lus firiends 
had departed. He heard, with a sigh, 
that the sea was tempestuous. He ^bd 
again sunk into slumber, when word was 
brought him that the sea was calm, and 
that all was tranquil in the harbor. He 
appeared satisfied, end was scarcely alone 
when he stabbed himself with his sword. 
The people rushed in, and tookadvan^ 
tage of a swoon, into which he had fallen, 
to bind up his wounds ; but, on cominff 
to himself, he tore off the bandages, and 
expired (44 B. C). The Uticans buried 
him honorably, and erected a statue to 
him. But CflBsar, when he heard the 
news of his death, exclaimed, ^ I grudge 
thee thy death, since thou hast grudged 
me the honor of sparing thy life. The 
truly Roman virtue of Cato has been cel- 
ebrated by Lucan, in his Pharsalia^ in a 
truly Roman style, with the words 

Victriz causa diis placoit, sed victa Catont. 

Catoptrics (fit>m xdnnrpw^ a mirror) ; 
the science which treats of reflected light 
(See Optica.) 

Cats, James ; bom in 1577, at Brou- 
wershaven, in Zealand ; one of the fathers 
of the Dutch language and poetnr. He 
studied at Leyden and Orleans. In 1627 
and 1631, he was ambassador to England, 
and afterwards grand pensioner of Hol- 
land. His poetry is distinguished for 
simplicity, nm^etij richness of imagina- 
tion, and winning though unpretending 
morality. His works consist of^allegories, 
according to the taste of his times, poems 
on the cuflerent ages and situations of 
life, idyls, &c. He died in 1660. 

CArs-EYE. (See Asteria and Quarfz.J 

Catskill Mountains; a range or 
mountains in New York, much the high- 
est in the state. They extend along to 
the west of the Hudson, from which 
their base is, at the nearest point, eight 
miles distant The principal summits 
are in Greene county. The two most 
elevated peaks are Round Top and High 
Peak. The former, according to the 
measurement of captain Partridge, is 
3804 feet above the level of tide water ; 
and the latter, 3718 feet. The Catskill 
mountains present scenery of singular 
beauty and grandeur, and have become a 
noted resort of travellers during the sum- 
mer. On a level tract of about 7 acres, 
ealied Ptne Orchard, elevated 2214 feet 

above the level of tide water, a large and 
commodious house has been erected for 
the accommodation of visitors. It is 
situated directly on the brow of the 
mountain, and commands an enchant- 
ing view of the country on both sides of 
the Hudson, embracing a tract about 100 
miles in length and 50 in breadth. This 
place, which is 12 miles from the town 
of Catskill, ]a approached by a good turn- 
pike road, which winds up the side of the 
mountain. Two miles west of Pine 
Orchard are the fine cascades of tlie 
Kaaterakill, a stream which is supplied 
by two small lakes situated high m the 
mountains. The upper fall is 175 feet in 
height ; and a few rods below is the other, 
of 80 feet, both perpendicular. The 
stream passes into a deep and very pic- 
turesque ravine, which is bordered by 
mountains rising abrupdy 1000 or 1500 

Catsup. (See Ketchi^.) 

Cattaro ; a seaport in Dalmatia, capi- 
tal of a curcle of the same name (formerly 
called Venetian ,^SU>ania\ at the bottom of 
the gulf of Cattaro (hocckt di CaUaro\ on 
the E. side of the Adriatic ; 25 miles W. 
N. W. Scutari, 30 S. S. £. Ragusa ; Ion. 
18« 58^ E.; lat 42^ 17' N.; population, 
2500. It is a bishop's see. It contains a 
cathedral, 17 Catholic churches and chap- 
els, 1 Greek church, and an hospital. It 
has a remarkable harbor, one of the most 
secure in Europe, being defended by a 
casde and strong battiements, and en- 
closed with rocks of such height, that the 
sun is seen in winter only a few hours in 
the day. Population of the circle, 31,570 , 
square miles, 296. 

Catteoat ; a lai^ gulf of the North 
sea, between North Jutland to the W., 
Norwav to the E., and the Danish islands 
of Zealand, Funen, &c. to the S. ; about 
120 miles from N. to S., and between 60 
and 70 from E. to W. The adverse 
winds which often prevail here render 
the navigation dangerous. The Cattegat 
is noted for its herring fishery. It con- 
tains the islands Samsoe, Anhok, Lessoe 
and Hertzholm. 

Catti ; one of the most renowned and 
valiant German tribes. They inhabited 
what is now Heasey also part of Franoonia 
and WcHStphalia. They carried on bloody 
wars with the Hermunduri and Cherusci. 
In the time of Cessar, they dweh on the 
Lahn,and opposed him with efifect Dru- 
8U8 defeated without reducing them. In 
the reign of Marcus Aurelius, they made 
incursions into Germany and Thrace, but 
were afterwards defeated by Didius Juli- 

Digitized by 




anus. In 393^ they made their last ap- 
pearance in iustory in union with the 
Franks. According to Ciesar, their terri- 
tOTj was divided into 100 districts, each 
of which was obliged to send annually 
1000 men into the neld, whose place was 
supplied the following year by those who 
bad before remained at home to cultivate 
the ground. Their food was milk, cheese 
and game ; their dress, the skins of ani- 
mala. Their limited princes, who gov- 
erned in connexion with a diet, annually 
distributed the lands among the femilies. 
(dee Germania.) 

Catullus, Uaius Valerius, a femous 
Roman poet, bom, B. C. 86, at Verona 
(according to some, at Sirmium, a small 
town on a peoinsula of lake Benacus, 
now logo di Gafia\ of rich and respect- 
able parents, went, in his youth, to Rome, 
where his accomplishments soon won 
him the &vor of those who adorned that 
i^ilendid era. He was the friend of Cicero, 
of Plancns, Cinna, and Cornelius Nepos ; 
to the last he subsequently dedicated the 
collection of his poems. This collection 
is not of great extent, but shows what he 
was capable of doinff in several kinds of 
poetjT, had he preferred a steady course 
of study to pleasure and travelling. Prob- 
ably a port of his poems have not come 
down to us. Of the merit of his produc- 
tions^ there has been but one opinion 
among the ancients as well as modems. 
Tibulms and Ovid eulogize him; and 
Alartial, in one of his epigrams, grants to 
him alone a superiority over himself. In 
sportive compoation and in epigrams, 
when he keeps within the proper limits 
of that f^pecies of poetry, he is a modeL 
He succeeded, fJso, in heroic verse, as in 
his beautiful episode of Ariadne, which 
appears to have inspired the poet who 
afterwards sung of bido.. He was the 
fijst of the Romans who successfiiUy im- 
itated the Greek lyric poetry. The four 
odes of his that remam to us make us 
&el a lively regret for the loss of the 
others. A weighty objection, however, 
against most of his writings, is their li- 
centiousness and indelicacy. The com- 
mon opinion is, that he died 57 B. C, in 
the 30th year of his ^;e. Scaliger main- 
tains, but without sumcient proof, that he 
died in his 71st year. The edition of his 
works by Volpius (Padua, 1737), and that 
of D6ring (Leipsic, 1788^90, 3 vols.)» 
deserve honorable mention. His poems 
are usually published with those of Ti- 
ba&Qs and Aopertius. 

CikUBui., or Cabui.. (See ^ghamstanJ) 
Caccasus; a chain of mountains in 

Western Asia, extending from south-east 
to north-west, and occupying the isthmus 
(containing 127,140 square miles| between 
the Black and Caspian seas. The lengtli 
is computed at 644 miles ; the breadth is 
various; from Mosdok to Tiflis it may 
be estimated at 184 miles. Torrents, 
precipices and avalanches render tlie 
mountains almost impassable. The Cau- 
casus is divided into two pamllei chains. 
The central ridge, from which the moun- 
tains faU off on each side, consists of vari- 
ous sorts of granite. The summits are 
covered with snow and ice, and are mostly 
barren ; the lower parts are clotlied with 
thick forests. On the western declivity is 
the Elburs, which a Russian measure- 
ment makes 16,700 feet high. The Casi- 
beg is 17,388 feet high. The most ele- 
vated summit (the Snowy mountain) is 
on the eastern side, west of the Cuban. 
It was first ascended by a European 
traveller in 1810. It is also called Schak" 
dash (King's mountain] and Schah-Elimrs; 
E&urs being the common name of all the 
high, conical summits rising from the 
chain of the Caucasus. The limit of 
perpetual snow on these mountains is 
1890 feet higher than on the Alpine re- 
gions of Savoy and Switzerland. Two 
of the passes, or gates, as they are often 
called, are remai'kable — the Caucasian 
pass and the Albanian or Caspian pass. 
Most of the rivers, which take their rise 
in the Caucasus, flow in an easterly di- 
rection to the Caspian sea, or in a wester- 
ly course to the Black sea. On the north- 
em declivity, the Terek flows easterly 
into the Caspian, and the Cuban westerly 
into the Black sea : beyond these rivers, 
the mountainous chain sinks down, by 
degrees, to the sandy plains in the south 
of Russia. On the southern declivity, 
the Kur flows easterly into the Caspian, 
and the Rioni (called by the ancients the 
Phasis) westerly into the Black sea : be 
yond tnese rivers rise the mountains of 
Turkish and Persian Armenia, which 
connect the Caucasus with the other 
chains of Western Asia. The highest 
ridge of the Caucasian chain is rugged 
and barren, but the southern declivity is 
extremely firuitful. The whole surface of 
the country abounds in forests and foun- 
tains, orchards and vineyards, cornfields 
and pastures, in rich alternation. Grapes 
and various kinds of fleshy fruits, chest- 
nuts and figs, ^w spontaneously. Grain 
of every description, rice, cotton and hemp 
flourish abundantly. But agriculture is 
much neglected ; partly owing to the in 
dolence of the mhabitantB, and partly tti 

Digitized by 




'their want of numbers and of securitv, as 
Uie people of the mountains, particularly 
the Lesgbians, in their plundering expe- 
ditions, lob the cultivators of the miits of 
their industry, and carry off the men fi>r 
slaves. There are multitudes of wild an- 
imals of every description here. The 
pheasant is a native. The mineral king- - 
dom is full of the richest treasures, which 
are nearly untouched. Mineral waters 
abound, and there are fountains of petro- 
leum and naphtha in many districts. Some 
fountains throw up a slime with the pe- 
troleum, which, Dein^ deposited, forms 
hills, styled by the natives £frotrtnp moun- 
iaina. The medicinal batns of Uaucasia 
are called by the general name of the 
baths of Alexander, The inhabitants con- 
sist of small tribes of various origin and 
language — Georgians, Abassians, Lesgbi- 
ans, Oasetes, Circassians, Taschkents, 
Khists, Ingooshes, Charabulaks, Tshet- 
shenzes, Tartars, Armenians, Jews, and, 
in some regions, wandering Aiabs. Some 
of them are Greek and Aimenian Chris- 
tians ; others are Mohammedans ; others, 
Jews; and others worship stars, moun- 
tains, rocks and trees. Many of the tribes 
are distinguished for the beauty, symme- 
try and strength of then: frames, particu- 
larly the Circassians and Geoigians, who 
are the handsomest people in me worid ; 
hence the charming Circassian and Geor^ 
gian females are sought for by the Eastern 
monarchs for their harams. The Cau- 
casians (about 900,000 in all) are partly 
under petty sovereigns, who often rule 
over a few villages, and partly under 
elders. The most famous are the Les- 
gbians, who inhabit the Eastern regions, 
and are the terror of the Armenians, Per- 
sians, Turks and Geoi^ans. Freedom 
makes them courageous and formidable 
to all their neighbors. They are forced, 
by the want of the most common neces* 
saries of life, to resort to plunder. Hence 
their weaker neighbors seek to appease 
them with presents. The rocks and crags, 
on the other hand, protect the Lesgfaians 
effectually from all external anaulta 
This tribe enturely neglects the aits ; and 
their agriculture and pasturage together 
are insufficient for their support The 
management of domestic Bmin rests 
wholly with the females. These pre* 
pare, nrom sofl and fine wool, cloth di^ss- 
es and coverings of various kinds. The 
men have no employment bat war and 
|>luiider. whereby to procure the necessa* 
nea of life. Every prince in the neiah" 
bcnrhood can purchase their aid, by &« 
Mshudg them with proviskins and 10 or 

12 rubies of silver apiece. They under- 
take private expeditions, lull th^r ene- 
mies mto securi^', and then attack them 
unawares. They show the greatest forti- 
tude in enduring baidships and reverses 
of fortune. Among them, and, in fact, 
throughout the Caucasus, hospitality and 
an implacable spirit of revenue prevail 
No stranger can travel in their (Country 
without having a friendly native or Kunak 
to accompany him, by whom he is every 
where introduced, and kindly received 
and entertained. All the regions on and 
about the Caucasus are comprehended 
under the name of Caucadan countries 
(containing 116,078 square miles and 
1,67^500 inhabitants]. Since the peace 
concluded between Russia and Persia, in 
1813, thev have belonged to the Russian 
empire, though without being completely 
subject to it ; for only a small portion, the 
Georgian territories, have a well ordered 
government, mosdy military. The Cau- 
casian provinces are, at present, six in 
number : — 1. The province of Tiflis or 
Grusia, also called Oeoma (17,630 square 
miles, and 390,000 inhi3)itants ; the capi- 
tal, Tidis, q. V.).— ^2. Imiretta, called by the 
Russians Mditenia (13,667 square miles, 
and 270,000 inhabitants ; capital, Cotatis). 
--3. The province of Circassia, (32,526 

3[uare mites, and 550,000 inhabitants), 
ere are Russian military posts (to guard 
against the attacks of the independent 
princes of tlie mountains), the Gieat and 
Little Kabarda, Besgfaistan, &c. — 4. Da- 

Sliestan, i. e., the mountain land on the 
aspian sea (9196 square miles, and 
184,000 inhabitants; Derbent is its cap- 
ital). — 5. Schirvan (9429 square miles, 
133,000 inhabitants), with Bakou, the best 
haibor in Uie Caspian. This reffion, fh>m 
its abundance of beautiful TOwers, is 
called the Paradi9e of Ronta, In the 
neighborhood are the feuntains of naph- 
tha, to which the Parsees perform pil- 
grimages fbom India. Here, too, is the 
temple of fire, where a fir^ is kept per- 
petually burning. — ^Beyond Terek, on the 
northern side of Caucasus, lies, 6. the 
province of Caueasia (previous to 1823, 
the government of Georgievsk), contain- 
ing d3,£^ square miles, with 146,500 hi- 
habitants, of whom 21,000 are Russians 
and 48,000 colonists. Here are 22 forti- 
fied places (9E Geiorgievsk, Kizliar (a 
commercial city, with a population of 
9000), AlexaodroviAr, &c.) along the Cu*- 
ban, liie Kama and the Tetek, as defences 
asalnst the savage tribes of the mountains. 
Since IS^ Bcavropol has been the capi- 
ttJ of this province, and general Jermofoff 

Digitized by 




(q. ▼.) the governor. The trade is mostly 
in tfae bands of the ArmeniaDs. Hexe m 
die Scottiflii missioDaiy station of I^ara, 
fbonded in 1603, and enlarged by Mora- 
YJaMta from Sarepta, witb schools and a 

Caucbois-Lemai&e, Lotus Ausustin 
Fran^ctb ; a spirited French 4)olitical 
writer, known on account of his political 
persecutions. He was bom in Paris, iu 
1789, wbere be went through a complete 
course of study, and devoted himself to 
the woik of education. After the restora- 
tioxi, he published a journal, JVain Jaunt 
(Tlic Yeftow Dwarf), whibh was constitu- 
tional in its sentiments, and, at the same 
time, contained so much pungent satire, 
that ft was sujmressed, after the second 
restoration, in l815. He was obliged to 
leave Paris, went to Brussels, published 
tliere the Ainn Jaunt refugit^ and changed 
tlie title, when the work was suppressed 
in that place also, to that of Lt Vrai 
Ubtrnk (The True Liberal^ under which, 
in ^ite of complaints and prosecution.^, 
and a constant change of publishers, ii 
still continues. Cauchois, through the 
representations of the French mmistry, 
became an object of so much suspicion 
to the fiekian government, that he, with 
19 other ^lench refugees, was ordered to 
quit the country, and go to Hamburg. 
He was carried, by gendarmes, over the 
fiontiera, but escaped to the Hague, where 
be was ho^kably received, and concealed 
firon tfae police, which was in pursuit of 
him. Here he composed a veiy ener- 
getic memorial to the states-general, in 
which he represented his persecutions as 
a violation of national law. This occa- 
^oned a most animated debate in the 
Belgian parliament, in which Hogendorp 
and Dotrensn distinguished themselves, 
bur was fimiDy rejected. Under Decazes* 
ministzT, Cauchois returned to Paria^ 
where be has since been an industrious 
contributor to several liberal journals. 

Caucus ; one of the very few Ameri- 
fanispns^ which belong entirely to the U. 
States, and cannot be traced back to the 
mother countiy. (See«^fiiencimum.) Mr. 
J(dm Pickering in his Vocabulary or Col- 
lection of Woi3s and Phrases, winch have 
been supposed to be peculiar to the U. 
States fBoston, 1816), calls it a eani term, 
used, throodiout the U. States^ for those 
Bwetings which ate held by the different 
politiciJ parties, for the purpose of agree- 
pf upon candidates for office, or concert- 
ing any measure which thejfr intend to 
cany at the subsequent public or town- 
meefipjgB, Hie earliest accMnt he h«s 

seen of this extraordinary word is in Gor- 
don's History of the American Revolution, 
London, 178iB, vol. L p. 240, note. Gordon 
says that, nH)re than 50 years previous to 
the time of his writing, ^ Samuel Adams' 
&ther, and twenty others, in Boston, one 
or two from the north end of the town, 
where all ship-business is carried on, used 
to meet, make a caucus," &lc. From the 
fact that the meetings were first held in 
a part of Boston "where all the ship- 
business was carried on," 3Ir. Pickering 
inferred that (nmcus might be a corruption 
ofcavikerSf the word metUng being under- 
stood. Mr. Pickering was afterwards in 
formed that several g^entiemen had men • 
tioned this as the or^in of the word. He 
thinks he has sometimes heard the ex- 
pression a caucuB meding (caulkers' meet^ 
mg). Mr. Pickering says that this cant 
word and its derivatives are never.used in 
good writing. We must add, however, 
that all the newspapers of the U. States 
use iL 
Caulainoockt. (See Vicenza.) 
Cacdiite Forks. (See t^eUino.) 
CAULXiNe, or Caukino, of a ship, con- 
sists in driving a quantity of oakum, or 
old ropes untwisted and drawn asunder, 
into the seams of the planks, or into the 
intervals where the planks are joined to- 
gether, in the ship's decks or sides, in or- 
der to prevent the entrance of water. 
After the oakum is driven very hard into 
these seams, it is covered with hot melted 
pitch or resin, to keep the water from 
rotting it. Among the ancients, the fjvt 
who made use of caulking were the in- 
habitants of Phceacia, now Corfu. Wax 
and resin appear to have been coomionly 
used {Hreviously to that period. The 
Poles use a sort of unctuous clay for tiie 
same purpose on their navisabte rivers. 

Caustic. The name of eou^Kc (Lat 
caiu8ticu9^ from Gr. xo/w, I bum) is given 
to substances^ which, l^ their chemical 
action, disoi^nize the parts of the body 
with which they are put in contact 
They are called, Bkewise, paUiditd am' 
terieSf to distingui^ them from the fire 
called aduai cmday. Caustics, in gen* 
end, act by decomponng chemicaQy the 
tissues to which they are applied, by de* 
Driving them of lifo^ and producing a real 
local fuid drcumecribed gangrene, called 
tichatf or daugL Those, tbe action of 
which is powerfiil^ — for infltanee, caustic 
potaasa, eoncentraled eu^uric acid, &<^ 
— fvoduce these phenomena with sueb 
rapidity, that inflammaticm takes plaee^ 
only a%er the formation of the eschar, 
whilst, on the contnury, ttiflammarion is 

Digitized by 




the immediate consequence of the less 
energetic caustics. In both cases, sup- 
puration occurs sooner or later, and sep- 
arates the disorganized from the suiround- 
ing parts. Almost all the substances used 
as caustics have only a local action : 
some, however, are capable of being ab- 
sorbed, and of exercising a deleterious 
action on the economy in general: ar- 
senical preparations are an instance of it. 
The en^Ioyment of caustics is now con- 
fined to a small number of cases. The 
actual cautery and the knife are, in gen- 
eral, preferred to them. They are used 
principally in order to establish issues, 
particularly in cases in which it is neces- 
sary to produce a powerful derivation; 
to stop the progress of certain gangrenous 
affections, such as anthrax ; to open cer- 
tain indolent abscesses ; to change the 
mode of vitality of the skin in some can- 
cerous or herpetic ulcers ; to destrov the 
excrescences of wounds or proud nesh ; 
and, finally^ to prevent the absorption of 
the virus deposited at the sur&ce of poi- 
soned wounds. 

Caustic Potassa {patoMa fusa ; lapis 
eausticus) ; impure hydrate of protoxyde 
of potassium; caustic kali with lime; 
conmion caustic. This is seen in fiat, 
irregular, brittle pieces, or in round sticks, 
Hke the nitrate of silver ; of a grayish- 
white, sometimes reddish ; of a savor ex- 
tremely caustic, and a slight odor sui 
generis. This substance is extremely 
caustic ; it decomposes quickly the parts 
with which it is put in contact, and leaves 
on the skin a soft, grayish eschar, which 
comes off slowly. Taken internally, it 
acts in the same way as all corrosive 
poisons : it has, nevertheless, been admin- 
istered, in very dilute solutions, as an 
antacid, diuretic, and lithontriptic. It has 
succeeded in the gravel, in nephritic col- 
ics, and other affections proceeding fix)m 
superabundance of uric acid. It has been 
recommended, likewise, in the treatment 
of scrofula, and in some diseases of the 
skin, such as leprosy, &c. This solution, 
even when very diluted, soon irritates the 
stomach, and brin^ on anorexia, which 
prevents it firom bemg used for any length 
of time. 

Caustic Soda (soda); protoxyde of 
sodium. Its physical properties are sim- 
ilar to those of potassa, and it may be 
used with advantage as a sttccedmteum 
vrhea employed as a caustic In ftct, the 
flub-Garix)nate, which forms during its ac- 
tion on the ^dn, is not deliquescent, as 
that of potassa, and, consequently, is not 
ful^ect to spread. 

Cavalcawti, jrtriao j a Florentine phi- 
losopher and poet of the 13th century, 
the friend of Dante, and, like him, a zeal- 
ous Ghibelline. When the dissensions 
of the Guelfs and GhibelUnes disturbed 
the public peace of Florence, the citizens 
banished the chiefe of both parties. The 
GhibelUnes were exiled to Sarzana. On 
account of the unhealthy air of that place, 
they were permitted to return ; but Ca- 
valcanti had contracted a disease of which 
he died (1300) at Florence. In his you tli, 
he made a pilgrimage to St Jago de 
Compostella, in Oalicia. Returning home 
through France, he fell in love, at Tou- 
louse, with a young lady of the name of 
Mandettcu To her most of his verses 
which we possess are addressed. They 
are remarkaole, considering the periokl at 
which they were written, for their beauti- 
ful style. His Canzone d^Amore has gained 
him the most fame. The learned cardinal 
Egidio Colonna, and some others, have 
made commentaries on it. His Rime^ 
published by Cicciaporci, appeared at 
Florence in 1813. 

Cavalier, in fortification, is a work 
generally raised within the body of tlie 
place, 10 or 12 feet higher than the rest of 
the worics. It is most commonly situated 
within the bastion, and made much in 
the same form. Sometimes the cavaliers 
are placed in the gorges, or on the middle 
of the curtain ; they are then made in tlie 
form of a horse-shoe. Their use is to 
command all the adjacent works and 
surrounding country. They are seldom 
made except when a rising ground over- 
looks some of the works. In modem 
times, it is considered that cavaliers in a 
bastion occupy too much room, render 
retrenchments impossible, and, unless a 
ditch separates the cavaUer firom the par- 
apet of the bastion, cause the grenades to 
fall upon the defenders of the latter; for 
which reasons it is considered best to put 
them on the curtains or behind the bastions. 

Cavalry; one of the three great 
classes of troops, and a formidable power 
in the hands of a leader who knows how 
to employ it with efifect This requires a 
bold and active spirit, able to avail itself, 
with quickness and decision, of every op- 
portunity. The eflScacy of cavalry arises 
particularly finom the moral impression 
which it produces on the enemy. This 
is greater m proportion to the size of the 
mass and the rapidity of its motion. Its 
adiq)tation to speedy movements is an- 
other great advantase, which enables a 
commander to avail himself immediately 
of a deciatve moment, when the enemy 

Digitized by 




exposes a weak point, or when disorder 
sppears in his FBiik& It is a very impor- 
tant instrument in completing the defeat 
of an enemy, in disconcerting him by a 
sudden attack, or oyerthrowing him by a 
powerful shock. The use of cavalry is, 
it is true, oileDtimes limited by the na- 
ture of the ground. In forests, in moun- 
tainous districts, on a marshy soil, &c, it 
is of but little avail in large bodies. In 
modem times, cavaliy has been led 
agaaifst intrenchments, but only to its 
own descruction. In some instances, too, 
the cavalry has been dismounted, and 
employed as infantiy; which may, on 
peculiar occasions, be advisable, but, on 
the whole, is contrary to their nature and 
piupose, and, if made a part of their duty, 
nke other half measures, is usually disad- 
vantaseous. It is also unadvisable to 
keep tar^ bodies of cavalry united during 
a campaign. They are to be collected in 
large masses only for particular objects. 
To keep them together the whole time 
wooM be troublesome, and their main- 
tenance fiiequently attended with diffi- 
cuhjw — ^The unequal size of the horse, 
the very great diversity in his streneth 
and breed, have at all times rendered it 
nereasBuy to divide the cavalry into light 
tnd kewnf horse. There is sometimes, 
also, an mtermediate class. These dif- 
ferent sorts are employed for different 
purposes. The heavy cavalry, witli deien- 
Rve armor (cuirassiers), is more frequently 
employed in mass, where force is requi- 
E3te ; the lighter troops are used singly, 
and in amul detachments, where swift- 
Dfss and continued effort are required. 
Ne^enheless, cuiraasierB and dragoons, 
hucers and hussars, mounted riflemen 
and chtvauz kgen, must, in the main 
points, be equalfy exercised in the duties 
appertaining to cavalry, and must be able 
to fight in the line as well as singly. 
The use of cavalry is probably nearly as 
ancient as war itself; for in those coun- 
tries where horses thrive most, and man 
may be said to live on horseback, he has 
alwavs preferred to fiffht on horseback. 
Tbeiclgyptians are said to have had cav- 
alry before the time of Moses. The 
Israelites, when at war with their neigh- 
bon, often had to encounter cavalry, but 
were afraid to mount horses until the 
time of Solomon. The Greeks appear 
sot to have introduced cavalry into their 
amies tiU the second Messenian war, 
and, even after that time, had compara- 
tively few ; but with them it was consid- 
ered' the most respectable class of troops, 
in which only the wealthy citizens served. 
\au mu 2 

The Persian cavalry, and, at a later po* 
nod, the Macedonian, were much more 
numerous. The Romans learnt its use 
from Pyrrhus and the Carthaginians. At 
a later period, the cavalry of the Gauls 
was particularly good. In the middle 
ages, the knifhts fought only on ho se- 
back, and disdained the foot-service. At 
this period, however, regular warfare was 
unknown, and was only gradually re- 
stored in the progress of time. After the 
introduction of artillery, although cavalry 
was used, yet its manoeuvres were awk- 
ward and inefficient The genius of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus first perceived the impor- 
tant use which could be made of it. He 
was witliout the heavy cavalry, which, 
since the time of cliivaJry, had eone out 
of use ; but he found that the advantage 
of tliis species of troops did not consist m 
its weight, but in its quickness of motion. 
AVitli reference to this, he formed his 
regiments of horse, and showed their real 
utility ; but it was left to Seidlitz, a gen- 
eral of Frederic the Great, to display this 
most fully. Napoleon appears to have 
been well aware of the great value of 
cavalry in large masses, but he often sac- 
rificed them unsparingly. This, together 
with certain erroneous dispositions which 
had crept into some armies, and had 
caused the cavalry to fail in services on 
which they ought never to have been put, 
and which were sometimes performed as 
well or better by other troops, gave rise, 
of late years, to doubts concerning their 
utility, which, however, are now aban- 
doned. The writings of general Bismark, 
on the subject of cavalry, are valuable ; 
as are also the ^achrichten und Betrach' 
itmfm iiber die Thaten und Schicksale der 
Retterei in den Fddziigen Friederich II 
und in denenneuerer Zeit (Statements and 
Observations respecting the Conduct and 
Fate of the Cavalry in the Campaigns of 
Frederic II and in diose of a later Period). 
In the north of Europe, lances are now 
common among the light cavalry, as 
they have proved a formidable weapon 
when skilfully used. They will, no doubt, 
effect a chan^ in tlie arms, and even in 
the organization, of the infantry, who can 
do litue against lancers, if rain prevents 
them from firing. In the Prussian cav- 
alry, which is among the finest in the 
world, lancers are very numerous. A 
French author calls the cavalry, very ap- 
propriately, Parme du moment; because 
they are peculiarly fitted to take advan- 
tage of decisive moments. A moment 
may occur, when a great victory can be 
decided by the sudden irruption of a body 

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of caTolxy, and thenext moment it may be 
too late. A commander of cavalry must 
therefore be poasesBed of the tare courage 
which shrmu not from responsibility. 
Many battles m the laie wars orove the 
truth of tibese remarks. Napoleon won 
the batde of Marengo chiefly by Keller- 
mann's daring charge, at the head of 500 
horse, on an enemy almost sure of vic- 
tory. The campaigns in Russia, and the 
following war in Qermany, showed the 
great di»dvantage under which an army 
wbors from the want oS cavalry. Napo* 
leon fiuled to fidlow up his advantages 
afrer the victories of LAtzen and Dresden, 
chiefly because his cavalry were raw and 
inezp^enced. Hie training of cavalry 
is much slower than that of infantov. 
The beet cavahy is now generally consia- 
erod to be the Imissian and some species 
of the Russian. The French never were 
good horsemen, and the English have 
not kept pace with the numerous im- 
provements introduced by the wars on 
the continent It is a fact of interest, that 
the more civilization takes root among a 
nation, the more importance is given to 
in&nt^. An savage nations begin with 
cavalry, if they have horses. At present, 
in&ntry is the most numerous class of 
troops, though, before the time of Charles 
V, they were litde esteemed. 

Cavaniixes, Antonio Joseph; a cler^ 
gpnan and botanist ; bom 1745, at Valeii- 
r*a ; died in Madrid, 1804; studied with 
the Jesuits and at the university of Valen- 
cia. In 1777, he went to Paris with the 
children of the duke of Iniantado, and re- 
msdned there 12 years, occupied with die 
study of several sci^ices^ but chiefly with 
botany. He publisfaed there, in 1784, 
Ober.rvaticNis on the Ardcle Spain in the 
New Kncyclopedia, written with as much 
patiiotism as profound reasoning. In the 
ibUowinff year, he commenced his great 
botanical woik, MonaddphuB Classis Dis- 
sertatvnus decern (Paris, 1785 — 89, Ma- 
drid, 1790, 4to., with engravings). After 
his return to Spain, he wrote another 
lieautiiul work, Icones et Descrwtiones 
Planiarum, qa<B aut SponU in URtpama 
erescunit out in Hmiis hoapikmlur (Ma- 
drid, 1791—^, 6 vols., folio, with OOl en- 
gravings). It contains a number of new 
genera and species, natives of Spain, 
America, India and New Holland. In 
pursuance of a commission fit>m the kinff, 
Cavanilles travelled in Valencia, and col- 
lected the materials for his Ohservaciones 
sobre la Hitloria Mttwral, Ckografia, Jig' 
rieuUura^ PMtuion, etc, dd R^no de ra- 
Unda (Madrid, 1795—97, % vok, fo]io» 

with copperplates, from the drawings of 
the author). The woris wad published at 
the expense of the king, and intended as 
the first part of a similar woric to embrace 
the whoK of Spain. Thunberg has nam- 
ed a flumly of plants CovcmtOo. Cavanil- 
les died in 1604. 

Cavatiha ; a short air vrithout a return 
or second part, and which is sometimes 
relieved vritn recitative. 

Cave, or Grotto ; an opening pro- 
duced by nature in the solid crust of the 
earth. Caves are principally met vrith in 
limestone of the tran^on and flcBtz peri- 
od, in gypsum, sometimes in sandstone, 
and in volcanic rocks (basah, lava, tufa, 
&c.); sometimes they are the eflect'of 
eiystallization. The form of the caver 
depends partly upon the natme of tbr 
substance in which they exist ; but it i* 
frequently altered hy external causes. la 
reference to their internal constructioiL 
the hollovrs in the earth may be divided 
into three classes : those of the fiist are 
vride clefts; those of the second admit 
the day-light at both ends, and form nat- 
ural passages, which sometimes serve the 
rivers as beds ; the third and most com- 
mon class consists of those viiiich form a 
line of grottoes, about of an equal height 
running in the same direction, and con- 
nected by passages more or less narrow 
Out of some grottoes, rivers take theii 
course ; otheia, again, admit rivers, or may 
be said to swallow diem for a space, tifl 
the^ again emerge. There are many and 
vanous causes for the formation of caves. 
Those in limestone and ^yps nn are im- 
questionably the results of the dissolving 
power of water ; in fact, the almost per- 
fectly uniform direction, the gende and 
equable declivity of most caves, appear 
to be the effect of the long continuance of 
water in them, the action of which has 
widened the existing crevices. In trachyt 
and lava, caves appear to have been pro- 
duced by the effects of gas. The caves 
of gypsum often contain foul air; the 
caves of limestone, various figures of sta- 
lactites, produced by the deposdt of the 
Hme dissolved in the water. The most 
of these lime caves contain remnants of 
bones of animals, viz., of hyaenas, ele- 
phants, bears. Many caves are remark- 
able only on account of then: great size, 
or sublime fiom the awfhl gloom which 
pervades them, and the echoes which roll 
like thunder through dieir ratilted pas- 
sages. Some are of great depth, as that of 
Fredericshall, in Norway, wnich is calcu- 
lated to be 11,000 feet in depth. One of 
the grandest natural caverns known is 

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f&ipAcsee, la Staflk, one of the Western 
■hBDdB of Soodand. Its aides are fanned 
of nBges of basaltic oolnniiifli which are 
afanasi as regular as hewn stone. The 
potto of AntiparoB, on the island of the 
sBBie namey in the ArchipehijKO, is cele* 
fanted for its magnificence. The passage 
at the entraDoe flitter^ in the tordi-liffht, 
asifk were studded with diamonds. The 
loof is adorned with stalactites^ many of 
ihcm 30 feet long, and himg with festoons 
of vHxous forms and bnlliant appearanca 
in joote pertSy immense columns descend 
IB the floor ; others present the appear^ 
aaee of trees and brooks turned to marble. 
ne Peak caven],in Deib^ire, England, 
a also a celebrated curiosi^ of this kind. 
It it neaily half a mile in length, and, at 
m lowest part, 600 foet below the surface. 
Hk caves of Kiikdale, in En^and, and 
Gsflenreuth, in Germany, are remarkable 
for the quantities of bones of the elephant, 
TfainoceraB and hyaena, found in them. 
*nie mine of flnor spar, in Castleton, 
DerliyBluie, passes through seyeial stalac- 
ik caverns^ Other cayems in England 
ooBian snbCexraneous cascades. In the 
To^ of Gtbrahar, there are a number of 
wahnic caverns, of which the principal is 
9l Mieka^'s cave, 1000 feet above the 
sea. Hie most fiimous caves in Germany 
are those of Banmann and Bielstein, in 
ifae Haita:. (See Buckland's Rdiquut 
D^muoMBj London, 1823.) The most 
cdebnted caves in the U. States areMad- 
iBcm-8 eave, in Rockingham county, Vir- 
paamj extending dOO feet into- the earth, 
nd adorned with beautiful incrustations 
of wahctifgB ; Wier^ cave, in the same 
comity, extending 800 yards, but extreme- 
ly iRegular in its coune and size. Near 
Ooryikni, Indiana, is a cave, which has 
been explored for the distance of several 
nSka, cricteated for producing Epsom 
aksL In Kentucky and Tennessee, caves 
are munerofas, which appear to have been 
ared aa burial-places. In the north-west 
pait of Geof^ is a cave, called Mchmack 
cow, 50 feet high and 100 wide, which 
has heen explored to the distance of three 
milea. A stream of considerable size nms 
dnoagh it, which is interrupted by a falL 
Caves aie sometimes found which exhale 
I vaponk The most remarkable 
I isthe Orotio del Cane,a small cave 
' Naplea In loehind, there are many 
csTes, formed bv the lava from its volca- 
noes. In the volcanic countrjr near Rome, 
there are manr natural cavides of great 
extent and coofaiess, which are sometimes 
resorted to as a refuge fivmi the heat. 
The grottoes in the Cevennes mountains 

in France are both numerous and exten 
sive, and abound in objects of curiosity 
In South America is the cavern of Gua- 
charo, which is said to extend for leagues. 

Cave, Edward, an English printer, the 
foimder of the Gentleman's Magazine, 
was bom in 1691. His first occupation 
was that of dark to a collector of the ex- 
cise in die country. He then went to 
London, and put himself apprentice to a 
printer. When his indenturei^ expired, he 
obtained a place in the post-office, and em- 
ployed his leisure in writing for the news- 
papers. He published, in January, 1731, 
the first numoer of the Gendeman's Mag- 
azine, which has continued till this day, 
amid the crowd of magazines which have 
been established since. Cave was depriv- 
ed of his place in the post-office on ac- 
count of his having resisted some abuses 
relative to the priviSage of firanking letters. 
He died January 10, 1754. 

CAVErmisH, Thomas ; an eminent nav- 
igator in the reign of Elizabeth. Having 
consumed his property by his early extrav- 
agances, he collected three smaU vessels 
for the purpose of making a predatonr 
voyage to the Spanish colonies. He sail- 
ed fi[om Plymouth in 1586^ took and de- 
stroysd many vessels, ravaged ^e coasts 
of Chile, Peru and New Spain, and re- 
turned by the cape of Good Hope, having 
circumnavigated the globe in 2 years and 
49 days, the shortest period in which it 
had then been effected. In 1591, he set 
sail on a similar expedition, in which his 
principal success was the capture of the 
town of Santos, in BiaziL Aner suffering 
many hardships, he died, in 1593. 

Cavendish, William, duke of New- 
castle, was bom in 1592, and educated by 
his father, on whose death he was raised 
to the peerage. On the approach of hos- 
tihties between the crown and parliament, 
he embraced the royal cause, and was in- 
vested with a commission, constituting 
him general of all his maiesty's forces 
raised north of the Trent, with very ample 
powers. With great exertions, and the 
expenditure of laree sums from his private 
fortune, he levied a considerable army, 
with which, for some time, he maintained 
the king's cause in the north. In military 
matters, he depended chiefly on his prin- 
cipal officers, whilst he hirnself indulged 
in the courdy pleasures and literary socie- 
ty to which be was attached. He obtain- 
ed a complete victory over lord Fairfax 
on Adderton-heath, and, on the approach 
of the Scotch army, and its junction with 
the parliamentary forces, threw himself 
into York. Having been relieved by 

Digitized by 




raince Rupert, he was present at the bat- 
Se of Mareton-moor, after which he Idl 
the kingdom. He returned, after an ab- 
sence of 18 years, and was rewarded for 
his services and sufierings with tlie digni- 
ty of duke. He died ui 1676. 

Cavendish, William, first duke of Dev- 
onshire, was the son of William, third 
earl of Devonshire. He was bom in 1640, 
and instructed with great care in ckissical 
literature. On various occasions, he dis* 
tinguishcd himself by his spirit and valor, 
and, in 1677, began that opposition to the 
arbitrary measures of the ministers of 
Charles H, which caused him to be re- 
garded as one of the most determined 
mends of the liberties of his country. In- 
timately connected with lord Russel, he 
joined him in his efforts for the security 
of free government and tlie Protestant re- 
ligion. On the trial of lord Russel, he ap- 
peared as a witness in his favor, and of- 
fered to assist him in escaping, after he 
had been sentenced to death, by changing 
clothes with him in prison. In 168^ 
having succeeded to his ftither's title, and 
being regarded as one of the most formid- 
able opponents of the arbitrary designs of 
kin^ James II, attempts were made to in- 
timidate him, but without success. Hav- 
ing been insulted by a minion of the king, 
he dragged him from the chamber by the 
nose in the royal presence. He took an 
active part in promoting the revolution, 
and was one of^ the first who declared for 
the prince of Orange. His services were 
rewarded with the dignity of duke of Dev- 
onshire. He still, however, maintained an 
independent bearing in parliament He 
died in 1707. 

Cavendish, Henry, bom 1731, the son 
of lord Charles Cavendish, and grandson 
of the second duke of Devonshire, devoted 
himself exclusively to the sciences, and 
acquired a distinguished rank amon^ those 
learned men who have most contributed 
to the progress of chemistry. He discov- 
-ered the peculiar properties of hydrogen, 
and the qualities by which it is distin- 
guished fi*om atmospheric air. To him 
we owe the important discovery of the 
composition of water. Scheele had al- 
ready observed that, when oxygen is mix- 
ed with double the quantity of hydrogen, 
this mixmre bums with an explosion, 
without Bny visible residuum. Cavendish 
repeated this experiment with the accura- 
cy for which he was distinguished. He 
confined both the gases in diy earthen 
vessels, to prevent the escape of the prod- 
uct of their combustion, and found that 
this residuum was water, the weight of 

which was equal tolhesum of tbew^»^fs 
of the two gases. Lavoisier confinued 
this conchifflon in later times. The same 
spirit of accuracy in his experiments led 
Cavendish to another discovery, which 
had esciq)ed Priestley. The latter had 
observed that a quantity of atmospheric 
air, confined in a tube, through which the 
electric spark was tKBnsmitted, lost in 
volume, and formed an acid, which red- 
dened the tincture of litmus ; but he car- 
ried this experiment Ho farther. Caven- 
dish repeated the experiment, by confin- 
ing in the tube a solution of pure potash, 
wliich absorbed the acid, and thus proved 
it to be nitric acid. The analyos of the 
air, which remained in the tube after the 
experiment, showed that the weight of the 
oxygen and azote, which had disappeared, 
was equal to the weiffht of the acid thus 
formed. He easily deteraoined the paro- 
portion of the azote to the oxygen, which 
was 3 : |. It was found, also, that, when 
both gases, sufiiciently pure, were mixed 
in that proportion, and exposed to the 
electric span^ the mixture disappeared 
entirely, by which his discovery was com- 
pletely confirmed. Cavendish distinguish- 
ed himself no less in natural philosophy, 
by the accuracy of his experimenta He 
possessed, also, a profound knowledge of 
the higher geometry, of which he made a 
very happy use in determining the mean 
density of the earth. He found it to be 
51 times greater than the density of water 
— a conclusion which difiers but little 
from that obtained byMaskelvne in an- 
other way. He was a member of the 
royal society at London, and, in 1803, was 
made one of the eight foreign members of 
the national institute of France. Caven- 
dish was probably the richest anx>ng the 
learned, and the most learned among the 
rich, men of his time. An unde left him 
a large fortune in 1773. This increase of 
wealth made no change in his character 
and habits. Extremely regular and wn- 
pie in his manner of living, he was liberal 
m encouraging science, and in bis private 
charities. His lai^ well-chosen libraiy 
was open for the use of learned men. He 
died in London, March, 1810, and left 
£1,200,000 steriinff to his relations. His 
writings conast of treatises in the Philo- 
sophical Transactions, from 1766 to 1793. 
They are distinguished by acuteness and 

Caviare {ickari) is made in Russia 
fix)m the roe of sturgeons, belugas, and 
many other fish. The roe is sepaorated 
fit>m the skin which encloses it, salted, 
and, after eight days, pepper and finely- 

Digitized by 




minced (Rikiie are added It is then dried^ 
and serves as a relisher with toasted bread 
or faieBul and butter. The best caviare is 
that fiom the Cnmea. From Kerch and 
Jenikale, in that province, 1500 barrels 
are annuaJfy exported to Moldavia and the 
eoantries on the Danube. 

CAXAifABCA,or Quaxamakka; a prov- 
ince of Peru, bounded N. by Jaen, E. 1^ 
Chafeapojrasy S. E« by Caxamarquilla, S. 
by Hnamachuco, W. by Sana and Trux- 
illo; populaticHi, 46,000. The countiy is 
genenfiv mountainous. It abounds in fruits 
and cattle. The inhabitants are, for the 
most part, Indiana, and chiefly weavers. 

Caxamarca; a town of Peru, capital 
of a province of the same name ; about 70 
mOes fiom the Pacific ocean, 280 N. Lima ; 
kL r a' S.; Ion. 78° 35^ W. ; population, 
12,000. It was, at one time, a royal city, 
where the emperor Atahualpa was put to 
death, after having been defeated and im- 
prisoned by Pizarro. ^ 

CAXTOif, William; an Englishman, 
memoiaUe for having first introduced the 
art of printing into his native countiy. He 
was bom in Kent, about 1410, and served 
an apprenticeship to Robert Large, a Lon* 
don mercer. On the death of Wa master. 
Canon went to the Netheiiands, as agent 
for the mercers' company, in which situa* 
don he continued about 1£3 years. His rep- 
utation fi>r probity and abilities occasion- 
ed his being employed, in conjunction with 
Bicbard Wbitchill, to conclude a treaty of 
commerce between Edward IV and Philip 
doke of Burgundy. He appears subse- 
quendy to have held some office in the 
household of duke Charles, the son of 
Piulip, whose wife, the lad^ Margaret of 
York, distinguished herself as the patron- 
ess of Caxton. Whilst abroad, he became 
acquainted with the then newly discovered 
, invention of printing. (See Faust, John,) 
At the request of the duchess, his mistress, 
he tranaiated fit>m the French a work, 
which he entitled the ReaofeU of the His- 
toryes of TVejfe, hy Btund U Feurty which 
he printed at Cologne, 1471, in folio. This 
book, considered as the earliest specimen 
of ^pography in the English language, is 
esteemed veir valuable. At the fimious 
sale of the duke of Roxburgh's librarv, in 
1812; a copy was purchased by the duke 
of DevonahHe, for £1060 IO9. After this, 
be printed odier works abroad, chiefly 
translations fit>m the French; and, at 
length, having provided himself with the 
means of practising the art in England, he 
returned wither, and, in 1474, had a press 
91 Westminster abb^, where he pnnted 
the Gemt and Pkofe of iht Chesse^ gen- 

erally admitted to be the first 
ical work executed in England' Caxton 
continued to exercise his art for nearly 20 
vears, during which time he produced 
between 50 and 60 volumes, most of which 
were composed or translated by himself. 
Caxton died about 1492, and was buried, 
according to some accounts, at Campdeu^ 
in Gloucestershire ; though others state his 
interment as having t&en place at St. 
Margaret's, Westminster. 

Cayenne, or French Gitiana ; a prov- 
ince or colony in South America, belong- 
ing to France ; bounded N. and N. E. bv 
the Atlantic ocean, £. and S. by Brazil 
and W. by Dutch Guiana ; between lat 
P W and 6^ N.; population, 17,331, of 
which only about 1000 are whites. This 
countiy was first colonized by the French 
in 1635; in 1654, it was taken by the Eng- 
lish, and, in 1676, hy the Dutcn; but, m 
1677, it was restored to the French. The 
coast of the country is generally low, 
marshy, and subject to inundation. The 
soil, in many parts, is very fertile, though 
in others diy, sandv, and soon e^diaust^ 
The climate resembles that of the West 
Indies, though it is more salubrious. The 
most noted article of produce is Cayenne 
pepper, the finit of the ctwsicum hctccatttnL 
Other productions are conee, susar, cotton^ 
cocoa, indigo, maize, cassia and vanilla. 

Cayenne ; an island of South America, 
belonging to France, on the coast of the 
above province, separated fiom the main 
land by the river Cayenne, which is about 
300 miles in length. The island is 1 8 miles 
long and 10 broad, and has a fertile soil. 

Cayenne; a town of South America, 
on the north point of the above island, at 
the mouth of the river Cayenne. It is the 
capital of the French colony of Cayenne, 
has a large and convenient port, and con- 
tains about 200 houses. Lat 4^ 56^ N.; 
Ion. 52° 16^ W. 

^ Catenne Pepper, or Capsicuu. Ctqh 
sicum is the name of several species of 
South American and Indian plants, easily 
known by their hollow pods, of a shining 
red or yellow color, which contain many 
small, flat and kidney-shaped seeds. The 

!>rincipal species are, heart or bell-pepper 
capsicum gro89wn\ Guinea pepper [cap^ 
ticum anmium) and bird-pepper (capd' 
sicum Imccaium). All the species of cap- 
sicum possess the same general qualities. 
In hot climates, but puticularly in the 
East and West Indies, and some parts 
of Spanish America, &e finiit of these 
plants is much used for culmaiy purposes. 
It is eaten in large quantities, both with 
animal and vegetable food, and is mixed. 

Digitized by 




In greater or lesB proiioitioii, with almost 
aU kmdB of sauces. The Cayenne pepper 
used in cookeiy is made mm the mtit 
of different species of capsicum. This 
fruit, when ripe, is eatbered, dried in the 
sun, and then pounaed ; and the powder 
IS mixed with a ceitain portion of soJt, and 
kept for use in closelv-stopped bottles. It 
is yeiy generally used as a poignailt ingre- 
dient in soups and highly-seasoned dishes. 
Its taste is extremely acrid, and it leaves a 
durable sensation of heat on the palate, 
which is best removed by butter or oiL 
When taken in small quantities, Cayenne 
is a grateful stimulant; and, in mecUcine, 
it is used both external^ and internally, to 
promote the action of the bodily organs, 
when languid and torpid ; and it is said to 
have been found efficacious in many gouty 
and paralytic cases. The Guinea pepper, 
or annual capsicum, is considered the most 
hardy ofthis whole tribe of plants; and, in 
many parts of the south of Europe, its fiuit 
is eaten green by the peasants at their 
breakfosts, and is preferred by them to on- 
ions or garlic. The fruit of all the species 
may be used in domestic economy, either 
as a pickle, or when dried before a fne, and 
ground to powder in a common pepper- 
mill, as Cayenne pepper. (See Capsicm,) 

Cates, Les, or Aux Cates ; a seaport 
town on the south coast of Hayti ; 80 miles 
8. S. E. Port-au-Prince; lat 18° l^ N.; 
Ion. 74** 31' W. This town, a few yean 
since, contained lt2 or 15,000 mhabitants. 
It is now very much reduced. Thehariix>r 
IS inferior, but the surrounding countiy is 

Catlus (Anne Claude Philippe de Tu- 
te^res, &c), count o^ an archceologist, 
bom Oct 31, 1692, at Paris, received an 
education equally solid and splendid. Af- 
ter having served in the army during the 
war of the Spanish succession, he left the 
service in 1715, accompanied Bonac on 
his embassy to Constantmople the follow- 
ing year, and visited Greece, Troy, Ephe- 
sus, Byzantium and Adrianople. In 1717, 
he returned to Paris, according to the vrish 
of his mother, and began here to arrange 
his exCenfflve collections. He commenced 
a great wortc on Egvpdan, Grecian, Etrus- 
can, Roman and Gallic antiquities, with 
numerous plates. He was a member of 
the academy of painting and of the acad- 
emy of inscriptions, and divided his labors 
between thenu He made a chemical ex- 
amination of the ancient method of en- 
caustic painting, investigated the mode of 
painting on mmhle, the art of hardening 
coj[>per, the mode by which die Egyptians 
raised great weights, the mummies, paint- 

ing on wax^ and manjr odier Babjeeta^ If 
he has sometimes misundentood the an- 
dent authori^ and committed some emm 
with respect to ancient mMiumeiitS) he has^ 
nevertheless^ treMed with mat succes of 
the processes and materiius employed in 
the arts by the ancients. He died in 1765. 
integrity, simplicity and diiBuitefestedness 
were united m his character with occa- 
sional traits of dogmatism. He has left 
numerous works, tales as well as antiqua- 
rian researches. Amoiu? the latter is his 
RecueU d^AniiqwU$ &3p<i0fuies, &c 
(Paris, 1753— w, 7 volsT). Caylus was 
also an industrious and skilftil eneraver, 
and has fiumished a e<^lection of more 
than 200 engravings, after drawings in the 
royal calnnet, and a great number of heads^ 
after the first masters. His mother, niece 
of Mad. de Maintenon, made herself known 
by a q>irited litde work — Mt» Souoenin, 

Catm AN. (See Migaior.) 

Cazotte, Jacques, an author, distin- 
guished byfacility and liveliness of style. 
Bom in 1730, at IKjon, studied with the 
Jesuits, and went, in 1747, to Maitinico. 
On his return to France, he lost $50,000 
in letters of exchange upon the order of 
the Jesuits, to whose superior, Lavalette, 
he had sold his possessions in Martinico. 
The lawsuit which he conmienoed, on 
this occasion, may be considered as the 
beginning of all tne proceedings against 
the Jesuits in France. Casotte shone in 
society amonj^ the beaux espriU, His ro- 
mance of chivahy, Oftrier, published in 
1763, and, subsequently, his iHMe <tmou- 

and (Eiumts 
morales tt 6adme9,'are proofi of his rich 
imagination, and h^ talent fer writinff with 
ease and precision. Being receivea into 
the order of Martines de Pasqualis, Cazottse 
lost himself in cabalistic dreams. With 
the assistance of Dom Chavis, an Arabian 
monk, he translated four volumes of Ara- 
bian Tales — a continuation of the Arabian 
Nights, forming the 37th and 40th v<^umc8 
of the Cabmd des Fks. Though at the 
ase of 70 years, he wrote them at midnight, 
after his return from the circles in wluch 
he had been visiting. Chavis dictated the 
outlines, and Cazotte wrought up the sto- 
riesL He completed the tmk in two win- 
ters. The comic opera Lei Sahols he 
composed in one night In the revolution, 
which he opposed with all his power, 
he was thrown into the prisons of the 
Abbaye. with lus daughter Elizabeth, in 
17dS2. When the massacre of the prisoners 
took place. Sept 3 and 3, Cazotte b^ng 
delivered into the hands of the assasaoa, 
his dau^ter cast hersdf between him 

Digitized by 




and the muvdmn, and preyetttBd liie ex- 
eeiidon of tiieir purpose ; bin he was aM^ 
condemned to death, and executed Sept 
25, Frofm the acafit^ he cried "with a 
film voice to the multitiide, ''I die, aa I 
have lived, faithful to God and to my king." 
CAZwiin, Zacharia Ben Mohammed, 
an Anlnnn natuFahat, descended fit>m a 
fimilY of lawyersy who derived their ori- 

S' n finm Anas Ben Malek, a companion of 
ohanuned, and^ud aetded in Caswin, a 
citjrin Penia. from that place this an- 
dior received the sumame tmder vtrhidi 
he haa become celebrated. Of the cir^ 
cumstanoes of hia life, v?e know onif that 
he was cadi of Wazith and Hillah, and 
died in the year of the hegmi 683 (A. D. 
1383). His most important work is on 
natural history— The Wonders of Nature 
and die Pecufaaridea of Creation — of whi^ 
Idder, profeaaor in the university of Bar- 
fin, has puUiahed the chapter on the Con- 
sidlationB of the Arabians, and of whidi 
there aie fragments in Bochart's Htero- 
zotfeon, in Ouseley's Oriental CoUections, 
and in Wahl"^ Jahn's and De Sacy 's Arab. 
ChntAomaUdtn. It was the object of Caz- 
wini, like Pliny, to describe tibe wonders 
of aU nature. His work contains a com- 
prahensive view of aD that had been writ- 
ten before him, but in so grand and orig- 
inal a manner, that it is of higher value 
than most of the orifpnal works which 
treat of the same sulnects. There is an 
abridged translation of it in the Persian. 

Ckbks of Thebes was a disciple of 
Socrates. He is said to have saved Ph8&- 
don, a young slave, from moral ruin. Noth- 
ing noore is known of his fife. Three diar 
fegnee — Hdnhmtj PhryfdchMs, and Pinax, 
or ibe'Piettare — are ascribed to him ; but 
most critics regard the latter as the vrork 
of a later Ceb^ or of a Stoic philosopher 
under this assomed name. Since the re- 
vival of learning, this interesting dialogue 
has been often reprinted by itself, or in 
eoanexion with the wrttings of Epictetos, 
Theogms, Pjrthagoras, &c Among the 
larger edhiona is that of Schweighauser. 
(S a a sbuAg , A806). Hiere are many school 

Czcn^ WiBiam (tord Burieigh). This 
eminent Engfiirii statesman vras son to 
Rjchai d Ce cil, master of the robes to 
Henry ViU, and was bom at Bourne, in 
Lincolnshire, m 1S90. He studied at St. 
Jofan% eoUege, Cambridge, vehence he 
nmoffod to Grrv^ Lm, with a view to 
VRfHue himself for the practice of the law^ 
Having carried on a successful controver- 
ST w]£two Irish priests on the subject of 
me pape^ supnma^, be obtained die no^ 

tree of the king ; and, being presenttd 
vrith the reversion of the office of cugtot 
hrevium^ was encouraged to push his for- 
tune at court Having married the sister 
of sir John Cheke, he was^ by his brother- 
in-law, recommended to the eari of Hert- 
ford, afterwords the protector Somerset. 
Having lost his first wifb, he took for a 
second die daughter of sir Anthony Cooke, 
director of the smdies of Edward Vl ; and, 
by his alfiance vrith this lady, hei^lf emi- 
nem for leaminff, sdll fbrther increased 
his influence. He rose, in 1547, to the 
poet of master of requests, and, soon afler,' 
to that of secretary. He endured, in this 
rngn, some of the vicisntudes which heMi 
his patron Somerset, but always recovered 
his standing, and, in 1551, was knighted, 
and sworn a mraaber of the privy council 
His decfining to aid the proclamation of 
lady Jane Grey, secured oim a gracious 
recepdon from queen Mary, although he 
forfated his office because he would n«t 
change his religion. In 1555, he attended 
cardinal Pole (md the other commission- 
ers appointed to treat fi>r peace with 
France ; and, on his return, bemg chosen 
knight of the shire fbr the county of Lin- 
coln, di<«dnguished himself by opposing a 
bill brought in for the confiscation of es- 
tates on account of religious principles. 
His foreaght led him into a timely corre- 
spondence with the princess Elizabeth, 
previously to her accession ; to whom, in 
her critical aituation, his advice was ex- 
ceedingly serviceable. On her accesaoo, 
in 155^ he was appointed privy counsel- 
lor and secretary of state. One of the 
first acts of her reign was the setdement 
of reliffion, vrinch CecO conducted vrith 
great akiU and prudence, considering the 
difficulties to be encountered. In foreign 
affidrs, he showed much tact in guarding 
affainst the danm* arinn^ fiK>m the Cath* 
oBc powers, and very judiciously lent sup- 
port to the refbrmatimi in Scotland. The 
general tenor of Cecils poficy vras cau- 
tious, and rested upon an avoidance of 
open hostilities, and a retiance on secret 
negotiation and intrigues vrith oppoong 
parties in the neighbcmng countries, with 
a vjew to avert the dangers vridch threat- 
ened his ovm. This, upon the whole, was 
a couree almost necessarv, considering the 
mtuation of England, vrith a powerful, dis- 
satisfied party at home, much dangerous 
erunity on the part of Catiiofic Europe, 
and an alliance existing between Scotiand 
and France. On the suppression of the 
nordiem rebeDion, in 1571, Elizabeth 
raised him to the peerage by the tide of 
hcarm BuHeigh^ and, the fbUovring year» 

Digitized by 




node him a kniffht of the gaiter. He is 
charged widi bemff deeply engaged in fo- 
menting the trouBleB which caused the 
flight of the imprudent and unhappv Maiy 
Stuart into En^^d; and^ after the dis- 
coveiy of Babington's conspiracy, he nerer 
ceased urging her trial and condemnation. 
He enduied, for a short time, the hypo- 
critical resentment of Elizabetib at the ex- 
ecution of the queen of Scots, but, after a 
while, recoyered bis former credit At 
the time of the threatened Spanish inva- 
sion, he drew up the plan for the defence 
of the country with his usual care and 
abilily. But, soon after, losing his wife, 
to whom he was warmly attached, he be- 
came desirous of retiring firom public 
business, and of leaving the field open to 
his son Robert, afterwards so celebrated as 
earl of Salisbuiy. He was persuaded, 
however, to keep his employment, and 
one of his latest enorts was to effectuate a 
peace with Spain, in opposition to die 
more heated councils of the earl of Essex. 
This great minister died in the bosom of 
his &mily, and in the possession of all his 
honon, in 1598, being then in his 77th 
year. He left behind him the character 
of the ablest minister of an able rmpn. 
How far the emeigencies of the penod 
ought to excuse a portion of his dark and 
GrM>ked policy, it may be difficult to deter- 
mine. But it is enfiy to decide, that ai- 
most eveiy school of politicians, under 
similar circumstances, have countenanced 
similar laxity under the plea of emdien- 
ey. The private chamcter of Burleish 
was highly regarded; for, although ne 
&iled not to improve his opportumties as 
a courtier, he always exhibited a probity 
which conciliated esteem. He possessed, 
in a high degree, the sohd learmng, grav- 
ity and decorum, which, in that age, usu- 
aUy accompanied elevated station. In his 
mode of living, he vros noble and splendid, 
but, at the same time, economical, and 
attentive to the formation of a competent 
fortune for his family. His eariy occu- 
pation as a statesman precluded much 
attention to hterature ; but he is mentioned 
as the author of a few Latin verses, and 
of some historical tzaets. A great number 
of his letters on business are stiU extant 

Cecil, Robert, earl of Salisbuiy, second 
san of lord Burleigh, ww bom, according 
to some accounts, about the year 1550 ; but 
his birth may, with more probability, be 
placed 13 years later. He vras deformed, 
and of a weak constitution ; on which ac- 
count he v^as educated at home, till his 
removal to the universi^ of Cambridge. 
.Having receivad the honor of knighthood, 

he went to France as aaaisiant to the 
Eiu^lish ambassador, the eari of Deiby, 
and, in 1596, vras appointed one of the 
secretaries of state. On the death of sir 
Francis Walsingham, he succeeded him 
as principal secretaiy, and continued to 
be a confidential minister of queen Eliza- 
beth to the end of her reign. Having se- 
cretly sup|M>rted the interests of James I, 
previous to his accession to the crovm, 
and taken measures to fiicititate that event, 
he was continued in office under the new 
sovereign, and raised to the peerage. In 
1603, he was created a baron ; in 1604, 
viscount Cranboum ; and in 1605, earl of 
Salisbury. The same year he was chosen 
chancellor of the university of Cambridge, 
and made a knight of the garter. He was 
the political rather than the personal fa- 
vorite of die king, whom he served with 
zeal and fidelity ; and, as he was certainly 
the ablest, so he was, perhaps, the most hon- 
est, minister who presided over the affiiira 
of state during that reign. In 1606, on 
the decease of the lord high treasurer the 
earl of Dorset, that office was bestowed on 
lord Sahsbuiy, who held it till his death, 
in 1613. This event took pUice at Marl- 
borou^ as he was returning to London 
fix>m fi^, whither he bad gone in a very 
debilitated state of health, to use the miiH 
end waters. An interesting account of 
tills journey, and of the last hours of this 
eminent statesman, drawn up by one of 
his domestics, may be found in Peck^s 
Desideraia Cwiosa, Lord Salisbury was 
the author of a Treatise against the Pa- 
pists ; and of Notes on D^'s Discoune 
on die Reformation of the Calendar ; and 
some of his letters, despatches and speech- 
es in parliament have oeen published. 

Cecilia. There are several saints of 
this name in the Catholic church. The 
most celebrated, who has been fidsely re- 
garded as the inventress of the oigan, and 
who is the patron saint of music, is said to 
have suffered martyrdom A. D. 220. Her 
pagan parents, says the legend, betrothed 
her, contrary to her vnshes, to Valerian, a 
young pagan. But she had internally 
vow«l to me Lord a perpetual virginity ; 
and, whilst the instruments soundra, she 
sang^ in her heart only to the Lord (can- 
tarmbus organise jUa in cortie evo soli 
Domino ean(a6a<»c&en«, &c.); that is, she 
prayed — O Lord, allow my heart and my 
Dody to remain unpolluted. As soon aa 
the bridegroom appeared, she fbibade his 
approach, assuring him diat an angel of 
the Lord protects her innocence. The 
unbelieving Valerian wished to convince 
himself of this aaseitioa; she referrod him 

Digitized by 




A die faielKyp Uiiiaii, wfeko was coooealed 

•moo^ the tombB of the martyn, and Y/ho 

iDsaucsed him in the Chnstian rddgion, 

■ml baptized him. When he retuni^ to 

the bnde, he saw the protecting angel, 

who preeented them both with crowns c£ 

faeaTCEily rooes and lilies. Valerian now 

induced his brother Tul^irtus to embrace 

the Chnsdan &ith. The Roman prefect 

Akaaehius caused both Inothers to be 

beheaded, as zealous profesaon of Chris- 

tisBity. Liie was to be given to Cecilia if 

fifae would sacrifice to the heathen gods. 

fint she lemained firm in her wlief. 

rpoD diisy the tyrant caused her to be 

diut up in a bath of boiling water, in 

which she was found, the day ailer, un- 

fanrt. The executioner was then directed 

to behead her: he inflicted three blows, 

ha was not able to separate the head fi:om 

the body. She lived for three days, ex- 

boftiDg the ftithfid and giving alms to the 

poor. As early as the 5th centuiy, we 

find a church in Rome dedicated to her. 

Pope Paachalia, who was veiy anxious to 

gadier lefica, endeavored to discover her 

body. She appeared to him, as he relates 

in his leaen, while he was sleeping, and 

pcHDiBd out the place of her sepulchre. 

FasRhaKH caused the body to be disinter- 

nd in 821, and i^aced it in the diurch 

which he rebuilt, wh^^e her monument is 

still to be seen. How Cecilia came to be 

the patron-saint of music is not agreed. 

The various opinions, however, seem to 

be united in this point, that it was either 

throng a misunderstanding, or through 

an alfegoricai inteniretadon of the woids 

abofe cited fiom her legend. Herwor- 

tbip^ in this character, is very ancient 

AiBong the PpelB, Chaucer, Dryden in his 

Alexander's Feast, and Pope, have amg her 

praiBea. Raphael, Domenichino, Dolce 

and Mignard have represented her in cei- 

eiavted paintings. Li the picture of Ra- 

phady she sfmeara as the personification 

of boivenly devotion. This is, indeed, a 

heavenly picture. 

Cecrops, the fiionder of Athens, arrived 
there about 1550 B. C, firom Sais, at the 
mouth of the Nile (this emigration, how« 
ever, has been ouestioned by some late 
wriieis, e. g. Ottnied Miiller), tuight the 
KTBge inluhitants religion and morals, 
made them aequunted with the advaiH 
lages c^ eodal hie, laid the foimdation of 
the fiituie city of Athens (Cecropiajf and 
famh 11 other places, whose inhabitants 
he iMtJUcted m agriculture. He also 
piaaied tiie olive, and consecrated it to 
Mineiva, the patron goddess of Athens. 
He tiien intzoduced into his adopted 

country Uie art of slup-buiUiag, and thus 
laid the fbundaticm of its commerce. He 
died after a reign of 50 years. His mon 
ument was erected in the temple of AQ- 
nerva; but, to preserve his memory d- 
ways fi«sh Ji their minds, the people 
consecrated to him the constellation of 
Aquarius. (See JStticcu) The researohes 
which are msking among the records of 
Egyptian histoiy, since the key to their 
mysterious language has been discovered 
by the skilfiilly directed efibrts of Young, 
De Sacy, Zoega, ChampoUion, and others^ 
will undoubt^ly throw great li^t on the 
progress of civilization firom ^mi to 
Greece, described in the half mythoiogical, 
half historical tales of the latter country. 
CscaopiA. (See .^iC&eiu, vol. L p. 442.) 
Cedar ; a nsme given to several species 
of juniper, to a qpecies of pine, the cedar 
of Lebuion, and to the ctmressua thwfMes. 
It is an evergifeen, and or ^reat durability. 
The most celebrated kind is the 

Cedar-Larch, or Cedar t^LAanon {finua 
cednuj L.), distinguished, by its stronff, ra- 
mose branches, man all other trees <^ the 
same genuai The seneral character of the 
shoot, even when the tree is young, is sin- 
gularly bold and picturesque, and quite 
peculiar to the species. The tree is a na- 
tive of the coldest part of the mountains ot 
libanus, Amanus and Taurus; but it is 
not now to be found in those places in 
creat numbers. Maundrell, in his ioumey 
nom Aleppo to Jerusalem, in 169d, could 
reckon only 16 large trees, though many 
small cnies. The forest of Libanus seems 
never to have recovered fix>m the havoc 
made by Solomon's forty score thousand 
hewers. Beautifiil specimens of this noble 
tree are to be seen at Witton park, Zion-» 
house, &C., in £ngland, where it seems to 
have been introduced in 1683, and where, 
as professor Marlyn observes, there are 
at present, more cedars than in 

WkUe-Cedar (cupressw tkuyoides) is a 
small or middle^ized evergreen, naturally 
forming an elegant bead. Its branches 
are not pendulous. Its leaves are of a 
ddicate green color. It is a native of 
North America, China and Cochin China. 
In the U. States, it occupies large tracts, 
denominated cedar-stoamps. The wood is 
soft, smooth, of an aromatic smell, and 
internally of a red color. It is permanent 
in shape, and very durable, and is esteemed 
as a material for fences. Laige quantities 
of shingles are made of it. It is a favorite 
materid for wooden wares, or the nicet 
kinds of coopers' woik. 

J2ed or Common Cedar (Jumjperut Vir* 

Digitized by 




Mtdna) ; a natiTe of Noitli Ameiica and 
e West Indies. It is distingiiiBhed bj 
its leaves, ^wiDg in threes, and being 
fixed by then* base, the younger one* lying 
upon eaeh other, and the older ones 
spreadinff. The trunk is straight, and 
knotted av snail branches. The hearts 
wood is or a bright red, smoodi, and mod* 
erately soft This wood is in much re- 
quest for the outsides of black-lead pen- 
cils. On account of its powerful fragrance, 
it is often used for the bottoms of diawers, 
because it resists the attacks of insectsi 
Borne years ago, it was in great esteem for 
wainscotting and calnnet-work, but has 
been much neglected since the introduc- 
tion of mahogany. The name of savin is, 
in some places, improperly applied to this 
tree. Unlike the white cedar, it orows in 
the driest and most barren 80&. For 

CI of buildings, it is much in request; 
it is difficult to obtain it of large 

Oefaloiha. (See CspAoionio.) 

Celjsno. (See Harpies.) 

Celebes ; an island in the East Indian 
sea, of an imegular shape, about 500 miles 
long, and alxHtt 200 Inoad, called, by the 
natives and Malays, degree Oram Buggess, 
and, sometimes, jyama Macassar; square 
miles, about 90,000. It is divided into six 
states or kingdoms, viz., Goa, Bony, Wajoo, 
8opin,SelindriaandMand8r. Gk>a extends 
a conndembfe way along the west and 
south, and contains, besides Macassar, two 
Dutch forts, Bontyn and Bulo Cumbo. 
The ^vemment is monarchical, and the 
king is called kanutng, and, sometimes, 
rqjah Goa. — Bony, or Pony, is E. of Goa, 
entirely under the influence of the Dutch, 
and is governed l^ a prince, called pcjwig^ 
who is elected for life by seven aranca^f 
or noUes. — ^Wajoo,or Warjoo, or Tuadioo, 
ia situated N. of Bony, and is governed by 
a prince elected for lifo by the orananfos. — 
Sopin is situated in the centre of the island, 
towards the eastern side, to the £. of Bon. 
— Belindrin is of small consideration, and 
is N. W. of Sopin.— Mandar Mes on the W. 
and N. W. coast The inbalntantB are 
Mohammedans. — ^The heat of this island 
would be excesnve if it were not moder- 
ated by abundmt rains. The trees are 
always green ; fruit and ftowers grow in 
ail seasons; jasmines, roses, carnations, and 
other beaumul flowers, grow without cul« 
lure , <nnngo-trees and citrons shade the 
CToiind, with mangoes, bananas, and other 
fruits. Cotton-trees cover dm extensive 
idains. It produces no spiee exc«^ pep- 
per. The inhabitants raise a great number 
of eattle: the oibbo are laxger than those 

of Einope. Bi tbe forosts are large herds 
of deer, wild hogs, and a great variety of 
monkeys, large and ferocious ; some with 
tails, ajad some without; some walking 
upon fbur less, others upon two. The 
principal articles which the Dutch obtain 
from this island are rice, gold, ivoiy, deals 
and sandal wood.; cotton, camphor, gingei^ 
long pepper and pearis. The Dutch are 
said to have had 370 towns and villages 
under their cmitrol. Their principal set- 
dement is at Macassar. Lat.2<'N.to5^40' 
S.; k)n. 118° 40^ to 134<> IS' E. 

Celestinb. Two popes of this name 
are saints. The first was elected pope 
Nov. 3, 423, and followed Boniface I. 
There is a decretal letter of this pope ex- 
tant, directed to the bishops of Vienna and 
Narbonne, prohibiting the bishops from 
wearing a dress distinguishing them 
from me people, and foriiiddmg die 
choice of strangers for bishops, to the 
displeasure of their flocks. The consent 
of the people, of the clergy, and of the 
magistrate, he Ba3rs, is necessaiy to a choice. 
He died April 6, 433. His letters are pre- 
served in the collection of D. Constant, 
foho, and in the collection of the councils. 
<— Celestine V was also a saint He was 
chosen pope July 5, 12d4, before which 
time he was called Peter of Murrhone* 
He lived as a hermit on Monte di Mapella, 
in continual ftsting and penance, and was 
entirely unfit for the papal chair, on ac- 
count of his utier ignorance of business and 
of the worid. He never would have been 
chosen, had not the papal chair been 
vacant for 27 months, on account of the 
cardinals being divided into two parties. 
When Celestine entered Aquila, he rode 
on an ass, led by two kings. He soon 
found the burden of business too heavy, 
and abdicated his dignity Dec 13, 12^ 
Boni&ce VIII succeeded him, and kept 
him prisoner till his death. May 19, 1296. 
The greatest eimplici^ marks the govern* 
ment of this pope. He is the founds of 
the Celestines. (q. v.) 

CX1.ESTINE8 (nom tfaeu* founder, pope 
Celestine V, q. v.), the hemuts of St Da* 
mian, a religious order, instituted about the 
middle of the 13th centunr, in Italy, fol- 
lowed the rule of St Benedict (q. v.), wore 
white garments with black capes and scap- 
ukries, and were devoted entirely to a 
contemplative life. In the beginning of 
the 18th century, the order was diminished 
to the number of 96 monasteries in Itely, 
and 21 in France. This society of j^oomy 
monks appears recentiy to have become 
still aniaiier. In France, it no longer ex* 

Digitized by 



CEUSACT[imtti6abyaCathoUe]. One 
of the subJune ideas of the Catholic church 
ii its Teoeralion of chastity. This places 
Chiisdaxiitjr in the most striking (^posi 
ikm to the aenaual religions of me pagan 
world. Wh^ the pagans lowerea their 
eods to the human standard, Christiani^ 
Greeted men's views to heaven, and ideal- 
ized human nature. St. Paul (1 Cor. 7) rec- 
ommeads vimnity, without condemning 
DtttriiDon^. The Catholic church resects 
matiimoDial chasti^, but esteems virginily 
a kjgiier virtue, as a sacniice of the pleas- 
ures of this life to purity of soul, as the 
vietoiy of the moral nature over the phys- 
naL With these sublime views of this 
Tirtae, it is not wonderful that it was re- 
qoired of the priests, who officiate in the 
lugb mystery of the euchaxist From the 
time of the apostles, it became a custom 
in the church for bishops, priests and dea- 
coiia to renounce the- joys of matrimonial 
lofe at their consecration, and to devote 
themselves entirely to the duties of their 
officei One point only was diluted, 
whether cler^^nien were to be merely 
prohitMted fitxn marrying, or whether even 
those who were noairied before their con- 
seciatioD, should be required to separate 
themeetTes fix>m their wives. At the gen- 
eral council of Nice, several bishops pro- 
posed that the bishops, priests and deacons, 
who had received the holy consecration, 
abouid be directed, by an express ordi- 
nance, to give up their wivea But Paph- 
nutiiiB, biimop of Upper Thebais, contend- 
ed that cohabitation with a wife was a state 
of chastity. It was sufficient, he said, ac- 
eording to the ancient traditions of the 
duDchlthat clergymen should not be per- 
mitied to marry ; but he who had been 
manied before his consecration ought by 
no means to be separated fiom his lawful 
wife. As it became the general opinion, 
tbat a clergyman could not many, it soon 
became the general practice to refuse con- 
KCTatioa to married men. By this means, 
D&iformity was effected. As for the bish- 
ops, it soon became a matter beyond dis- 
pute. After the instimtion of monacliism 
<ud become firmlv established, and the 
monks were regarded with veneration, on 
account of their vow of perpetual chastity, 
pubhc opinion exacted from the secular 
clergy the same observance of celibacy. 
1^ holy &ther Epiphanius assures us 
tbat) by the ecclesiastical laws, ceUbacy 
was commanded, and that, wherever this 
^^nonumd was neglected, it was a corrup- 
tioQ of the church* The particular council 
of Ekiita commanded all bishops, piesby^- 
len, deacons and mibdeacoos to ahstfon 

from, their wives, under penahy of ezolu- 
saon from the clergy. In the Western 
church, celibacy was rigorously required. 
Pope Cyriciufl^ at the end of the 4tli cen- 
tiuy, fbibade the clergy to many, or to 
cohabit with their wives, if already marri-« 
ed At the same time, the monks received 
consecration, which increased the con- 
formity between them and the secular cler- 
gy still further, and indirectiy obliged the 
(Btter to observe celibacy. Several poj^ 
and particular councils repealed tins m- 
^unction. The emperor Justinian declared 
all children of clergymen illegitimate, and 
incapable of any hereditary succession or 
inheritance. The coipcu of Tours, in 
$66, issued a decree agaUist married monks 
and nuns, declarin|[ ttitx they should be 
|>ublichr excommumc^ij^d, and their mar- 
riage mrmaUy dissolved)* Seculars, dea 
cons and subdeacons, w^o were found U. 
dwell with their wives, were interdicted 
the exercise of spiritual functions for the 
course of a year. In Spain, the bishopi 
were ordered to enforce celibacy upoi 
their abbots^ deacons, &4^ once a year, ii 
their ^rmons ; for, in that country, man3 
priests, formerly Arians, and newly^son 
verted, refused to give up their wives, con 
formably to the requisitions of the Catholic 
church. As in other p<unts, in this, also, 
the Greek church dissented from the Ro- 
man. The (Trullan) council of Constaor 
tuiople, in 692, in its 13th canOn, deckuea, 
"Having heard that the Roman church 
has ordered the priests and deacons to 
relinquish their lawful wives, we, assem- 
bled ui this council, hereby decree, that 
priests and deacons, according to the an- 
cient custom of the church, and the insti- 
tution of the holy anostles, may hve wiUi 
their wives like tbe laity. We hereby for- 
bid any one to refuse tbke consecration of a 
priest or deacon on accoimt of his being 
marriedt and cohabiting with his wife, after 
he has requested consecration. We will 
fay no means be unjust to mairiage, not 
separate what God has united." These 
regulations are still in force in the Greek 
church; and, while celibacy is required of 
tbe bishops and monks; priests and dea- 
cons, if married before consecration, are 
allowed to continue in the otate of matri- 
mony. This is not a reason for saying 
that me ilomanchurcb introduced celibacy; 
she has only retained it, as an old apostol- 
ical tradition, to which she has added the 
rule, not to consecrate married men, unless 
tliewifo enter a religious order. As no one 
Ijtas a right to demajad to be consecrated a 
priest, the Roman church ha^y by this ad- 
Oitioii, violated 90 one^a riKfatt '^e Wetu 

Digitized by 




em church had new iBasons for enjoining 
celibacy, when the system of benefices be- 
gan to be orsanized. At first, the officers 
of the chur<3i lived on the voluntary f^Ra 
ofthefiuthfuL When the church acquired 
wealth, lands and tithes, the revenue and 
estates of all the churches belonging to the 
diocese of a bishop were considered as 
one whole, the administration and distribu- 
tion of which depended on the bishop. 
But, in the seventh, eighth and ninth cen- 
turies, a particular sum was taken from the 
conmion stock fi>r each officer, the bishop 
not excepted. This constitution of the 
church was similar to that of the state, in 
which feudatories perfonned military and 
other services, in conedderation of the usu- 
fiuct of certain lands. Even the name was 
the same. The possessions of the feuda- 
tories were called hen^ices, as well aa those 
of the clergy. If the clerical benefices 
and employments had become hereditary, 
as was the case with the lay benefices, we 
should have seen a hereditaiy ecclesiasti- 
cal caste, similar to that of the nobitity, 
which has been transmitted to us from the 
middle ages, as a caste of warriors and 
crril officers. We should have seen he- 
reditary priests, hereditary bishops, and a 
nereditarjr pope. The ruinous conse- 

Sences, moral and political, which would 
ve resulted from such a state of things, 
are easily conceived. All the feelings and 
principles of a pure and divine religion 
would have disappeared in such an empire 
of priests. The most absolute despotism 
would have been established over the na- 
tions, and every attempt of the commons 
to attain a higher stand in political society 
would have been fiustrated. When the 
canons in Wales afterwards abandoned 
celibacy, it was soon observed, that they 
had succeeded in making their benefices 
hereditaiy, by intermarriages between 
their sons and daughters. The fate of 
Wales would have been that of aU the 
Christian nations of the West, if the mar- 
riage of priests had been allowed. Whilst, 
however, die church persevered in com- 
manding celibacy, she had to struggle with 
the opposition of a coirupt clergy. The 
council of Naibonne, in 791, fomade the 
clergy to have any females living with 
them, even such as former rules had per- 
mitted. The same was ordered by the 
council of Mentz, 888. By the council of 
Augsburg, every ckargyman was forbidden, 
imder penalty of dismisaon, either to mar- 
ry, or to cohabit with his wife, if already 
married, or to retain female companions 
who had been introduced under the name 
of tiaUrs (subintrodueiag) ; and tfa« biriiop 

was authorized, when suspicious women 
were fi)und in the houses of clergymen, 
to drive them out with whips, and cut off 
their hair. In the council of Canterbury, 
king Edgar himself delivered a speech on 
the scandalous life of the clersy, whose 
houses, as he said, might well be consid- 
ered as brothels. Soon afterwards, a great 
number of canons and priests were dis- 
missed, whose places were given to monks. 
In the council at Erham, in 1009, the cler- 
gy were directed anew to dismiss their 
wives. To those who abstained, it was 
even promised, that they should be treat- 
ed like nobles by birth. Leo EX ordered 
that women at Rome, transgressing with 
priests, should be slaves in the lAteran 
for life. Adalbert, archbishop of Hamburg, 
excommunicated the concubmes of priests, 
and had them ignominiously turned out 
of die city. Pope Victor II dismissed sev- 
eral bishops on account of their irregular- 
ities. Notwithstanding all such prohibi- 
tions, it appeared impossible to maintain 
the law of^celibacy in force. In 1061, the 
Lombard bishops, most of whom had 
concubines, themselves elected Nodolaus, 
bishop of Parma, afterwards Honorius II, 
antipope, merely because he did not live 
in celibacy ; and it Was, therefore, hoped 
that he would not insist on the observance 
of the prohibitory law. Add to this, that 
most of these clerpymen, living with con- 
cubuies, in violation of canonical laws, 
obtained their places by simony, and you 
have a true picture of die church in those 
davs. The necessity was urgent that a 
rerormer of the church should arise. He 
appeared in Gregoiy VH, who, like all 
men of great genius, has a right to be 
judged in reference to the spirit' of bis age. 
In order to reform the corrupted disciplme 
of the church, he was obfiged to encounter 
the simony and licentiousness of the clersy. 
The former he checked by opposing die 
emperor's right of investiture, and enforced 
the laws of celibacy by new regulations. 
In the council of] 074, at Rome, he ordered 
that all married clergymen, and all laymen 
who should confess to them, hear mass 
of them, or bo present at any divine* ser- 
vice performed 1^ them, should be excom- 
mimicated. When the bishop of Coire 
began to read this decree to the synod in 
Mentz, the clergy assailed him with re- 
proaches and blows, so that he narrowly 
escaped with his life. They declared that 
they did not pretend to be angels, and 
would radier give up their priesthood than 
their wives. Gregoiy, nevertheless, suc- 
ceeded, as he was supported by the mont 
ancient and most undoubted canons. Ailor 

Digitized by 



Grecory^ deceftse, the church continued 
ID i£e flame course. The prohibitions 
were repeated, as weO as the rules of cau- 
turn CMicenung domestic life. Yet trans- 
greaaions of this hard commandment were 
Tcry frequent, particularly in the 15th and 
l€cfa centuries. In Petrarca's works are 
many coroi^aints of the licentiousness of 
the clemr at the pope's court in Avignon, 
where Petnuca uved for some time. In 
the aecoontB of the council of Basle, it 
is stated that many cardinals present there 
fiTed t^ienly with their concubines. In 
one of the chronicles of the mark of Bran- 
denboii^, we are informed that, at a feast, 
a qiMfltion aroee whether the bishop's con- 
cubine should precede the other ladies or 
DoL* The reformation followed. It rec- 
ognised no sacrificing priests ; virnni^ was 
esteemed no higher than conjugu fidelity; 
rows of chastity were considered no lon- 
ger obBgatoiy; and, as the Protestant cler- 
gy were subject either to the state or the 
religious oonununities, it was no longer to 
be feared that they would, by their own 
authority, make the benefices hereditaiy. 
Ludier m not at fiist go the whole lensUi 
of these changes. He thought the proni- 
bition of matnmony uniust ; yet he believ- 
ed that the monks, who were bound to 
celibacy by Aeur voves, ought to observe 
them. He wrote to Spalatin, Aug. 6, 
1521, "Our Wittenbereians intend, too, to 
give wives to the monks ; but I shall not 
sufier myself to have one forced upon me." 
Baftholomew Bemhardi, a monk, head of 
the refigious establishment of Kemberg, 
was the first of the clergy who married 
(in 1591), and most of the Lutheran divines 
imitafed him. When the papal legate, car- 
dinal Campegi^o, recommended the pun- 
ishmeot or the married priests, this only 
widened the breach between the old and 
new church. Luther declared, in 1524, that 
he vras not made of wood and stone, and, 
in 1525, married the nun, the consecrated 
virgin, Catharine von Bora. (q. v.) Cel- 
ibtiey was the weak side of the Catholic 
churchy as many divines went over to 
die lefeimed church under pretence of a 
change in their religious sentiments, but, 
in reuity, to be enabled to marry. The 
refonned princes offered their clergy the 
altemativey either to marry their concu- 
bines, or to put them away. The latter 
supposed a self-denial, which could not be 

* In Abbot's Letlera from Cuba (Borton, 1829, 
pt. \S\, it is Mated, that most of the priests on 
i1m iuiid have families, and speak of their chiU 
draa «idioat seruple, aoa will sometimes even rea- 
aoa SB the subject, and defend the practice. 7*be 
case 11 modi tne same in a great pari of South 

expected fiom one who had lived m con- 
cubinage, and a change of religion was the 
necessary consequence of mairiage. Some 
Catholics vrished this weak spot in their 
church to be removed. At the council of 
Salzburg, in 1562, the bishops deliberated 
what measures ought to be proposed at 
the coimcil of Trent, and resolved to vote 
for the marriage of the clersy . The duke 
of Bavaria likewise inasted upon the mar- 
riage of the priests. The emperor, the 
electors, and many other princes, directed 
their envoys to demand it The kinf of 
France also desired the marriage of the 
clergy, or, at least, a matmer euze for con 
secration. But the majori^ at Trent (sess. 
24, can. 9) decided for celibacy, observing 
that God would grant the prayers of those 
who prayed earnestly for chastity, and 
would not suffer them to be tempted be- 
yond their strength. The provisions, in 
regard to celibacy, are as follows: — ^The 
clergy of the Greek church, who were 
married before their consecration, are 
allowed to continue in a state of matrimo- 
ny. The priest, however, must abstain 
fitmi his wife three days before every cel- 
ebration of the mass. Of the Roman cler- 
sy absolute celibacy is re<]uired ; yet the 
four lower orders are permitted, on giving 
up their benefices, to quit the derictu pro- 
fessfon, and to many. But, from the sub- 
deacons upwards, celibacy is commanded 
absolutely ; except that the pope may eive 
permission to retue from the clerical omce, 
and, in consequence, to marry. The pen- 
alties for transgressing the rules of celibacy 
are numerous. The vrife must be dis- 
missed, and penance undergone for the 
offence. The offender is forbidden to 
perform the ecclesiastical functions belong- 
mg to his degree, and cannot receive the 
higher consecration, as he becomes what 
is called irrepjdar. Yet, after penance, 
thin irregularity may be removed by dis- 
pensation from the bishop. Finally, he 
Decomes excommimicated by the vetj 
act of his marriage, and must, on this 
accoimt, also, have recourse to the bishops 
to be received again into the communion. 
In Germany, by the terms of the peace of 
Westphalia, a Catholic clergyman who 
marries loses his benefice and his rank in 
the church, without loss of reputation, 
however, if his marriage be only a previ- 
ous step to his adoption of the Protestant 
faith. Persons already married can be 
consecrated as clergymen only on condi- 
tion of their taking a vow of"^ chastity, to 
which the wife hoB given her consent 
She must also enter some religious order. 
The rule of celibacy has been more strict- 


Digitized by 



ly obsenxd in tbe Catholic cbuFch since 
the reformation than it was before. One 
reason of this ie, that many incontinent 
clergymen have left the Catholic church, 
and entered into one which allowed them 
to marry. Another reason is, that tlie 
Protestant reformation aroused the atten- 
Jon of the Catholic churcli to the. necessi- 
ty of a reform in its own body, and die 
observance of a stricter discipli ne. Hence 
few such public scandals have occurred 
as in former times, and transgression 
has been followed by immediate punish- 
ment Yet it is not to be denied, that th« 
rule of celibacy is often violated. Such 
transgressions are to be expected, par- 
ticuku'ly at a time when education and 
so many other circumstances tend to in- 
crease the influence of luxury ; yet the far 
greater part of the Catliolic clergy respect 
3ie rule of celibacy at the present day. 
Among the reasons against requiring celi- 
bacy in the clergy, is uie increasing scarci- 
ty of men willing to devote themselves to 
a profession wliich requires such strict 

[The foregomg article, written by a 
Catholic, presents the views entertained 
on the subject of celibacy by the members 
of that communion. To those not edu- 
cated in that church, it appears exceed- 
ingly difficult to compreliend why a 4*ule 
of life not enjoined by any express com- 
mand or divhie law, and which contra- 
venes the dictates of nature and the obli- 
gations of society, should be regarded as 
of such importance to the excellence of 
the priestliood. That it would attach 
them more devotedly to the secular inter- 
ests of the church, there can be no doubt; 
but that they would be as capable of min- 
istering to the spiritual necessities of the 
people as those who are experienced in 
the feehngs of the people, through th*»ir 
social connexions, we snould find it very 
difficult to believe.] 

Cell ; generally employed to designate 
an apartment used as a storehouse for 
wines, &c, and commonly under ground. 
The same term has various applications 
under different circumstances. Thus cella 
was used, by the Roman poets, to signify 
the lodge or habitation of common prosti- 
tutes, these being anciently under ground 
(see Juvencd, sat vi, ver. 121), having the 
names of the inmates over tlie doors. 
The name of cell was also used for the 
lodgings of servants, among the Romans ; 
for the apartments of the public baths ; 
for the euhfta or inmost and most retired 
parts of the temples, where the images of 
the gods were preserved. The term cdt 

was also aralied to a lesser or subordinat* 
minster, dependent upon a greater, by 
which it was erected and under whoso 
government it remained. The great an- 
cient English abbeys had gjejieraJly such 
cells in distant places, which were ac- 
countable to, and received their superioiis 
from them. The apartments or private 
dormitories of monks and nuna are also 
called cells.— In technology, tlie term cell 
is employed very frequenUy to signify any 
small compartment into which substances 
are divided ; thus the hexagonal cham- 
bers of the honey-comb are called ceUs^ as 
in botany the cavities, separated by par- 
titions in the pods, husks or seed-vessels 
of plants, whidi are said to be unilocular^ 
hUoculary trUoadarj &.C., according to the 
number of cells. — ^In anatomy, it is applied 
to various small cavities, such as the air- 
cells, or pulmonary vesicles, the adipose 
cells, or spaces in the membrane which 
retains the fat, 6^c. The loose, inflatable 
texture, which unites and surrounds all 
tlie parts and organs of the body, has the 
name of celltdar, from its being made up 
of a succession of these litde membranous 

Cellamare (Antonio Giudice, duke of 
Gtiovenazzo}, prince of, bom at Naples, 
1657, and educated at the court of Charles 
II of Spain, made several campaigns, and 
was in the Spanish senice during the 
greater part or die war of tlie Spanish 
succession, till he fell into the hands of 
tlie unperialists, in 1707, who kept him 
prisoner in Milan tiU 1712, when he was 
exchanged. On liis return to Spcdn, he 
was made a cabinet minister, and, in 1715, 
ambassador extraordinary to the Prench 
court Here he became the chief instru- 
ment of die desi^is of Alberoni, and the 
soul of a conspiracy against the re|rent« 
Philip of Orleans. A plot was formed 
for arresting the regent at a festival, call- 
ing together the states-^neral of the king- 
dom, and declaring Philip V regent, who, 
having thus become master of Spain and 
France, would have made the rest of 
Europe tremble. Cellamaro was ouly 
waiting for fuitlier orders from Ins couit, 
when the plan was discovered, and his 
letters, having been intercepted, revealed 
the parties engaged in the conspiracy. 
]ile was arrested, and conducted, under 
an escort, to the Spanish froutiera. The 
com! of Madrid made him captain-gen- 
eral of Old Castile. He died at Seville, 

Cellarius, Christopher, one of the 
most learned phik>Ioinsrs of the 17th cen- 
tuiy, was bom in 1036. After he had 

Digitized by 



t «t 80v)eral GeiiuHi imivenhiefl^ Im 

laui^ nMml ^iloeopby and the Oriental 

faBgna^oB at WdsawlelB. In 1673, ha 

-mwm made rector of the sdiool at Weimar, 

and afterwiuda of the Beminariea at Zeifis 

and Menebuig, and, finalhr, professor of 

^ oqfBeace and hisKwy at Halfe, where h« 

died in 1707. He publuhed agreat num« 

faer of ancient author^ with learned anno* 

ttdooB and "wery accurate indexes, as, for 

kHttBnoe, the lettere of Cicero and of Plinyi 

Cemelius Nepoe, Curdus^ Eutropius, Sex- 

HIS Ruloa, Vellmus Paterculus, the 12 an« 

rieni panegyrials, Minucius Fehx, Silius 

fialinw, &c. His own composidons re* 

kte u» ancient histoiy and geo^phy, 

Rooaan anttqaidefl^ and the Latm kn- 

Cnxim, BenTeouJo; a sculptor, en- 
graver and gokismith ; bom at Floi^ce, 
in 1500, where he died in 1570; distin. 
guidied paiticulai^ by his works in gold 
and aiker, which have become very rare, 
and are sold at present at inmienae prices. 
Of a bcdd, honest and open character, but 
vaki and quarrelsome, and impatient of 
ftiffffoachnM^f and dependence, he was 
often emangM in quarrels, which fire* 
queody coat his antogonistB their lives. 
He hinwelf incuned great dangers, vraa 
put into prison, and was saved only by his 
boldness and the powerful protectora 
whom Ins talents as an artist proctnfed 
Imn. At the siege of Rome (if we believe 
his awn account, given in his autobiogra* 
phy)^ be fciUed, wtth one cannon shot, the 
eoBstaUe of Bouibon, and, with another, 
die pcince of Orange. He was aflerwards 
nnpriaoned on the charge of having stolen 
the jewels of the mpal crown, which were 
JHtroated to him ourmg the siege, and was 
re4eaaed only bj the interference of Fran* 
CIS I, whoee court he visited, and executed 
there aereral works. He a^rwaids re- 
Uiraed to Florence, and, under the pat* 
raoage of Cosmo, made a Perseus with 
the head of Medusa, in bronze, which is 
sdfl an (Mnaroent of the roaiket-place ; 
also a statue <xf Christ, in the chapel of 
the Pitti p^ace, besides many excellent 
ihes for coins and medals. In his 58th 
year, he wrote his ovni fife in Latin, vrith 
equal eaadinr and vanity* It has been 
translated, in a masterly manner, by G6the, 
imo Gexnian. There is also an English 
tiansiatioa by doctor Nugent, 1771 ; new 
edition by Thomas Roeeoe, 182^ It 
eooiains striking descriptions of Cellini's 
•VB adventurea, and of the characters of 
the poaons with whom he came in con* 
tad. Among his other writings, the most 
are Dm TVattott, use int^mo 

a0e eltty prkwipM.ArH ddP OraCtoeno^ 
PaUro in MoUria deW ArU della ScoUwra 
(best edition, 17311 His style is free, 
strong and original, and the academy 
della Crusca often quotes him as a classic 


Membrane (Ida ceUuUaa or mucosa of 
Latin writers), is the medium which con* 
necta and supports all the various parts 
and structures of the body. Any person 
may gain a general notion of this sub- 
stance by observing it in joints of veal, 
when it is indated by the butchers. It 
consists of an assemblage of fibres and 
lamiwB of animal matter, connected with 
each other so as to fonn iimumerable cells 
or small cavities, fifom which its name of 
eetfii/or is derived. It pervades every part 
of the animal structure* By joining to- 
gether the minute fibrils of muscle, tendon 
or nerve, it forms obvious and visible 
fibres. It coUects these fibres into large 
fasdcuU, and, by joining sach fascicuU, or 
bundles, to each other, constitutes an en- 
tire muscle, tendon or nerve. It joins to- 
cether the individual muscles, and is col< 
fected in their intervals. It surrounds 
each vessel and nerve in the body, often 
connecting these parts together by a firm 
kind of capsule, and, in a looser form, join- 
ing them to the nei^boring muscles, &c 
When condensed into a firm and compact 
structure, it constitutes die various mem- 
branes of die body, which, by l^^g macera- 
tion in water, may be resolved' lito a loose, 
eelhilar texture. In the bones, it forms the 
basis or ground-work of their fid)ric, a re^ 
eeptacle, in the interstices of which the 
earth of bone is deposited. As cellular 
substance is entirely soluble in boiling 
water, it is considered, by chemists, as that 
peculiar modification of anknal matter 
termed ^elatiM* In consequence of its 
solution oy the united agencies of heat 
and moisture, the muscular fibres separate 
fix>m each other, and form the other stnic- 
tares of the body. This effect is seen in 
meat which is subjected to lone boiling or 
stewing for the table, or, indeed, in a joint 
which is merely over-boiled. It fbnaa a 
eoimexion and passage between all parta 
of the body, however remote in situation 
«r dissimilar in structure ; fin* the cells of 
^is substance every where communicate, 
as we may collect from facts of the most 
eommon and fiunihar occurrence. In 
emphysema, where air escapes fiom the 
lungs wounded by a broken rib into the 
cellular substance, h ^reada rapidly fitim 
the chest into the moat remote parts of 
the body, and has even been known to 
gain aduusraon into the eye-balL A siini^ 

Digitized by 




lar difibmon of this fluid inay be efiected 
by artificial kifladon. 

Celsus, Aurelius Cornelius, lived, prob- 
ably, under the reign of Augustus. He 
bas been called the Roman tKppocratts^ 
because he imitated the Greek physician, 
and introduced the Hippocradc system 
into Rome. He also wrote on rhetoric, 
the art of war and agriculture. He is, 
however, best known as a medical virriter. 
His style is elegant, concise, and, never- 
theless, very clear. His woric on medi- 
cine is an inexhaustible source, fix>m 
which other good authors have drawn 
materials for vmtinss, both medical and 
surgical. He has nimished subsequent 
writers with a multitude of authorities for 
the support of their different theories, but 
has sunered much aibitraiy interpretation. 
Hippocrates and Asclepiades are the two 
authors whom he has followed most. 
More than 59 editions of his 8 books Dt 
Medicina had appeared in 1785 ; the first 
at Florence, 1478, foL: the best is by 
Krause, Leipsic, 1766: thatof Targa was 
printed at Padua, 1769, 4ta, and one at 
Verona, 1810, 4to. 

Celt£ (they called themselves, also, 
G€telf or GaUs ; see Oad\ ; one of the 
four chief nations which innabited Gallia. 
Their territory extended fix>m the extreme 
point of Brittany to the Rhine and the 
Alps. The Romans, therefore, called the 
whole country CdtUoj or GalaHcL They 
left Asia at some distant period, and, at 
the time of Tarquinius Priscus, came, un- 
der Bellovesus, to Upper Italy, and large 
numbers of diem ^read over several 
countries of Europe. In Spain, they be- 
came mingled with the Iberians, whom 
they conquered. Internal wars w^ikened 
them ; and commerce with the Romans, 
and with the people of Marseilles, made 
them more civilized. The Italian Celt» 
were subjected, 220 B. C, by the Romans. 
The Boii united themselves with the 
Helvetii ; the Illyrian Celtas with the Illyr- 
ians. Their government vras aristocrat- 
ical. The nobles formed a national as- 
sembly. The commons were regarded 
as little better than slaves. They were 
large, and of great bodily strength, impet- 
uous in their attacks, but not well able to 
endure hardships. A huge sword, gen- 
erally of copper, vras their chief weapon. 
Their prieota, the Druids (q. v.), enjoyed 
the greatest authority. 

Celtes, Conrad ; bom, m 1459, at Pro- 
tuch, in Franoonia. His original name 
was Meissdj which he changed into Cd- 
fet PrUuciuB. He ran away fiiom his 
fiaraBta, and studied in Cologne. In 1484 

and 1485, he studied under the tuition of 
Rodolph Agricola, at Heidelbei^, and be- 
came a phflologist and Latin poet He 
then travelled to Italy, where be attended 
the lectures of the most learned teachers 
of his time. On his return throu^ II- 
lyria, Hungary and Poland, he was taught 
astronomy and astrology by Albertus Bru- 
tus, and met with the most favorable re- 
ception at the German courts. In Nu- 
remburg, be was crowned by the emperor 
Frederic III (1491), on account of the 
reputation which he had acquired by his 
Latin poems, being the first German poet 
who received this honor. He afterwards 
travelled for 10 years, visiting all the uni- 
versities in Germany, and found, at length, 
a resting-place in Vienna, where Maximil* 
ian I appointed him, in 1501, professor of 
poetry and rhetoric, and president of the 
faculty established for the smdy of clas- 
sical antiquities. He left a histoiy and 
description of Nurembur^^, a poem on the 
rituation and manners of Germany, sev- 
eral philosophical, rhetorical and bio- 
mphical Works, and a number of poems* 
He considered the study of lan^[uageffy 
not, like other philolo^psts of his tmie, as 
an object of pursuit in itself; but only as a 
means for obtaining an acquaintance with 
those sciences which have a more imme- 
diate bearing on die busnness of life, 
amonff which he placed history and ge- 
ography first His plan for a great litera- 
ry society (godaUku CeUica), for which he 
had already obtaincNl grants of privileges 
from the emperor, was interrupted by his 
death in 15(^. Only the Rhenish society, 
which he founded in H^delberg, outlived 

Celtiberi, or Celtiberlins ; inbalMt- 
ants of Celtiberia, a countiy akxig the 
Iberus, in the north-east part of Spam. 
They fi)rmed the most numerous tribe in 
Spain, and originated from Iberians mixed 
vidth Celts. They were brave, aAd th^ 
cuneua was formidable even to the Ro- 
mans. They despised agriculture. After 
a long resistance to the Romans, they were, 
at last, in the Seitorian war, subjected to 
their sovereignty, adopted their manners, 
language, dress, &c. They were divided 
into six tribes — the Bellones, Arevaci, Pe- 
leudones, north of the Durius ; and the Lu- 
sones, Belli and Ditthi, more to the south. 

CBKENTATioir; a chemical process, in 
which a metal (and often other bodies) is 
placed in connexion with other substances, 
often in layers (Mtratum tvptr 9trah»m\, in 
close vessels, that the fiirmer may be sep- 
arated fit)m its combinations, or changed 
(fiequently ozydated), at a high tempera- 

Digitized by 



•me. Hie sataiiiieewiA which the mefal 
•V ocher body is sarroimded is called 

In cementiDg gold, the 
^ilioy iB'beaten into thin pkaea, and placed 
pi aJtemate layen, with a cement contain- 
ing nitiBte of polBflB and solpluKte of iitm. 
The whole is tbea exposed to heat, until a 
great part of the idloyinjr metals are re- 
mored by the action of the nitric add 
Ittienied by the nitre. Iron is cemented 
with chaicoal-powder and other sub- 
lamecB, and thereby convened into steeL 
GlsBB IS changed, by cementation with 
gypmgoDj into Reaumur's porcelain. Cop* 
per is cemented with a powder of cala- 
i and charcoal, and thereby converted 
B. Theeopper obtained from the 
of copper, by precipitation with 
irony is caUed eemtnt-copper. 

CxMKNTs. The subsumces used for pro- 
ducing cohesion between diilferetit materi- 
als are yeiy varioua They are mostly, 
however, mi or semi-fluid, and haiden m 
tbeeoimeoftime. The number emplc^ed 
isverrpeaL We can mention only a few. 
The joinis of iion ppes, and the flanges 
of Steam-engines, are cemented with a 
mimire composed of sulphur and muri* 
ale of ammonia, together with a laige 
^usBtity of icon ohippings. The putty of 
gtuic i s is a mixture of linseed oil and 
pQwdoped chalk. Plaster of Paris, dried 
Dy heat, and mixed with water, or with 
roan and wax, is used for uniting pieces 
of nmrble. A cement composed of brick- 
dust and rosin, or pitch, is employed by 
tumera, and some other mechanics, to con- 
fine the material on which they are work- 
ing. Common paint, made of white lead 
ami ail, is used to cement China-ware. So 
ilso are resinous substances, such as mas- 
tie and shell iac, or isinglasB dissolved in 
pioof«{Mrit or water. The pf»te of book- 
nndeiB and paper-hangers is made by 
bofling flour. Rice-glue is made by boil- 
ing ground rice in mt water to the con- 
amsaoo of a thin jelly. Wafeis are made 
of flour, iaingbas, yeast and white of eggs, 
dried in thin layerB upon tin plates, and 
cut by a circuku: instrument. They are 
cokired by red-lead, &jc. Sealing-wax is 
compoeed of shell lac and rosin, and is 
commoniy colored with vennilion. Com- 
mon ghie is most usually employed for 
imiting wood, and similar porous sub- 
ManeesL It does not answer for suiftoes 
not porous, such as those of the metals, 
tad is not durable if exposed to water. 
The oements mdsdy used in building are 
composed of fime and sand. Ume is pro- 
eiired by burning substances in whidi it 
exitt in oondnnation with carbonie add, 

such as fimesCone, mari)le8, chalk and 
shells. By this process the carixHiic acid 
is driven off, and quicklime is obtained. 
The quicklime is slaked by niixture with 
water, after which it swells and cracks, 
becomes hot, and assumes the form of a 
white and impalpable powder. This is a 
hydrate of lime, and contains about three 
parts of lime to one of water. When in- 
tended for mortar, it should be immedi- 
ately mixed with sand, and used without 
delay, before it imbibes carbonic acid anew 
flt>m the atmosphere. The lime adheres 
to and unites the particles of the sand. 
Cements thus made increase in strengdi 
and solidity for an indefinite period. Fresh 
sand, whoUy silidous and sharp, is the best 
That taken fiom the sea-shore is unfit for 
making mortar, as the salt is apt to deli- 
quesce and weaken the mortar. The 
amount of sand is always greater tiian 
that of the time. From two to four parts 
of sand are used, according to the quality 
of the lime and tiie labor bestowed on it 
Water cements, called also Roman cemenis^ 
harden under water, and consolidate al- 
most immediately on being mixed. Com- 
mon mortar dissolves or crumbles away if 
laid under water before it has had time to 
harden ; but certain rocks, which have an 
aigillaceous as well as a silicious charac- 
ter, communicate to lime or mortar the 
property of hardening in a veiy few min- 
utes, both in and out of water. The 
ancient Romans, in making their water 
cements, employed a pecuhar earth, ob- 
tiuned at the town of Puteoli. This they 
called pvhn$ PvUolanus. It is the same 
that is now called Ptazolancu It is evi- 
dently of volcanic origin. The Dutch, in 
their great aquatic structures, have mostly 
employed a substance denominated tarraa^ 
Urras, or tra$Sj found near Andemach, in 
the vicinity of the Rhine. It is said to be 
a kind of decomposed basalt, but resem- 
bles Puzzolana. It is very durable in wa- 
ter, but inferior to the other kind^ in the 
open air. Baked day and the common 
ffreenstone afford the basis of ver^ tolera- 
ble water cements, when mixed with lime. 
Some of the ores of manganese maj be 
used fbr the same purpose. Some hme- 
stones, calcined and mixed with sand and 
water, also afifbrd water cements, usually 
in consequence of containing some argil- 
laceous earth. Some cements, of great 
hardness and permanency, have been ob- 
tained from mixtures, into which aniital 
and ve|ffetable substances enter, such as 
oil, mific, mucilage, &c. The name of 
maUha or magHe is given them. They 
are not tnuch used. 

Digitized by 




Cebetert. In the ardde Burjfing' 
Places^ S^e have given the history of the 
custom of intenin^ the dead, and shall 
only mention, in this place, two cemeise- 
lies, periiape the most interesting which 
ever existed. One of them is the com- 
mon place of burial of the ancient Egyp- 
tians, which was situated beyond the 
lake Acherusia, or Acharejish, the name 
of which signified the last condition of 
man, and which probably is the founda- 
tion of the Greek fiibles respecting lake 
Acheron. On the borders of lake Ache- 
rusia, a tribunal, composed of 42 judges, 
was established, to inquire into the life 
and character of the deceased. Without 
this examination, a corpse could not be 
carried to the cemeteiy oeyond the lake. 
If the deceased had died insolvent, the 
court adjudged the coipse to his creditors, 
m order to oblice his relations and fiiends 
to redeem it If his Ufe bad been wicked, 
they refused his body the privilege of solr 
emn burial, and it was consequenay car- 
ried and tluovra into a lar^ ditch made 
for the puipose, which received the appel- 
lation of Jwrtary on account of the lamen- 
tations which this sentence produced 
among the surviving friends and relations. 
The Greek Tartarus had its origin in this 
Egyptian Tartar. If no accuser appear- 
.e(^or the accusations were found ground^ 
less, the judges decreed the regular burial, 
and the eufogium of the deceased was 
pronounced amon^ the apt^uses of the 
oystandera. In this, his Uuents, virtues, 
accomplishments, every thine except his 
rank and riches, were praised. To cany 
the corpse to the cemeteiy, it was nece»- 
4aiy to cross the lake, and to pay a small, 
sum for the passage. This circumstance 
also v^as tran^kuited into the Greek my- 
thology. The cemeteiy was a laiige plain, 
surrounded by trees, and intersected by 
canals, to which was given the appellatioii 
JFUisout, or EUsuenSf meaning rest. Ev^ 
ery one recognises, in this description, the 
Greek Charon, his boat, his ferry-money, 
and the Elysian fields. The whole cere- 
mony of interment seems to have con- 
sisted in depositii^ the mummy in the 
excavation made in the rock, or under 
the sand which covered the whole Eli»eul: 
then it seems that the relations of the 
deceased threw three handfuls of sand, 
as a sign to the woitanen to fill tip ihib 
cavity, afier uttering three loud fioeweUs. 
(&eeLuihart$ an mtroghfphia and Egyp- 
Hem AntiquiiUsj by the maiquis ^inetOb 
London, 1839.)— Another cemetery of 
sreat interest is that of Pte Laohawe (see 
Ijachai8t\ in the noith*west pait of Parity 

Aot ftr fiom the baniht de$ AnuaiMen. 
This city of the dead has a superficies of 
more than 51 ofpenfff, and contains a great 
variety of tombs, some of a touching sim- 
plicity, with the marics of unaffected grie^ 
while others remind us of the words of St. 
Augustine : **• CvraHoJvntriaj conditio sep- 
uUur€t, pompa extquMruan^ magis vivorum 
solatia muan subsidia mortuorwn.^ Col- 
umns, obelisks, pvramids, funeral vases, 
monuments of all kinds, and flowers, cover 
this cemeteiy, but point out a few only of 
those who rest in this last abode of many 
ffenerationa Here repose Heloise and 
Abelard, the conqueror of Esslingen, De- 
liUe, Moli^re, La Fontaine and Foy, amid 
a cro^d of philosophers, artists, vnuriors, 
politimans, and individuals fit>m the ordi- 
nary walks of life. From this place you 
look down on the bustle of the gayest city 
in the world. A chapel in the buiying^- 
ground affords the finest view of Paris. 

Cenci, Beatrice, called the beaut^id 
parricidtj was the cause of the extermina- 
tion of the noble fiimily of CencL Mura- 
tori, in his Annals (voL 10^ pt 1, 136), 
relates the story as feUovra: Fntncesco 
Cenci, a noble and weeJthv Roman, after 
his second marriage, conducted towards 
the children of his first maniage in the 
most shoclujig manner, proeurra the as- 
sassination of two of his sons, on their re- 
turn from Spain, by banditti, and, what is 
still moro horrid, seduced and debauched 
his youngest daughter, a nudden of singular 
beauty. Beatrice discovered tiiis shock- 
ing crime to her relatives, and even sought 
to obtain protection fitnn pope Clement 
It appears, however, that this was not 
ipanted ; for, when the guSty fether con- 
tinued his former treatment, vrith agsm- 
vated wickedness, she joined with ner 
brother GKacomo, and procured the death 
of the monster, by two asBaasins, as he 
slept The guihy parties were discovered, 
confessed me murder on the rack, and 
were condemned by th<* pope to be torn 
to pieces by hones. In vain did the leem*- 
ed Farinacetn (celebrated for his Qimm* 
tianea) exert hjniaelf to obtain a mitigatioB 
of their punishmflnt by a lively reipresen- 
tation or the depravity of the deceased. 
According to other accotmts, Beatrice and 
her relatives appear to have had little or 
no share in the murder of the old Cenci ; 
but a tissue of villany and baseness gained 
belief to the fklse testimonjr of two ban- 
ditti against the Cenci fiomb. So much 
18 oerttin, that. Sept 11, 1599, Beatrice 
Cend and her sister were ezeeuled with t 
soitofguiUoline^caHedmaiifUMk Giaooma 
tras kiOed with a chih; the yovngtr faraifa- 

Digitized by 




er was pindcned an acccMmtof his youths 
hot the estates af the faini]y, to which 
belonged the viEa Borghese, since so 
ftmed fer its treasures of ait, were confis- 
cated, and pvesented by the reigning pope, 
Paul V, of tlie house of Boi^ghese, to his 
fiunily. In the pahice of Colomia, at Rome, 
trsve&eis are shown an ^cceilent painting, 
sajd to be hy Gruido Reni, as the portrait 
of die unfortunate panicide; and this 
ebanning picture of the beautiiul girl has 
been the means of spreading over all En- 
rope the tale of horror connected with it 

Cenis, Momit; a mountain belonging 
to the AJ^ in the comity of Maurienne, 
m Sbvoy. Its hei^t is stated to be 8670 
feet dwre the level of the sea. Itisfiunous 
for the road which leads over it from Sa- 
voy to Kedmont (See t^ps, Roads over.) 
On the mountain is a plain, called Made- 
lemoj and a lake, with an hospital, called 
LaRmnane, 1^ lake contains trouts of 
16 pounds weight This plain is surround- 
ed by higher peaks covered with snow. 
(Seewf^.) Benvenuto Cellini's journey 
over the Aips, in the 16th century, £ve- 
hm% in the 17th, lady Mary Wortleyls 
and Honwe Walpolels, in the 18th, are all 
interesdng; bat the danger has beenre- 
ffloved by Napoleon's rocuL 

CazfOBiTK. (See Anchoretj and Mmas- 


ffOTAPH (fr(Hn the Ch«ek KcKor^^imr, 
called also km^ioi^) ; a monument erected 
in honor of a deceased person, but not 
containing his body, as is impUed from 
the teims <rofd$, empty, and nf^of, a tomb. 
Some of diese monuments were erected 
in honor of persons buried elsewhere, oth- 
ers ibr persons whose bodies were not in- 
terred. The ancients believed that, when 
the body was not buried, the soul could 
not be admitted into the abodes of the 
blessed. When a body could not be 
Ibund, it was supposed that some rest wais 
afibrded to the suiferer by erectmg him 
acenolaph, and calling out his name three 
tones ^vith a loud voice. Sueh monu- 
meniB were distinguished by a parCiculflir 
sign, UBuaDy a piece of a shipwrecked 
Tosd, to denote the death of the deoeased 
in a fytmga hlid. The Pyiliagoretos 
ereeied cenotaphs to fiiose who had quit- 
ted their sect, as if they inrere actually dead. 
CsivsoKs ^fvere magistrates at Rome, 
who kept a rejpSter of the number of the 
pisople and of thehr fortune, and (fitim 
4«i R C.) regulated the taxes. At the 
iatne time, they watched over the men- 
neis of the citizem. They were chosen 
eveiy fifth year. This institution, at the 
period of ttn^le maimam m wfaieh it was 

founded, may have been beneficial, bUt 
is wholly inconsistent with our ideas of 
individual liberty. In the difll^rent gov- 
ernments of Europe, censors are persons 
appointed by the government to adminis- 
ter the censorship of the press, (q. v.) 

Censors mp or Books. (See Books, 
Censorship of,) 

Census ; with the Romans, one of the 
most important institutions of the state, 
and the foundation of its iliture greamess 
It was introduced by king Servius Tulhus, 
B. C. 577. All Roman citizens, both in 
the city and in the country, were obliged 
to rMKnt the amount of their property, the 
number of their children, slaves, &c., un- 
der penalty of losing their property and 
their liberty. According to the statement 
thus given in, Servius Tullius divided the 
citizens into six classes, and those again 
into oenmries. (q. v.) The font dass con- 
aamed of those whose fortunes amotmted 
respectively to at least 100,000 asses or 
pounds of copper. The property of the 
second vras at least 75,000 ; that of the 
third, 50,000; that of the fourth, 25,000; 
of the fifth, 11,000 asses: all the rest 
belonged to tlie sixth class. (See As,) 
Each class had a particular kind of arms, 
a particular post m the army, &e. This 
divifflon produced the most important 
conbequences for Rome. At an earlier 
period, the poor citizens were obliged to 
pay the same taxes, and render the same 
services in war, as the rich ; and the most 
important branches of the public adminis- 
tration were in the hands of the ignorant 
cmd passionate mob. The heaviest bur- 
dens in war and in peace were, by this 
institution, transforred to the rich, and the 
chief dhection of public afiSurs was placed 
in the hands of the font class, which con- 
tained, according to the rule of division 
established by ^rvius Tullius, as many 
centuries as all the rest The citizens of 
the lowest dass, w1k> had no property, or 
very little, were hardly counted as a class, 
so diat the ancient auth(»s often mention 
onfy five classes. In the course of time, 
the Ori^^ divirions suffered some altera- 
tions, but the insdmtion reamained esisen- 
tiaUy the same. This census was repeated 
every fifth year, at first by the kings, after- 
wards by the consuls, and, finally, by the 
censors. At a later period, however, it 
was not always taken at the ^ed time, 
and was <^en entirely omitted. After the 
termination of the census, an expiatoiy 
sacrifice was oflfered, caUed *uot^ctei«^t«« 
—In the U. Stales, the census has a;^ 
become an institution of great political 
importance, as it afibvdB the baas of tfte 

Digitized by 



nadonal reineBentation. The constkution 
(ait. 1, sect 2» 3) Bays, <* Representatives 
and direct taxes shall be apportioned 
among the several states which inay be 
inclu<fed within this union, accordinff to 
their respective numbeiis, which sliaU be 
determined by adding to the whole number 
of fi-ee persons, including those bound to 
service tor a term of years, and excluding 
Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other 
persons. The acmal enumeration shall be 
made within three years afler tlie first 
meeting of the congress of the U. States, 
and within every subsequent term of ten 
veara, in such manner as they shall by 
law direct,'' &c. Thus we shall have, in 
the year 1830, another census, which will 
be highly interesting, on account of the 
rapid mcrease of several of the new states. 
(For the results of this new census, see 
the article UnUed States,) 

Centaurs ; an ancient barbarous peo- 
ple in Theasaly, on mount Pelion. Ac- 
cording to the fable, they were the chil- 
dren of Centaurus, a son of Apollo, and 
the mares of Magnesia, or of Ixion and 
the cloud. (See LrionJ) They are said 
to have been half horse and half man, and 
the &ble is explained in this manner: The 
Centaurs first practised the art of mount- 
ing and managing horses. In the time 
of the Thessalian King Ixion, a herd of 
wild bulls on mount Pelion committed 
great devastations in the adjacent coimtiy. 
Ixion offered a great reward to whoever 
should destroy them : in consequence of 
which, the Centaurs trained horses to bear 
them on their backs, and slew the bulls. 
Mythology relates the combats of the Cen- 
taurs wiUi Hercules, Theseus and Pirith- 
oQs. The latter, at the head of the Lapi- 
thaa, another Thessalian nation, their he- 
reditary enemies, entirelv defeated them, 
killed many, and drove them from Pelion. 
The Centaurs Nesaus, Chiron and others 
are ftmous in ancient &ble. The latter 
is oflen mentioned under the name Cen- 

Cehtau&t. There exist two plants of 
this name, used in medicine : maU tenr 
iaury (ckiroma centourium of Lamarck), 
indigenous in Europe, growing abundant- 
hr eveij where; and American centaury 
[chiroTtta angvlant of Willdenow), exten- 
siveiy distributed throughout the United 
States. Both are annual plants, and 
esteemed as tonics and febnfiiges: the 
latter, however, is preferred by the Ameri- 
can physicians. It is also much used in 
domestic practice as a prophylactic against 
autumnal fevera, in strong infusions, ki 
large and repeated doses. 

Certiakx; a French meanire, the 

hundredth part of an are (q. v.) ; thmi, 
also, accordmg to the new French divis- 
ion of measures and weijBfhts, we have 
centigramme^ cmtUitrey centuncj centundre, 
the hundredth part of a gramme, Utrtj 
francy metre, (8ee IVem^ Decimall^fstem,) 
Centigrade. (See Thermometer.) 
Centimani. (See Briaretu,) 
Centiped {scolopendra, L.); a genus 
of insects belonging to the order mwrtajHh' 
da, C. They are distinguished by navmg 
antemuE of 14 ioints and upwards, a 
mouth composed of two mouidibles^ a 
quadrifid Up, two pahfi, or small feet, unit- 
ed at their base, and a second lip, fixmed 
by a second pair of dilated feet, joined at 
their origin, and terminated by a strong 
hook, having an opening beneadi its point, 
throu^ which a poisonous fluid is thrown 
out The body is long, depressed and 
membranous, each ring oeing covered by 
a coriaceous or cartilaginous plate, and 
mosdv having one pair of feet : the last is 
usually thrown backwards, and elongated 
in form of a taiL These insects are noc- 
turnal and carnivorous, and uniformly en- 
deavor to escape from the Ught They 
conceal themselves under the decayed 
bark of trees, the decayed timbers of 
buildings, among stones, lumber and ru}>- 
bish, whence they sally forth at night in 
search of prey. The centiped is one of 
the greatest pests to be encountered in the 
West India islands, and throughout the 
hot parts of the American continent The 
materials of which the houses are con- 
structed, and the rapid decay to which 
timber is subject in such climates, afibrd 
these noxious insects excellent hiding- 
places, and they muhiplv with great 
rapidity. The utmost vigilance, even in 
the most cleanly houses, is necessary to 
prevent these creatures from finding diehr 
way into the beds, which theyoffen do 
notwithstanding all the care that is taken 
to prevent them. They always attempt 
to escape when a light is brought into 
the room. They run with considerable 
swiftness, but are quite ready to stand on 
the defensive, and Inte with severity. 
This di^msition to bite upon the slightest 
provocation renders them veir dangerous 
when once they have entered a bed ; the 
least movement of the sleeper over whom 
they may be crawling, and who can 
scarcely feil tobedisturoed bytheirsharp- 
pointed feet or claws acting upon his dkin, 
will ensure a venomous mte, which will 
be frequently repeated if the centiped be 
not spNBedily dislodged. The bile is ex- 
ceedingly painfial at the moment, and is 

Digitized by 




Mtywed hf • hiA d^ree of local inflmn* 
imtion aiid a fever of great hvitation. 
Where the inflecft is laige, and the faite 
severe^ life Is maeh endimgeied, and not 
unliemimtly lost, eapecially if the siifierer 
be of delict and irritable habit of body. 
The immediate ap}^catk>n of a cupping- 
glaflBi or any eonrenient subetitute, over 
the mmnd, removes the pain and danger 
at Qoee. Spiiits of hartshorn (volatile al- 
kaJi, aqua ammonise alcoboliz), applied to 
the noi^ and doses of the same adminis- 
tered intemallj (90 or 40 drops) twice, 
thiwe or oftenef in a day, vnll also lessen 
tbe pain, and avert duigeroiis eonse- 
quenees. The mode of treatment first 
mentioned is the quidcest and most cer- 
tain. A popular remedy, in all places 
where the centiped is common, is the ap- 
pfication to the wound of brandy or rum 
ID which a centiped has been for some 
time preserved. This truly noxious in- 
sect grows to the nze of six inches and 
more in lenadi, and is a fbnnidable inmate 
of roost (»f me houses in tropical regions^ 
Biriiop Heb^ speaks of them as being 
very large and poisonous in dMerent parts 
of In^a. So accustomed are the West 
In<fia slaves and residentB to tbeir ] 
and regaidleaB of danger from tbeir 
that no particular pains are taken to lessen 
dietr numbers, or to banish them eiiectu* 
aUy. It is veiy probable tbat they might 
be readily destroyeil ftyy placing poisoned 
food widiin their reach ; yet, while resi- 
dem in the West Indies, we never heaid 
of any one being at the trouble of the ex- 
periment, thou^ centipeds w^:e almost 
daily killed alx>ut the house. They are 
fieqpe nt ly brought to the U. States in car- 
goesof hides^ &«. ; and, a few years smce, 
an individual, employed in unlading a 
vessel at Boston, lost his life in conse- 
qnence of being Utten by one of these in- 
sects, brought over in this way* It is poe- 
fiihie that the centqied is to be feund in 
the most soothem parts of the U. Stated 
thoo^ it has not as yet been spoken of 
as an annoyanee. Species lumng con- 
sidersUe resemblance to the centiped of 
the West Indies, and much dreaded on 
account of their bife, are often seat about 
estenrive collections of timber and lumber 
at the saw-mifls on the head waters of the 
Sdsqoehanna, &c» A smaller, dark, red- 
diBh-brown ^lecies, known by the name 
of ttovMmd l^s, is common in most parts 
«^tiui oountiy, living under dead bark or 
siBoag decaying tinibeni. The order swrt- 
^MMfa, to which these insects pertain, &om 
tSmr eniBtaceous ccyvering, the fermadon 
of tbe BKMtdiy&c^ appears to ferm the 

trai^tion ftonk the crustaeeons or cral^ 
like animals to inseds proper. They are 
the onfy insects whidi, in their nerfect 
state, have more than nr feet^ ana have 
the abdomen not distinct fiom tbe tnmk. 
They live and grow much longer than 
odier insects, surviving through several 
generations. When met hatched, they 
have but six feet, or, at least, fewer than 
they aflervFards acquire. The additional 
feet, as well as the rings to which they 
are attached, become developed as they 
advance in age—a sort of change peculiar 
to this race. 

Cent Jours {Drmeh; signifyinff Asm- 
dred days). From the 203i of March, 
1815, when Nap<deon a second time as- 
cended the throne of France, to the 28th 
of June, when Louis XYIII again resum- 
ed the government in Cambniy, just 100 
days elapsed. Hence that interregntun is 
cailed U gowememeni du cent jow9. 
None of the measures of the administm- 
tion then existing have been acknowledge 
ed hv the present government Therefore 
the 4S numbers of the collection of laws 
{BuUeHn des Lois] which apprared during 
this time, contaimng 313 ordinances, in^ 
eluding the 12 resolutions of the proviso- 
rial committee of sovemment (nom the 
92d to the dOth of Junel have only a 
historical imerest, and no binding power 
as laws. Tbey form the sixdi series (sirie) 
of this collection, which commences with 
the establishment of the famous revolu- 
tionary tribunal (March 11, 1793), and m 
still conthiued in the seventh series. If 
the facility with which Napoleon advanc- 
ed from Cannes to Paris, with onlv 1100 
men, without striking a blow, in 14 days^ 
and the readiness wim which wsnj^ who 
had always opposed the emperor. Joined 
him, after their short experience of what 
France had to expect from the Bourbons 
and the old aristocracy, show how little 
attachment existed in France for the old 
dynasty; the histoir of the ^hundred 
days," on the other hand, affords a proof 
that Napoleon hhnself had lost the bans 
of real power, the support of public opin- 
i<Mi ; or that, knowing the character or the 
French nation, and of his age, so well in 
many respects, he yet misapprehended 
both in other points of much miportance. 
(For an account of his unequalled march 
from Cannes to Paris, see Napoleon.) — 
His Ade addiHmmd of the 22d of Aprii^ 
1815,jpassing over entirely the Charte eon* 
sUiiakonruUe of June, 1814, alters and sup 
plies the deficiencies of the constituticms 
of 1790 (year 8), of 180% which es 
iaUidied the consulahq;) for life, and nf 

Digitized by 



190i,wbkik€mMmbed tbe imperial dig^ 
nity. This ode aougfat to eedn the favor 
of ths people by the grant of move exten* 
nve piiTilegQB to the two Qhaid^eiB» by 
oaaSsmng grenter indepeBdence cm the 
oourtBi by a taek ahohtion of die special 
ooiutB and of the state prisona (priumi 
d^Hat)j by granting entire libeity of the 
pnsBB, and totcdly suppressing hereditary 
distinctioDfl. A general electoral assem- 
bly {ckamp de Mat) was oonvdced to grat- 
ify ^e taste of the people for great spec- 
tBcles. But the cheiany once broken, 
could not be renewed. With one party, 
Napoleon found no confidence in ms 
promiaes; the other used its new inde^ 
pmdenee to impoee further restrictions on 
the government The loss of a battle was 
sufficient to overthrow his iU-eupported 
power ; and Napoleon, deserted and press* 
ed by his former adhmnts (Fouch^, Cau- 
laincourt, Camot, &c.), was obliged to ab- 
dicate a seccmd time. The ministen, 
during this period, appointed by a decree 
of the 20th of March, 1815, were Gaudin, 
duke of Gia€ta, minister of finance ; Maret, 
duke of Baaaano, secretary of state ; the 
duke Decr^ minisler of the marine; 
Fouch^ minister of the police ; Mplhen, 
treasurer; Davoust, priince of Eckmiihl, 
minister of war ; Caulaincourt, duke of 
Vicenza, minister of foreign affiiirs ; Car- 
not, minister of the interior ; Camhac^r^s, 
duke of Pamia, arch-chancellor and min- 
ister of justice. After the return of the 
king, bv the ordkiance of the 24th of July, 
1815, all members of the chamber CMf peers 
of 1814 (29 in number), who had accepted 
places during the ^ hundred dayB,** were 
ezduded fircuc the chamber; but they 
have since been restored, with the excep- 
tion of two (Berml, archbishop of Tours, 
and count Canclaux). Of tbe 117 peers 
of the ^ hundred dam'' there are at pres- 
ent onlv 40 in jthe chamber. The law of 
the 13th (Mf Januaiy, 1816, declared a gen* 
eral amnesty, with tbe exception of those 
who had voted for the death of Louis XVI, 
and of those who had acc^ted office dur- 
ing the ^hundred days." They were con- 
demned to perpetual banishment, were 
declared to have forfeited all puUic rights 
and to be incapable of posseesing estatea 
(See Chambrt mtrouwrne; also the aiti* 
cles I^ance and JVapolean.) 

CaifTLtvaE, Susanna, a dramatic wrteer, 
was bom in Irehmd, in 16o7. Her mind 
having early taken a romantic turn, on 
being unkindly treated by thooe who had 
the care of her afler the death of her 
mother, she formed the resolution of JgO^ 
iDgtoLondaii. Tmvelfing by hersdroQ 

fiMC,flbeww met by Mr. flfunmnd, fa- 
ther of the author of the love elegies, tiieii 
a student al the univenity of Cairnbridge, 
who peisfiaded her to assume the habit of 
a boy, in which disguise she lived with him 
dame mcmths at coUeae. At length, fear- 
ing adiaeoveiy, he induced her to peoceed 
to the metropolis, where, being yet only in 
her 16th year, she married a nephew of 
sir Stephen Fox. Becoming a widow 
within a year^ ahe took for a second bua- 
band sax officer of the army, of the name 
of Carrol, who was killed in a duel the 
second year of their wedlock. This eveiU 
in her smgulur career reduced her to con- 
siderable distress^ and led her to attempt 
^aroatic conofHwition. Her first produce 
tion was a tracedy, entitled the reijured 
Husband, whidi was performed in 1700. 
This was followed by several comedies, 
chiefly translations fipom the Frenchf 
which exhibited the vivacity that disdn* 
guiahes her literary chara^er, and met 
with some temporary success. She also 
tried the stage as an actress on the provir^ 
cial boafds, and by that means attracted 
the attention of her third and last hus- 
band, Mr. Centlivre, yeoman of the mouth 
to queen Anne, whom she married in 
1706. She still continued writmg for the 
stage, and produced several more come- 
dies. Some of these remain stock pieces, 
of which number are the Busy Body, the 
Wonder, and a Bold Stroke for a Wife. 
They are diverting firom the bustle of the 
incident and the liveliness of the charac- 
ters, but want the accompaniments of ad- 
equate language and forcible delineation. 
They partodc of the license of the age. 
Mrs. Cendivre enjoyed the fiiendahip of 
Steele, Farquhar, Bowe^ and other wits of 
the day. Having, however, o^nded Pope, 
fihe obtained a place in the Dunciad, but 
is introduced by no means characteristical- 
ly. Slie vras handsome in person, and 
her conversation was mightly and agree- 
able ; her disposition also c^ipears to have 
been fiiendly and benevolent. She died 
in 1723. Besides her dramatic works, 
published in d vols., 12mo., 1763, a vol* 
ume of her poems and letters were col- 
lected and published by Boyefk*. 

Csjrro {Latin); originally, a doak 
made of patches (hence, as Lessing ob- 
serves, the dress of Harlequin is calfed,in 
Apulekis, mind oeniuciiktf). The term 
has been transforied to such poems as 
have been formed out of verses taken 
from other poems. It was a pardcular 
art to combine passages of dii^^nt aur 
thors, on different subjects, in tliis maar 
ner, so as to foon a le^ilar whole. Thus 

Digitized by 




then -watjia mdy taieBf\iTffBmi eemm 
(craAmev Fh^iUam), in wfaich most of 
the iciBc o wese taken fiom Vkgilf for in* 
maace, the epsthdamium of Aiuonius ; and 
eeflHos firam the -venea of Homer (fibifiero- 

Cksttrax* AxKRiCA. The republic of 
C^iml America compriaes the old king^ 
dom of Qimtihiala. It is bounded noi& 
bj Mexioo and the boy of Honduras, east 
W ifae Caribbean aea and the province 
ef Vcmgua (belonging to Colombia), and 
aomb-weat by the Pacific ocean. It ex<* 
•oHkfiom 8** 46^ to 17^51' noith latitude* 
Tbe population of Giualknala was atated 
br Humboldt, m 1808, at about 1,900,000 ; 
fay Mahe-Brun, in 1630, at 1,200,000; by 
te panioia, at 1,800,000. The rivera aro 
BomenKBybutflmalL The ku*ge8t are tbe 
Cliapm, and St. Juan. The principal 
hikes are those of Nicaragua and Leon. 
Tbe whole countzy is mountainous, but 
the pvtictdar lidges are but little known. 
On the western Kiore,the country is sub- 
ject to die most tremendous convulsions 
af nature^ which have involved, at timea, 
whole cities in ruins, and extemiinated 
com p te te tribes of peo{^ No less than 
90 voieBiKies al« known to exist, which 
are Id cooatant aedrity ; some of them 
lernfie. The soil is described as exceed* 
kigiy fertile, and belter cultivated dian 
Bwat pejts oif Spanish America ; and, ac- 
eofldiBg to Humbc^dt, this countiy, when 
he saw it, was the most populous of the 
Spanieh prorinoea It produces, abundant- 
ly, grain, coefaineal, honey, wax, cotton, 
eugar-carne, indigo, fnmento and choco- 
kse. Cattle and sheep are abundant. 
The bay of Honduras is celebrated for its 
toade in logwood. The temperature in 
sone puts » exceedingly hot and moist 
The raina last finm Afffil to September, 
and violent stoims are frequent The 
ehmate is more healthy on the western 
coast than on the eastern. It is now di- 
vided into the states of Guatimala, Salva- 
dor, Honduras, Nicaragua and Co^ Rica, 
cor ro a p ondSng to the provinoea of which 
ii eoBfliated before the revolution, in which 
k declared itaelf independent of Spain, in 
September, 1831. Tnis rerion v^as peo- 
phtt originally by a party or the Toteecas 
Imfians, from' Mexico, as sufficiendy a]>' 
peais finm their language, and other indi- 
caiionB of their orurin ; and tradition pre- 
serves the name of Nimaquidie, vidio led 
the eokmy from Tula to their new abode. 
At the time of the conquest of Mexkso bv 
Coclez, a descendant of Nimaquiche, call- 
ed Ttam Umatn, reiimed m Utadan, the 
t of die Quichaa, or primitiva 

infaabilanli of die- countiy* Tfneiy were 
subdued by Pedro de Alvarado, acting 
under a commis^n from Cortez. He 
set out from Merico on this expedition 
m 1523) vridft an army of 300 Spaniard^ 
commanded by Pedro de Poitocarrero 
and Hernando de Chaves, with a large 
body of amdliary Indians from Mexico, 
Chojula and Tlascala. Many desperate 
and aanguinaiy battles were fouffht oelbra 
the invaders could effect the subjugation 
ef the country. Most of these confflcti 
occurred in the districts of Suehihepeque 
and Quezaltenango, where numerous tra* 
ditions and local memorials of diese evente 
still remain among the aborigines. Six 
desperate batdes took place near the river 
Zamala, which dius acquired, in the vi- 
cini^ <^ die fields of carnage, the name 
ef Xiquigdy or Rioer of mood. A long 
course of warfiure ensued before Alvarado 
could break the snirit of the Quiches^ 
After the death or their king, Tecum 
Umam, who fell in batde at the head of 
his subjects, they had recourse to a strata^ 
^m as bold as it was grand in concep- 
tion. Their chief city, Utatlan, abounded 
in palaces and other smnptuous edifices, 
bein^ hardly siurpassed in splendor by 
Mexico and Cusco. It was encompassed 
by a lofty wall, and vnis capable of being 
entered only at two points ; on one side by 
a causeway, and on the other by a fiight 
of steps. Within, the buildings stMMl 
high and compact In the hope of exter- 
minating their enemies, the Quiches inn 
vited tbe Spaniards into their capital, pre* 
tending a vriUingness to submit After 
theff entrance, the Quiches set fire to die 
city, and, if the Indians of another tribe 
had not been fiilse to their countrymen, 
and betrayed the secret, Alvarado and his 
foUowere would have perished. Having 
escaped this danger, the Spaniards pursu- 
ed their victorious course until all oppod'* 
tion was crushed, and, in l«'SSi4, laid the 
foundations of the city of Guatimala. Af- 
ter the subjugation of the Qmches, the 
remaining trills were subdued with com* 
parative meilrty, and the dominion of the 
conquerors was permanendy established* 
The government of this country, as consti- 
tuted by Spain, was subject to the Mexican x 
but the dependence was for fitnn being 
close. It was denominated the Amgefom 
of Guatimala, and governed by a captain- 
general Owing to the secluded position 
of the peo^e, and their peculiar oecuna« 
tions and spirit, they were almost the last 
among the Spanish colonies on the conti** 
nent to embrace the cause of indepen 
denoe. While an obstmate straggle was 

Digitized by 




going OD atound them, they xenmlned fiir 
a long time in perfect tnmquillity. At 
length, in September, 1821, they declared 
their independence of Spain; and al- 
though, for a lime, ItiniMde obtained the 
control of a larae part of the country, yet, 
on his downfaU, they reciured to their 
original purpose of forming a separate re- 
public A constituent congress was con- 
voked, which completed the organiza- 
tion of the general govemment, Nov. 22, 
1824, by the adoption of a federal consti- 
tution analogous to that of the U. States. 
Under the consdtudcm, Manuel Jose Aroe 
was elected first president of the republic 
Various differences, however, of a polit- 
ical nature, have prevented his adminia- 
tration from beiu|; a tranquil or happy 
one. Violent Actions have plunged the 
countfy into a civil war, which has con- 
tinued since the beginning of 1827. It 
was commenced by me inhabitants of the 
state of Salvador, who, on account of 
some jealousy of the people of Guatimala, 
proceeded from one degree of (^position 
to another, until they actually levied troops, 
and marched into the territory of the 
Guatimaltecans. They were beaten by 
the troops of the ffeneral government un- 
der the cooamand of Aroe, and driven 
back into Salvador ; but still the war has 
been protracted with various success. 
Besides tliis, disturbances of a serious 
character have existed in othera of the 
states ; all tending to show that the people 
are far from bein^ well fitted for the deli- 
cate task of sel^^govemment The gov- 
ernment consists of a president, a senate, 
and a chamber of representatives. The 
Catholic is the established religion^ No 
other is tolerated. Slavery is abolished. 
The commercial regulations are on a 
much more liberal footing than in the oth- 
er new republics. Foreigners have the 
same rights with the datives. Englishmen 
and adventurers from the U. States wan- 
der over this rich republic, and cany on 
a lucrative commerce with the natives, the 
treasures which the country ofiers in gold 
and ffilver being in the hands of the labor- 
ing class. The fiag of the United Prov- 
iiices of Central America consists of three 
stripes of different colors, vrith three vol- 
canoes (signifying the three principal prov- 
Inces^-^uatimala, Nicaragua and Coma-, 
yagua), under a rainbow, with the inscrip- 
tion, " God, concord, liberty." The prin- 
cipal town, Guatimala, and the province 
ofthe same name, are so called nom the 
Indian word guanhUmali (rotten woodl 
the Indian term for Campeachy wooo. 
Cortes founded the towns of Guatimala 

and San Salvador. No cdony cost Spain 
less blood than the vice-kingdom of Gua- 
timala ; but no other had so noble a gov- 
ernor as Las Casas. The soil is vdcanic, 
and luzuiiandy fcnrtile. A large ouanti^ 
of indigo is annually exported. Tne lake 
of Nicaragua, 121 miles in length and 41 
in breadth, may become highly important 
in a commercial respect, as the navigable 
river S. Juan unites it to the Atlantic ocean, 
and a canal has been TOx>poeed for connect- 
ing the Atlantic and JPacific oceans, to re- 
ceive its water fi^om this lake There are 
several volcanoes on its shores. The ab- 
original population of the country has very 
much decreased. The ruins of Huebu- 
etlapallan (q. v.) are remaikable. The 
converted Indians are called Ladihos ; the 
others, BarbaroSj or Bravos, Two pieces 
of land (Tagurgahm and Tolagalpal be- 
longing to the United Provinces, have 
never been subjected by the Euiopeau 
settlers, or their descendants, and are 
inhabited by the independent Moseoe, or 
Mosquitos, and other tribes. That part of 
the coast called the MosquUo eotuty and 
extending to cape Gracias-a-Dios,the con- 
gress at Colomoia, in 1824, declared te 
belong to the tenitorv of Colombia. A 
part of that coast called Poyais (q. v.), 
containing a town of the same name, was 
erected into a separate state by the Scotch 
adventurer, Mac Gregor. — Central Ameri- 
ca contains antiquities of a veiy interesting 
nature, which have been but imperfecdy 
examined and described hitherto, and 
which indicate that the aboriginal inhabit- 
ants ofthe country had even attained a very 
respectable proficiencv in the knowledge 
of the arts of lifo. Near the village of 
Palenoue are the ruins of what was once a 
city or several leagues in circumference. 
Remains of temples, altan, and omamen- 
til stones, statues of deities, and other 
works of sculpture, are permanent jiroofi 
ofits former importance. Like remams are 
found near Ocosingo, in the same part of 
Central America. A circus, and several 
stone pyramids, in the valley of Copan, in 
Honduras, are better known than the ruins 
of Palenque and Ocosingo. Vestiges of 
the city of Utatlan, before mentioned, of 
Patinamit and Mixco, and of maiw for- 
tresses and casdes in the province of Que- 
zaltenango, are mentioned by Juarros and 
other aumors. — ^This countiy h^ attracted 
attention incidentally of late, owing to its 
geogra]^cal position, and the hope enter- 
tained by many of seeing a canal cut 
across the isthmus in some p^n of Central 
America, so as to unite the- Pacific aad 
Atlantic oceans by a navigable chamveL 

Digitized by 




h has been weXk deecribed by a native, 
Domingo Juanodi whose account has been 
tansJated into English by Mr. Baily — 
Statiaricai and Commercial Histoiy of 
GtatiiiiabL (See also don Francia de 
FiKfiie% HUtory of GvatUtuda, before and 
qfttT the SJMmdik UonauesL) 

CsKTRAi. Fire. Many natural philoso- 
piheia have supposed a peipetual fire to 
esisK in the centre of the earth, which 
they call central fire. In ancient times, 
itdcanoes and other similar phenomena 
were explained by it At a later period, 
wiien it was underetood that such a fire 
in the interior of the earth was impossible, 
the pliiaae was used to express the interior 
wannth of the earth. To this central 
wannth Mairan ascribes a great part of 
the wannth on the sur&ce of the earth. 
To a certain depth, there appears to be a 
€xed tempeiature in the mterior of the 
earth, which probably arises from the 
penettating heat of the sun. At least ex- 
poiments show that in hot climates the 
mterior of the earth is warmer than in 
cold ones. In Siberia, for instance, some 
WQikmen, having penetrated 60 feet in 
digpng a well, found the earth frozen 
even at that depth. Interesting infbnna- 
tion on this subject may be found in Biot's 
mi^nmomie Phusique (2d ed., Paris, 1810), 
IB the 2d ToL i5tn chap. Be la Tempirar 
hndtla Tkrre. 

Qes(tkai» Forces ; those forces by 
the cooperation of which circular motion 
is produced ; that is, the centripetal and 
ceotriiugal fiiroes. Many natunu philoso- 
pfaeis deny the existence of the latter, and 
aeaert it to be a mere mathematical idea. 
Tb^ say, a body, once put in motion, 
eonxinues its motion in the same direction, 
and with the same velocity, without the 
interposition of a new power, on account 
of its tncHio. Now the heavenly bodies 
were impelled, in the beginning, by the 
Creator, lyith an almiffhty power, and 
would be obliged, b^ £eir inertia^ to go 
on eternally in one direction, and with the 
anne veloci^, if they were not attracted, 
m all points of their motion, towards a 
point oat of this direction, by which a cir- 
cular motion is produced. Of the first 
moving force, there is now no lon^r any 
queadon. That power by which the 
heavenly bodies are drawn towards points 
out of their rectilinear path, is called the 
eadnpetal force. This power would put 
the heavoiiy body in motion if it were c[t 
rest; as it finds it already in motion, it 
chan^ its direction at eveiy point ^ The 
caae la cnnte different with the centrUvgal 

force. Thifl appears to be merely the i!e- 
▼OL in. 4 

auk of the meriia of the body, or rather 
of the motion which, having been once 
given to tlie body, is continuM by means 
of this inertia. (See Cireular Motion.) 

Cehtilai. MoTioif. (See Circular jMb- 

Cejitrs, Le (French; ngnifyinff the 
centre). In the French chamber of depu- 
ties, the seats are ranged in a semicircle in 
fiont of the president, and leave only ft 
narrow passage in tlie centre. The min* 
isters themselves do not sit, as in England, 
among the deputies, but in the front seat, 
on the left side of the centre. In Eng- 
land, the minisdy is the centre of die 
majority, and all who do not vote with it, 
however different their views, unite in the 
opposition. In France, the two chief 
parties, one of which is attached to the 
old, the other to the new system of things, 
are opposed to each other independendy of 
the ministers, and thus enable the ministiy 
to maintain itself, as has been the case till 
very lately, without belonging decidedly 
to either party. The ministry bestows 
many offices on the condition that the 
officers shall always vote with it In the 
French chamber of deputies, the adherents 
of the ministiy chiefly sit near tlieir lead- 
ers, on the seats in the centre (le centre). 
Here are to be found, therefore, the pre- 
fects, state-attorneys, and other officers of 
the government, who, for the sake of 
office, support all the propositions of the 
ministers. They are joined by those who, 
like the Doctrinaires (q. v.), under the 
ministry of Decazes, keep the centre, in- 
dependently of the two chief parties, and 
support the ministers fiom conviction. 
(During the ministiy of Vill^le, tne DoC' 
trinairts went over almost wholly to the 
side of the opposition.) But private opin- 
ion, and die circumstances by which it is 
influenced, often operate so powerfiiUy, 
that parties even appear in the centre, it 
is itself divided into a right and left side. 
The members of tlie late ministry, pre- 
ceding that of prince Folignac, belonged 
chiefly to the moderate party. — ^In Eng- 
land, the members of the pariiament aim 
sit on diflTerent sides, according to their 
party. — In the U. States of North Amer- 
ica, the seats are decided by lot, in botli 
houses, and thus the membeis of all par- 
ties are distributed all over the house. 

Centrifuoal Force, in astronomy, is 
the force by reason of which the heavenlr 
bodies, in tneir revolutions, tend to fly on 
from the centre. The circular motion 
is said to be caused bv the perpetual 
conflict of the centrifiigal and centripetal 

Digitized by 




CxmraLivBTAL FoKcx. (See CerOnd 

CsirriniiKS or Maodeburq. The first 
comprehensiYe woik of the Proteetants 
on the faistoiy of the Christian church 
was 80 called, because it was divided into 
centuries, eadi volume containing a hun- 
dred yeaiB, and was first written at Mag- 
deburg. Matthias Fladus (q. y.) form^ 
die plan of it in 1552, in oxtler to prove 
the agr^ment of the Lutheran doctrine 
with that of the primitive Christians, and 
the difference between the latter and that 
of the Catholics. Joh. Wigand, Matth. 
Judex, Basilius Faber, Andreas Corvinus, 
and Thomas Holzfauter, were, after Fla- 
cius, the chief writers and editors. Some 
Lutheran princes and nobles patronised 
it, and many learned men assisted in the 
work, which was drawn, with ffreat care 
and fidelity, fit)m the original sources, 
compiled with sound judgment, and writ- 
ten m Latin. It was continued by the 
eetduriatores (as the editors were called) 
only to 1300. It was published at B^le, 
fix>m 1559 to 1574, m 13 vols. foL, at great 
expense. A good modem edition, by 
Baumgarten and Semler, which reaches, 
however, only to the year 500, appeared 
at Nuremburg, fit>m 1757 to 1765, in 6 
vols. 4to. A good abridgment was pre- 
pared by Lucas Osiander (Tftbingen, 
1592—1604, 9 vols. 4ta), of which the 
Tiibmgen edition, 1607 and 1608 (usually 
in four thick vols. 4to.\, comprehends also 
the jieriod fit>m the l4th to the 16th cen- 
tuiy. The Catholics finding themselves 
attacKed in diis alarmingway, and con- 
fiited by matters of fiict, jBaronius (q. v.) 
wrote his Annals, in opposition to the 

Ceivturt (Latin eenhtria) ; a division 
of 100 men. This kind or diviaon was 
very common with the Romans, and was 
used, in general, to denote a particular 
body, although this might not contain ex- 
acdy 100 men. Thus centiuies, in tibe 
army, were the companies into which the 
Roman legions were divided. This name 
was also jriven to the divisions of the six 
classes of the people, introduced by Ser- 
vius Tullius. The first class contained 
80, to which were added the 18 centuries 
of the knights; the three folio wingclasses 
had each 20 centuries, tlie fiflh 30, and 
the mxth only 1 century. The people 
voted in the public elections by centunes. 
(See Censu9,) 

Cephalonta, or Cefaloitia; the largest 
of the islands in the Ionian sea, west of 
the Morea, at die entrance of tiie golfb di 
PalnuHO^ or gulf of Lepanto, about 40 

miles in length, and from 10 t& 120 in 
breadth ; Ion. 20^ 40^ to 2P W E.; lat 
38^ to dd^' 28^ N. ; equate miles 340, with 
63,200 inhabitant, who own 400 vessels 
of different kinds. The island has 203 
towns and villages, three ports, and excel- 
lent anchoring places ana bays. The cli- 
mate is vraim and delightful, the huidscape 
is adorned with fiowere during the whole 
year, and die trees yield two crops of firuit 
annually. A great part of the soil is de- 
voted to the production of raisins, cuiv 
rants, wine, oil, citrons, melons, pome- 
granates and cotton. The raions are 
preferred to those of any other of the 
Grecian islands, and even to those of the 
Morea. About 2500 tons are produced 
annually. Between 25 and 30,000 casks 
of oil, and 50,000 of wine, 5 or 6,000,000 
pounds of currants, and 100^000 pounds 
of cotton, are likewise obtamed yearly. 
Silks, medicinal herbs, oranges and lemons 
are also raised. The system of agriculmre 
adopted by the great land owners requires 
that a large pro})ortion of the grain and 
meat consumed in the island snould be 
impK)rted firom the Morea. The island is 
subiect to fiequent eardiquakes. Cepha- 
loma belonged to the Venetians until 1797, 
when die rrench took possesaon of it 
Since 1815, it has belonged to the repub- 
lic of the united Ionian islands, (q. v.) (See 
Napier's StaHstkal Account ofjht bUmd 
ofCefaUifrda^ London, 1824'.)— The ancient 
name of the island v^as CephaUemaj from 
the mythok>gical Cephalus, husband of 
Procris. It was tributary to Theb^ the 
Macedonians and the jGtolians, till the 
Romans took it. In the time of Thucydi- 
des, it had four cities ; Same, Prone, Cra 
nil and Pale. Strabo only knew of twa 

Cephalus ; the son of Creusa; accord- 
ing to some, die son of Deioneus, king of 
Pbocis, and of Diomede. He was the 
husband of Procris. Shorth* after his 
marriage, Aurora carried off the beautiflil 
youth while he was hunting on mount 
Hymettus. He refiised the love of the 
goddess, vdio induced him to put the vir- 
tue of his wife to a trial which it could 
not widistand. Procris, in return, tempted 
him likevrise,and he yielded also. Learn* 
ing their mutual weakness, they became 
reconciled. But Procris subsequendy be- 
came jealous of her husband, and con- 
cealed herself in a wood to v^tch him. 
He mistook her, among the leaves, fbr a 
vrild animal, and killed her. On this, he 
vras banished fix>m Greece by the court 
of Areopa^s, or, as some relate, killed 
himself with the same dart which had 
destroyed Procris. 

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C^KAccm >OKfh^ bom «t Romie, ivas 
«n emiiwt ^tatoaiyy wnen tfie revolution 
in lu» Ba4ve eitjr induced him to ^ve up 
the pMfODoe of his art^ and engage in po^- 
lic& In 1799, be waa among the wannest 
paitBBDs of the new lepuMic. On the 
igfflinMiHhinent of the papal authority, he 
WB3 obliged to leave Rome, and went to 
Farisi where he was employed in making 
« faoil of the first oonauL Nevertheless, 
he Joined the young French eitifliB whom 
be hod known at Rome, and whose ar- 
dent repi:dilican opinions coincided with 
bm own, in a conqfiincy asainst Bona- 
parte, in whom he saw only ue oppressor 
of his eoontzy. In October, 1800, ne was 
anested at the opera, with Arena, Dame»- 
viBe and Topmo Lel^tra. Before the tri- 
hunal, be answered only in monosyllables 
to the questions put to him. He was 
sentenced to death, together with his a<v 
oonmlices, and ascendra the scaffold, Feb. 
1801, with great finnness. The death of 
this disciple) and almost rival, of Canova, 
was a great loss to sculpture. 

Ckkberus; a three*headed dog, with 
■Bakes for hair, the ofispring of l^chidna 
by Typhon, the most terrible of the giants 
that attempted to storm heaven. At his 
bai^ bell trembled, and, when he got 
loose finom his hundred chains, even die 
Fufies could not tame him. He watched 
the entrance of Taxtanis, or the regions 
of the dead, and fiiwoed on those who 
entered, but seized and devoured those 
who attempted to return. Hercules only 
sabdued bun. Thus savs the Greek my- 
thology. In the articts Cemdenf, the 
leader will find that it was customaxy, 
aoiong the Egyptians^ after a corpse had 
been soleninly buried, to bid farewell to 
the deceased three times, with a loud 
voice. To express die circumstance that 
the deceased had been honored with the 
rites of burial and the lamentations of 
his fiiendi^ they represented, m the le- 
gend impiuitBd on the mummy, or en- 
giaved cm the tomb, the figure of the 
hofse of the Nile, wluch the Greeks mis- 
took for a dog, and represented it with 
three heads, in order to express the three 
cries or forewells. The Egyptians called 
this hiero^yphic omSy and the Greeks 
eerhety fiwun toe Egyptian ceriber, a word 
that means the ay of the t$tnb. It is nam- 
tal, therefore, to suppose the Egyptian 
Mw the basis of the Greek mySos of 
Ceibenja. (See umo 148 in Lectures on 
the msiquis Spineto, London, 1^, 8vo.) 
CzKRAS^iA {Grom Certs, t!ie goddess of 
the fieUs and of fiuits) signified the pro- 

ductions of agriculture, also the festivals 

Ckrxmontal of Tn Euhopeait Pow- 
ers. One of the many ridiculous usages 
and pompous nullities, of which such a 
number have arisen in Eurc^pe, principally 
ftoia confounding the interests and honor 
of the person of the m<march vrith the 
interests and honor of the nation, is the 
subject of this article ; which has given 
rise to much war and confiision, and 
thrown many obstacles lu the way of 
peace. After the thirty yeais' war, a war 
of wits, of equal length, was earned on 
among the ambassadors, on the subject of 
etiquette. It is evident that no indepen- 
dent state can actually have precedence of 
another ; but, as the weaker seek the [mxh 
tection and firiendship of the more power- 
fid, there arises a {HTKmty of rank. This 
has occasioned the gradual establishment 
of dignities^ rank, and acts of respect to 
states, their nilers and representatives, by 
which means (in contradistinction to the 
internal etiqu^te of a state) an interna* 
tional ceremonial has been rormed, to the 
observance of which fiu* more considera- 
tion is oilen paid than to the fiilfilment 
of the most sacred contracts. Louis XIV 
carried this foUy further, perhaps, than 
any one before or after him. To this in* 
ternational ceremonial belong, 1. Titles of 
rulers. Accident made the imperial and 
regal tides the highest, and thus conforred 
advantages apart firom the yovrex of the 
princes. After Chariemagne, the Roman 
emperors were considered as the sove- 
reigns of Christendom, maintained the 
hi^est rank, and even asserted the de- 
pendence of the kings on themselves. 
For this reason, several kinp, in the 
middle ages, to demonstrate theu- indepen- 
dence, likewise gave their crowns the tide 
of imperiaL England, for example, in all 
its public acts, is still styled the imperial 
crown. The kings of France received 
fiom the Turits and Afiicans the tide 
emperew de Ihmee, In progress of time, 
the kings were less vrilling to concede to 
the imperial tide, of itself, superiority to 
the royaL 2. Acknowledgment of the 
titles and rank of rulers. Formerly, the 
popes and emperors arrogated the right of 
granting these dignities ; but the principle 
was afterwards established, that eveiy 
people could grant to its rulers, at pleasure, 
a ride, the recognition of which rests on 
the pleasure of other powers, and on 
treaties. Some ddes were, therefore, never 
recoj^nised, or not till after the lapse of 
consideraMe time. This was the case 
vrkh the royal dtle joi PntaBi% the impe- 

Digitized by 



rial title of Runa, the new titles of Gor- 
man princes, &c. 3. Marks of respect 
conformable to the rank and titles of 
eovereigna. To the royal prerogatives, so 
called (which, however, were conceded to 
various states which were neither king- 
doms nor empires, such as Venice, the 
Netherlands, Switzerland, the electorates), 
pertained the right of sending ambassa- 
dors of the first class, &c. In connexion 
with this, there is a much contested point, 
viz. that of precedence or priority of rank, 
L e. of the right of assuming the more 
honorable station on any occasion, either 
personally, at meeting of the princes 
themselves, or of their ambassadors, at 
fbnnal assemblies, &c^ or by writing, as 
in the form and signature of state papeiB. 
There is never a want of grounds for 
flupportinji^ a claim to precedence. As the 
councils, m the middle afes, affiurded the 
most frequent occaaon of such controver- 
sies, the popes often interfered. Of the 
several arrangements of the rank of the 
European powers, which emanated fix>m 
the popes, the principal is the one promul- 
gated m 1504, by Julius II, tlm>ugh his 
master of ceremonies, Paris de Crassis, in 
which the European nations followed 
each other in this order : — 1. the Roman 
emperor (emperor of Germany) ; 2. the 
king of Rome ; 3. the king of 1" ranee ; 4. 
the kmg of Spain ; 5. of Arragon ; 6. of 
Portugal; 7. ofEndand; 8. of Sicily; 9. 
ofScodand; 10. of Hungaiy; 11. of Na- 
varre ; 12. of Cyprus ; 13. of Bohemia ; 
14 of Poland ; 15. of Denmark ; 16. re- 
public of Venice ; 17. duke of Bretajpe ; 
18. duke of Burgundy; 19. elector of Ba- 
varia ; 20. of Saxony ; 21. of Branden- 
burg; 22. archduke of Austria; 23. duke 
of Savoy ; 24. grand-duke of Florence ; 
25. duke of Milui ; 26. duke of Bavaria ; 
27* of Lomdne. This order of rank was 
not, indeed, universally received; but it 
ccmtained a fiuitful germ of future quar- 
rels ; some states, which were benefited 
by the arrangement, insisting upon its 
adoption, and others, from opposite rea- 
sons, refiising to acknowledge it. To sup- 
port their claims for precedence, the can- 
didates sometimes reued on the length of 
time which had elapsed since their &mj- 
lies became independent, or smce the 
introduction of Christianity into their do- 
minions; sometimes on the form of gov- 
ernment, the number of crowns^ the tides, 
achievements, extent of possessions, &C., 
pertaining to each. But no definite rules 
have been established, by which states are 
desiffnated as being of the first, second, 
thun^ foiBthy &C. rank. At the congress 

of Vienna, a discussion took place ro- 
specting the settling of the rmk of the 
European powers, and its inseparable con* 
sequences; and the commission appointed 
fi>r the purpose by the ei|^ powers, who 
signed the peace of Pans, made in their 
scheme a division of the powers into three 
classes. But, as opinions were by no 
means unanimous on the subject, most 
of the plenipotentiaiies voting for three 
classes, Portugal and Spain for two, and 
lord Castlereagh entirely rejecting the 
principle of claaaification, as the source of 
constant difficulties, the question respect- 
ing the rank of the powers was suffered 
to rest, and the ambanadors of the crown- 
ed heads were merely divided into three 
classes. (See Mimgtars^ Ihreign,) Rulers 
of equal dignity, when they make visits, 
concede to each other the precedence at 
home : in other cases, where the prece- 
dence is not eetded, they or their ambas- 
sadors take turns, till a compromise is ef- 
fected in some way^ — Many states claim 
not a precedence, but merely an equality. 
But, if neither can be obtained, there are 
several means of avmding the scandalous 
scenes that formeriy so often occurred. 
The ruler either comes incognito, or sends 
an ambassador of different rank fiom his 
with whom he contests the precedence ; 
or the rulers or their ambassadors do not 
appear on public occasions ; or, if they do, 
it is with a reservation respecting their 
dignity. In treaties between two powers, 
two copies are made, and each is signed 
by only one party; or, if both sign, each 
party receives the copy in which it holds 
the place of honor. According to the 
above-mentioned resolution respecting the 
relative rank of ambassadors, mdch forms 
the 17th affix to the final act of the con- 
gress of Vienna, the order to be observed 
by the ambassadors in signing public pa- 
pers or treaties between powers, in re- 
spect to which the rule of alternate pre- 
cedence exists, shall be determined by lot. 
In En^and and France, far leas ceremo- 
nial is observed, in the official style, tiian 
in Germany,* where forms and titles are 
carried to an absurd extent, and the oere- 

* The following is an instance of the degree of 
felly to which the love of titles has been carried in 
Gennanv. We do not say that it was ofton car- 
ried to tnis extent, but the instance is too cood to be 
omitted. A certain man of the name olSeegeTf in 
the 17th century, had his likeness taken, a^, ac- 
cording to the rashion of the period, was repre- 
sented standing under a cmeifix. FVom his mouth 
proceeded the words I>ofiitn« /»u Cfcriitf^, omat me / 
and from the mouth of the Savior the following an- 
swer : — Ciurisnme, nobilusime aique doctistiwu 
thmine mag, Seeger, rector scholm WUieitbergefuiM 
wmrilitime aique digmtginit,omMmoami>ti' 

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monud ^woido, which extend even to the 
pcoDOUOB by which the princee are des> 
igiiaiedf it is not possible to tranfikte. 
£04161018 and kings mutually style each 
other brother J while thj^ caU pnnces of 
ksB dfisree cousin, llie German em- 
perors formeriy used the tenn thou in ad- 
dressing other princes. The t^e, by which 
raonaicfas style themselves, is used either 
from an assumption of state, or from a 
feehnc of modesty, on the supposition that 
I wmud sound desootical, while we seems 
10 ioehide the whole administrdtion, &c. ; 
but the fint reason is the more prob- 

CsMxa (with tlie Greeks^ Demder^ or 
Dn.) She is particulariy the goddess of 
tbeeardi, or the productive and fruitful 
eazth. She was distinpiished, especially, 
as the inv^ntress of agriculture (hence her 
ainjbiites of blades and ears of com), and 
ako as the founder of civil sodety, who 
fixed the wandezing savages to the soil, 
and thus 6»>ftened their manners, gave them 
the ri^ts of property, the protection of 
kwB (hence ner name Tlieamophoros)^ 
and wUh these a love of country. These 
ideas are suitably expressed in the works 
of ait. She was the daughter of Saturn 
and Rhea, bom near £nna, in Sicily, 
which refers to the fruitfulness of that 
kbnd. By Jupiter, her brother, she was 
iDoiber of Proserpine. When her daugh- 
ter was afterwards carried off by Pluto, 
Ceres resoKed to wander over the whole 
earth, in the human shape, in search of her. 
She lighted her torch at die fires of i£tna, 
and mounted her chariot, drawn W drag- 
cos. But her endeavors were fruitlem. 
Hecate merely informed her that she had 
heard the cries of the mvished maid. She 
anired, at last, at Eleusis, where the hos- 
pitable Celeus received her. When she 
departed from his house, she permitted 
bim to consecrate to h^, in that place, an 
altar and temple, gave to his son Triptol- 
emiis her chariot dravni by dragons, and 
taught bim the cultivation of wheat, that 
he miglit s|niead it over the whole eardi, 
and (fifltribute among men the ^pfls of the 
goddess. At kn^^ the all-seemg eyes of 
the god of day discovered to her the resi- 
dence of her beloved dauchter, and, filled 
with anger, she demandea of Jupiter her 
RsttMmiion from helL Jupiter granted her 
vKtition on condition that Proserpine 
had eaten nothing in Pluto's realma But 
ibe had, in fact, eaten part of a pomegran- 
ate, (ktea, therefore, obtained her request 
only so fiur as this, that her dau^ter was 
allowed to remain half the year m the up- 
per WQiid* After finding Proserpine, she 

revoked the curse which she had pro- 
nounced upon the earth, and restored to 
it life and fertility. Jasion, to whom was 
attributed the introduction of agriculture 
into Crete, was, by her, the father of Plu- 
tuB, the god of riches. Jupiter, inflamed 
vfixh jealousy, slew Jasion with a thun* 
deiboh. All these circumstances refer to 
the invention and extending of agriculture. 
"Ceres has," says Hirt, "in 3ie repre- 
sentations of her, the same lofty stature 
and the same matronly appearance as Ju- 
no ; yet there is somethmg milder in her 
aspect than in that of the queen of the 
gods; her eye is less widely opened, and 
softer, her forehead lower, and, instead of 
the high diadem, her hair is bound with a 
light wreath or a simple band." She has 
in her hand a torch, often a sickle, a bom 
of plenty, or a wreath. Her festivals in 
Rome were called the CerecUian ; in Greece, 
Tkttmophorian and I^eudnian. (See 
Egyptian Jlfytiio2og;y.)— Concerning the 
planet of this name, see Planets, 

Ce&eus, nioHT-BJiOOMiNo. (Sco Cac- 

Cerioo (anciently Cythera), an idand in 
the Mediterranean, separated fit>m the Mo* 
rea l>y a narrow strait, and belonging to the 
Ionian republic of the Seven Iskn<u; Ion* 
23*=" E. ; lat. 36° 28^ N. ; population, 8 or 
10,000 ; sq. m. d5. It is dry and moun- 
tainous, and produces neither com, wine, 
nor oil, sufficient for the inhabitants ; yet 
some of the valleys are feitiV): sheep, 
hares, quails, turtles and falcons «n abun- 
dant It was anciendv sacred to Venu& 

Cerioo or Kupsuli (anciently CMhera\ 
a town on the west coast of the island of 
Cerigo, defended by a castle, situated on a 
flhaip rock, surrounded by the sea, veith a 
small harbor ; Ion. 22° 54' £. ; lat 36^ 
28^ N. ; pop. 1,200. It is the see of a 
Greek bishop. 

Ceri»thus. (See Gnostics and JdtUen- 

CxRiiJM, a rare metal, was discovered 
in 1803, by M. M. Hisinger and BerzeHus, 
in a Swedish mineral, known by the 
name of eerite. Dr. Thomson has since 
found it, to the extent of 34 per cent., in a 
mineral fiiom Greenland, called allanite^ 
The properties of cerium are, in a gr^at 
measure, unknown. It is a brittle, white 
metal, which resists the action of nitric, 
but is dissolved by nitro-muriatic acid. 

Cer^^uozzi, Michael Angelo ; a Roman 
painter of the 17th century, who received 
the surname delle batta^Ue (battle painter), 
and, at a later period, mat ofdeUe honiboC" 
eiatej because, m imitation of Peter Laar, 
he painted ludicrous scenes taken firuni 

Digitized by 




km fife. In the paiaoe Spada, at Rome, 
« a plctuitB vepresenting Masaniello 
maxmg the Lazzaroni, painted by him. 
Ue was bom at Rome, m 1602, and died 
in 1660. 

Certiorari, in law ; a writ, the pur- 
port of which is to remove convictions, 
orders or proceeding before magistrates, 
indictments, and records in civil actions 
he/are judgment, and, under special cir- 
cumstances, after judgment, from inferior 
courts into the courts above, with a view 
that the party may have justice done to 
hhn, or tliat the superior court may see 
whether the justices or court below, be- 
fore which the proceedings have taken 
place previously to the cerHorari beinff 
obtained, have kept within the limits <h 
their jurisdiction. This writ, from the 
moment of its delivery to the judges of the 
court below, or magistrate, suspends their 
power, and any subsequent proceedings 
oy them are void and corcan nonjudice. 
Although the '^vrit of certiorari removes 
the record from the inferior court into the 
court above, yet the court above does not 
take up tlie cause where the proceedings 
stopped, but begins de novo. 

Cerdse, or wlute lead, is an o^de of 
lead, saturated with catbonic acid, and 
Is prepcuned as an article of commerce, bv 
the action of acetic acid on the metal 
Plates of lead, being exposed to the vapors 
arising fix>m boiling vinegar, are oxydized 
by the action of tlM air and the affinity of 
the acid. To obtain it in large quantities, 
pistes of lead, about 3 feet lon^, 6 inches 
broad, and 1 line thick, are rolled up in 
such a manner, that a space of half an 
inch or an inch is lefl between each rolL 
These rolls are fixed, perpendicularly, in 
earthen vessels, which, at the bottom, con- 
tain strong vinegar. The latter, however, 
must not touch the plates ; and, to prevent 
this, some Htde ban are placed over it, in 
the form of a cross. The vessels are then 
covered with plates of lead, and, being 
placed horizontally in tan or horse-dung, 
are exposed to a gentle heat. The vine- 
gar now rises in vapors, which settle on 
the surfaces of Ae lead plates, penetrate 
them, and dissolve a mat portion of the 
metal. In the space of from 3 to 6 weeks, 
the vapors of the acetic acid become satu- 
rated with lead, and change the latter into 
a whitish substance, w^ch, after some 
time, is scraped off the plates, unrolled for 
this puipoee. The plates are then rolled 
up again, and the same process is repeated. 
Cenne is extensively used in the manu- 
Acture of oil paints, and, for this purpose, 
it IN reduced to a fine powder. The 

pounding and bruii^g, however, are ex- 
tremelv mjurious to the health. The dust, 
if swallowed, causes a dangerous disease, 
called the patrder's colic. Mr. Ward, an 
Enf^lishman, invented a machine to guard 
against its permcious effects. Much of the 
ceruse which is sold in the shops is adul- 
terated by a mixture of chalk. 

Cerutti, Giuseppe Antonio Joachimn ; 
bom at Turin, June 13th, 1738, one of the 
last membexs of the order of the Jesuits, 
(previously to its dissolution in 1773}, and 
one of tiheir most eminent professors m the 
coUege at Lyons. His Apology for the 
Jesuits attracted much attention. He had 
already published two discotirses upon the 
means of preventing duels, and on the 
reasons why modem republics have not 
reached the splendor of the ancient The 
last received the prize of the academy of 
Dijon. The Apology for the Jesuits 
gained him the favor of the dauphin. He 
was at Paris when the revolution broke 
out, in 1789. His principles, and, per- 
haps, a desire of revenging tiie humilia- 
tions which he had experienced as a de- 
fender of the Jesuits, made him one of the 
most zealous supporters of the new order 
of things. He was intimately connected 
with Mirabeau, and labored much for him. 
He also pubuslied several pamphlets, 
amonff which was a Mimoire sur la^eces- 
siU dks Contribidions patiotiaues. In 
1791, he was a member of the lefflslative 
assembly. Some time after, he delivered, 
in the church of St Eustache, a funeral 
discourse upon Mirabeau. Exhausted bv 
his zealous exertions, he died Feb. 2, 179i 
The city of Paris called a street afler his 

Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de, one 
of the CTeatest writers of modem times, 
was probably bom at Alcala de Henares, 
in 1d47. His pal^nts removed from this 
place to Madrid, when he was about seven 
years old. Their limited means made it 
desirable that he should fix on some pro- 
fessional study; but he followed his ir- 
resistible inclination to poetry, which 
his master, Juan Lopez, encouraged. 
Elegies, ballads, sonnets, and a pastoral, 
Filmay were the first productions of his 
poetical genius. Poverty compelled him 
to quit his country, at the age of 2^, to 
seek maintenance elsewhere. He %^ent 
to Italy, where he became page to the 
cardinal Guilio Aquaviva, in Rome. In 
1570, he served under the papal com- 
mander, M. A. Colonna, in the war against 
the Tiu-ks and African corsairs, with dis- 
tinguished courage. In the batde of Le- 
panto, he lost his left hand. After this, hn 

Digitized by 




jaioed the troopfl at Na^^ea, in die senriee 
of tbe Speniab king, in 1575^ returning 
«> faia Gountxy, he was taken Yfv the eer* 
' r AznautMann, and sokl in Akiers as a 
He renoained in slaveiy Kir seven 
_ Servitude, fiir fiY>m subduinff hif 
nynd, served to strengthen his Acuities. 
Yineeiiie de los Rios and M. F. Navarrete, 
his chief biographers, relate the bold but 
nnsuocessful phins which he formed to ob- 
tain his freedom ; but, as the only infonna- 
tioa we have of that period of his life is 
fiem his own novel (the Prisoner), of 
which we cannot positively say that it re- 
ktes merely the fiuetsof liis imprisonment, 
we cannot detennine, with great accu* 
n^ his adventures in Biubary. In 
IdBOi, his fiiends and relations at length 
masomed him. At the be j;inning of the 
loflowing year, he arrived m Spain, and 
from this time lived in seclusion, entirely 
devoted to the muses. It was natural to 
expeet something unconmKMi from a man, 
who, with inexhaustible invendon, great 
riehDesB of imagination, keen wit, and a 
happy humor, united a mature, penetrat* 
ing and clear intellect, and great knowl- 
edge of real life, and mankind in generaL 
But it rarely happens, that expectation is 
00 much suipessed as was the case with 
Cervantes. He began his new poetical 
career with the pastoral novel Gudatea 
(1584), in which he celebrates his mistress 
Soon after the publication of this, he mar- 
ried. Bemg thus obliged to look out for 
■ure faiCFStive labor, he employed his 
poetical senius for die stace ; and, in the 
eoone of ten years flimi^ed about thirty 
dramas, amongst 'vdiich his trasedy called 
Aumaneia is particularly vuued. He 
was not so sncoesBful in another kind of 
drama, particulariy &vored by the Span- 
iards, a tangled mixture of intrigues and 
adventnres; and this was, doubuess, tbe 
eauae why he was supplanted by Lope 
de Vega, who was particular^ quaMed 
ibr this kind of ^mpositidn. He, coDa»- 
qoently, gave up the theatre, but, it seems, 
not without regret From 15d4 to 1599, 
be lived retired at Seville, where he held 
a little office. He did not appear again 
as an sudior till after the lapse of ten years, 
when he produced a wortc which has im- 
moitafized his name — Don Owaote. Cer- 
vaafees had in view, by uiis work, to 
reiHin the taste and opinions of his coun- 
ttynen. He wished to ridicule that ad- 
vottarous heroism, with all its evil conse* 
qnmnes, die sooroe of which was the in- 
mnnerable novels on knight-^iTontiy. The 
hegioning of the work was, at first, coldly 
MOttted, but socNi met with the greatest 

^yplause, in Which, at a later period, the 
whole of Europe joined* Cervantes' true 
poetical genius was nowhere so powerful- 
ly displayed as in his Don Quixote, which, 
notwithstanding its prosaic purpose and 
its satirical aim, is fiul of genuine poetry. 
While it struggles against the prevailing 
felse romance of the time, it displays tbe 
most truly romantic spirit The extraor- 
dinaiy good fortune of the work did not 
extend to the author. All his attempts to 
better his condition were unsuccessful, 
and he lived retired, with his genius and 
his poverty, and a modest though proud 
estimation of his merits. After an interval 
of some years, he again appeared before 
the public, in 1613, with Twelve Novels 
(which may be placed by the side of Boc- 
caccio's), and his Journey to Paraaasus— 
an attonpt to imfwove the taste of his na- 
tion. In 1615, he published 8 new dra- 
mas, with intermezzos, which, however, 
were indifferently received. £nvv and 
ill will, in the mean time, assailed him, 
and endeavored to deprive the nej^lected 
author of his literary feme ; for which the 
delay of the continuation of Don Quixote 
afforded the pretext An unknown wri- 
ter published, under the name of Alonzo 
Fernandez de Avellaneda, a continuation 
of this wori^ full of abuse agEiinst Cervantea 
He felt the malice o£ the act painfidly, but 
revenged himself in a noble manner, by 
ponoducing the continuation of his Don 
Quixote (1615), the last of his woiks 
which appeared during his life time ; for 
his novel ParsUes ana Sigiiimumda was 
published afier his death. He found a 
faithful fiiend in the count of Lenos, and 
was thus saved fiY>m the death of But- 
ler; but poverty, his constant companion 
through life, remained true to him till his 
last moments. He died at the age of 68L 
Ainil 23, 1616, m Madrid, where he had 
resided during the last years Of his life. 
He was buried without any cer^nony, and 
not even a common tombstone marics the 
spot where he rests. In addition to his 
cetebrity as an author, he lefl the reputa- 
tion of a man of a firm and noUe charao- 
ter, clear-sighted to his own faults and 
those of others. Many of his works are 
translated ; Don Quixote hito aU the Ian* 
guages of Europe. 

Cesar. (See Cofor.) 

Cesarotti, Melchior; one of tne most 
celebrated of the Italian literati of the 18th 
century ; bom at Padua, in 1730, of a no- 
ble &mily. He devoted himself to the 
belles-lettres, and was soon chosen profes- 
sor of rhetoric in the seminary in which 
he vras educated. He tranabited tl>ras 

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tngedies of Voltaire — S6miramUf La Mori 
de VisoTt and MakameL In 1762, he went 
to Venice, where he translated Oaaian mto 
Italian, find was, in 1768, appointed pro- 
fessor of the Greek and Hebrew langua^^es 
in the university of Padua. Here he pub* 
lished his translation of Demosthenes and of 
Homer, and his course of Greek literature. 
After the establishment of die republican 

S^vemment, in 1797, he was appomted, by 
e existing authorities, to write an Essay 
on Studies. In this, he made suggestions 
for the improvement of education. In 
1807 appeared his poem called Pronea 
(Providence), in praise of his bene&ctor, 
Napoleon. In spite of his advanced age, 
he subsequently occupied himself with an 
edition of all his works, which he had 
commenced in 1800; but his death, in 
1808, prevented the completicm of this 
enterprise. Cesarotti was a man of great 
talents and genius. His prose is animated 
and powernil, but he indulges too much 
in innovations, particularly Gallicisms; 
and cannot, therefore^ compete with such 
writers as Machiavelli, Galileo, &c The 
translatioi^ of Ossian is considered his best 
poetical production, and Altieri praises its 
beautiful versification. A complete edition 
of Cesarotti's works was published by his 
fKend and successor, Giuseppe Baifoieri 
(Pisa, 1805 et seq., 30 vols.). 

Cestus (Gr. tucrii) ; a girdle worn by 
Venus, endowed with the power of excit- 
ing love towards the wearer. The foUow- 
ing is Pope's translation of Homer's de- 
scription of it: — 

In it wu ever^ art and every charm 
To win the wuest, and the coldest warm — 
Fond k>ve. the gentle vow, the gay desire, 
The kind aeceit, the still-reviving fire, 
Pemiasive speech, and more persuasive sighs, 
Silence that spoke, and ekxjuence of eyes. 

ForceUini says, Fingtrnt podcty intexlas 
habere cupidUaies, voTuftaies^ deliciaa, tZ£e- 
ee&Tfltf, sttspiria^ desideruiy riausJocaSf hUm' 
da vetia^ gaudut^jwgia, et hmusmodi^ qtd- 
bus amatorum vtto constaL Ihis beautiful 
fiction has been happily imitated by Tasso, 
in his description or the girdle of Armida. 

Ceto. (See Phorcus,) 

Cettk (lat 43^ 24^ N. ; Ion. y 47' E.) ; 
d town wim 7000 inhabitant, in what was 
formerlv Languedoc^ now in the depart- 
ment of the Herault, upon a peninsula, be- 
tween the Mediterranean and lake Thau, 
into which the great canal of Languedoc 
enters. The port, which is safe, and has 
been very much deepened, is guarded b^ 
the fort »t Pierre and St Louis. Cette is 
place of export for the pro- 
Its commerce 

the ;^ 

llUCtlODP if 

in wooUen, cotton and silk goods, leather, 
wine, salt, oil, verdigris, soda, pilchards, 
tobacco, soap, &c., is considerable. It haa^ 
likewise, some sugar refineries and silk 
manufiictories, and a school for navigation. 
In the neighboring lagoons, 500,0(Xkcwt» 
salt are mode annually. 

Ceuta (ancientiy Septa); a city on the 
Afiican coast of the Mediterranean, in the 
kingdom of Fez, upon a peninsula oppo- 
site Gibraltar, with 7400 mhabitants. It 
is the seat of a bishop. It has a strong 
foit The harbor is bad. The Ponuguese 
possessed themselves of this cit^ in 1415. 
With Portugal, it was included, m 1570, in 
the Spanish monarchy, by Philip II, and 
remained under the Spanish government 
afier the revolution of 1640. In the 
peace of 1668, Ponugal ceded it to Spun. 
Ceuta is one of those Spanish prtndiaSf 
which are used only for conunerce, and 
as places of transportation for exiles or 
crimmals. Lat 35° 48' N. ; Ion. 5° 11' W. 

Ceva, Thomas ; bom at Milan, in 1648. 
Leasing says, that this Italian Jesuit, 
who died in 1737, was as great a mathe- 
matician as poet; and tnuv a poet, not 
merely a rhymer, as appean from his Latin 
poem, the Puer Jesua^ which he consider- 
ed as a comic epopee, rather than as a 
true epic poem. He' published several ex- 
cellent mathematical works ; for instance, 
one on the division of angles, and Opuscula 
Maihematiea (Milan, 1699). He also wrote 
several biographies ; as that of the Italian 
poet Lemene, with judicious remarks upon 

Cevallos, don Pedro ; a Spanish min- 
ister, of an ancient family of Old Castile ; 
bom 1764, at Santander ; studied at Valla- 
dolid ; was a lon^ time secretaiy of legation 
at Lisbon ; mamed a relation of the Prince 
of Peace (see (jodoy); was made minister 
of foreign af&irs, and discharged the du- 
ties of this ofiice with prudence and saga- 
city. But when the schemes of Napol^n 
began to throw the court of Madnd into 
confusion, he took side with the prince of 
Asturias, upon whom all the Spanish pat- 
riots, who desired the independence of 
their countiy, placed their hopes. He fol- 
lowed him to Bayonne, was a wimess of 
the events that happened there, and ac- 
cepted firom Joseph Bonaparte the ofiice 
ofprenUar. Josenb thought, perhaps, that 
a man so generally popiDar would prove 
an important support to his cause. But 
as soon as he arrived at Madrid, he de* 
clared himself against Joseph, and joined 
the Spanish junta; in their service he 
went to London, where he published a 
celebrated work on the afiTairs of Spain in 

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]808» purticiihily on the tFansaddona at 
Bayonne, which contributed not a little to 
excite the general opposidon of Europe to 
Napoleon's administration. During the 
Spanish war of independence, he occupied 
the most important poets, and, on the re- 
turn of Ferdinand Vll, was made first 
minister. Cevallos received permission, 
in acknowledgment of his loyalty, to 
choose a device for his fiunily coat-of- 
arms; upon which Jie selected the motto 
*^PaKt^iC€ ae rtrt <Eque deferuis/* He 
soGO aiier lost the favor of the king, by 
opposing his projected marriage with the 
pRDcess of Porti»al. He was removed 
nom the office ofsecretarv, and sent on 
embasBies to Niq>le8 and Vienna, but was 
recalled in 1830. He has since lived in 

Cevshivbs, or Ssveitnes; a chain of 
mountains in the south of France, consid- 
ered by some a branch of the Alps ; by 
ochen, o€ the Pyrenees. They are con- 
nected with both, and extend also to 
Auveigne. In the highest regions of these 
mountains, hardly anv vegetation is to be 
perceived. The highest summits are the 
Puy de Domej 4960 feet high ; the Cantal, 
5964 feet, and two other elevations, above 
6000 feet hi^. The lower range, which 
is called the CrorigueSy produces almost 
■othing. The central mountains are more 
feitile, and are intersected by pleasant 
valleys. The chesmut woods, the culti- 
vation of siDc, and various sorts of fruit, 
empb^ and support a large population. 
The highest part of the mountains serves 
pincipalfy for pasturing sheep. Several 
kinds of metals are found here. These 
mountains have been distinguished as the 
theatre of a bloody civil war. — Ever since 
the 13th century, religious sects had been 
qiringing up in the Cevennes, which, irri- 
tated by the abuses of the Roman clergy, 
labored to restore the Christian religion to 
ns primitive purity. Traces of them at a 
very eariy period are found in this south- 
em extre m it y of France, under the name 
of the Poor Men oflmmy the Mngenaes^ 
and the Wakktues, The crusades direct- 
ed nfBODBt them by the popjes and the in- 
qiontorial tribunals had, their enemies im- 
agined, the ef^t of annihilating them; 
nk great muhitudes, in feet, still survived ; 
and, when the Protestant religion extended 
iiseif in Sviitzeriand, and particularly in 
Geneva, it would naturallv find adherents, 
m this part of Fnmce, whom all the per- 
secuiionfl, down to die time of Heniy IV, 
were insufficient to extirpate. From that 
timethey were protected by the edict of 
Naates. But, whoi Louis XIV finmed 

the insane resolution of renealinff this act, 
in 1685^ and Ininging all nis subjectB, by 
force or persuasion, within the pale of the 
Catholic church, the quiet of the poor but 
happy people of the Cevennes was broken 
in upon, and a scries of persecutions com- 
menced, hardly distinguishable fiom those 
which the eiuiy Chnstians experienced 
fit)m the Roman government, except that 
now the persecutors themselves were 
Christians. The peace of Ryswick, in 
1697, afforded Louis XiV leisure to pur- 
sue, in earnest, this work of extermination. 
Dragoons were sent out to second the 
preaching of the monks, and the tax-gath- 
erers were instructed to exact a rigmous 
payment of taxes fitnn all who were sus- 
pected of Protestantism. Children were 
torn from their parents to be educated in 
the Catholic fiuth, men who fiequented 
houses of prayer were sent to the galleys, 
women were tiirown into prison, and 
preachers were hanged. These measures, • 
reducing the people to despair, brought on 
combineid resistance and a violent war. 
Prophets arose, and prophetesses, who 
foretold the victory of the countnr people. 
Whoever fell into the hands of^ the ore* 
goons was massacred, and every officer or 
soldier of Louis, who was taken [Hisoner, 
suffered the same fate. The peasants at« 
tacked tiieir tormentors, the tax-collectofB, 
in the night, with no other dress than a 
shirt, to escape detection. (See Comt- 
tarda,) The murder of the abbot Chaila, 
in 1703, who commanded the diragcnadegj 
as the attempts to produce conversion by 
the aid of dragoons were called, was tro 
sig^ial, it appearS) for a most desperate 
contest Tne forces of Louis were incsr 
pable of bringing it to a conclusion, as the 
crags of the mountains ofiered numerous 
places of refuge to the Protestants, and his 
troops were every moment in danger of 
being cut off, or of perishing by hunger 
and cold. The entnusiasts grew more 
feariees every day. Several l^ersarosa 
among them, and Cavalier, at the age or 
20 years (with whom Voltauv became 
personally acmiainted), highly distinguish- 
ed himself. Louis XIV vnis now placed 
in a very critical situation, because the 
war of the Spanish succession made it 
necessarv for him to extend his forces on 
eveiy side, for the nrotection of France; 
and the duke of Marfborouffh and the duke 
of Savoy, l^ promises, and by some small 
assistance, augmiented the name viiiirh 
waa kindled in the south of France. In 
the diocese of Nimes, the fanatics, deter- 
mmed to recompense evil vrith evil, mur- 
dered 84 priests, and bumed 900 cburches" 

Digitized by 



bat, in the mean time, more than 40,000 
of their numbei were broken upon the 
wheel, burned at the stake, or thrown into 
prison. At length, in 1704, after marshal 
Montrevel had exerted all his ability to 
no puipose, Louis recalled his best gen- 
eral, marshal ViUais, fiom the army of 
the Rhine, to give a new direction to the 
perilous state of afiairs in the south of 
France. One of the leaders of the rebels 
had conceiTed the prmect of effecting a 
union with the duke of Savoy in Daupli^ 
ny. The whole countxy, from the sea« 
shore to the hiffhest mountain-rid^, was 
more or less in 2ieir hands, and with the 
inhabitants of Nimes, Montpellier, Or- 
anges, Uzes^ &c, agreements were made, 
which secured tliem arms, bread, and oth- 
er necessaries. They melted down a vast 
number of bells to make cannon, and Cav- 
alier acted like an able general. The Cath* 
olic peasantry no longer dared to cultivate 
their fields, or to cany provisions into the 
cities. Such was the state of things when 
Villare arrived at Beaucaire, April 20, 1704, 
and at Nimes the 2l8L He began with 
instituting the necessary inquiries in 
regard to the cause of the rebellion, the 
character of the people, and their mode of 
thinking. Then he proclaimed a general 
amnesty for all who would lay down their 
IBJMB, and fbrthwitb fibermted every pri»> 
oner who promised to return to his allegi- 
ance. By this mode of proceeding, he 
induced several bodies of the insurgents to 
lay dovirn their arms; while, on the other 
hand, he threatened the obstinate with the 
severest punishment ; and, to enforce his 
menaces, troops were sent out in every ^ 
direction firom a given point, where a body 
of forces was stationed to afford them 
assistance, and, if necessary, to meet the 
combined forces of the insurgents in the 
field. Every prisoner, taken in arms, was 
direcdy put to death, or hanged and bro- 
ken on tne wheel, in Alais, Nimes, or Sl 
Hippolyte. Such was the success of Vil- 
TaiB, that, on May 10, Cavalier regarded 
the cause of the Camiaards as desperate, 
and made proposals for a treaty, which 
was concluded on condition that he should 
surrender himself vrith his followers, but 
be permitted to leave the country with 
thein. Villars had a personal interview 
with him in Nimes : the whole troop con- 
sisted of 1600 meD,and, not far fit>m Nimes, 
they were entertained by ViUars vrith the 
greatest hospitality. The memoirs of Vil- 
brs'say therr nurnber was 1600: Voltaire 
speaks only of 800. On the 22d, the treaty 
was confirmed in Paris, and, at the same 
time, Cavalier was mads colonel, with a 

pension of IdOO fivics, and peimianon t» 
appoint the officers of tiie reeiment which 
he was to raise. It was me design of 
Louis, probably by Ae advice of villars, 
in this vtray to prevent a company of brave 
soldiers from leaving the country, at the 
same time that he guarded against injury 
from them. Vilkus now gave ordere 
that every gibbet and every scaffold should 
be torn dov^n ; but, just as he seemed to 
have completed his task, things took an- 
other turn. Cavalier had gone to Anglade, 
a neighboring place, to orgaruze his re^- 
ment, when me peasants, instij^ted by his 
lieutenant, and animated by their prophets^ 
became again disorderly, and, vrithout lis- 
tening to Cavalier, who had hurried back, 
plun^ into the adjacent ftxests. They 
would not hearken to his persuafflons, nor 
to the commands of ViUars, and obstinate- 
ly declared that the king must restore the 
edict of Nantes ; otherwise they had no 
security. At length, however, Villare 
succeeded, by his personal influence, and 
by cutting ofir their provisions, in bringing 
them to submission. They all entered the 
service of Piedmont, and marched under 
Cavalier to Catalonia, where the whole 
regiment was destroyed in the battle of 
Ahnanza, in which Cavalier himself was 
severely wounded. Meanwhile, the civi} 
war in France did not end with their 
departure. There were still factions, of 
which tlie one headed hy a certain Roland 
was the most distin|tti8hed. But Villars, 
who confided more m kindness and man- 
agement than in his strength, sought 
to gain poflsesfflon of their chiefe only by 
the former qualities. He succeeded, indeed, 
in capturing Roland, who was in love 
with a girl of the country, and the mnsket 
of a dragoon spared him the tortures of 
a public execution. Others surrendered 
themselves, trusting to the marshal's word, 
and the billets de aureti en blanche which 
he gave them, securing them and their 
fiiends from persecution, whether political 
or reli^ous. Thus, by the end of Decem- 
ber, Villare bad happily accomplished his 
difficult enterprise, and there v?ere only a 
few remnants of the party, wandering hi 
&e highest regions of tne moimtains. But, 
the next year, marehal Berwick, after their 
audacious project to seize him at Nimes 
had miscarried, totally suppressed them. 
dOO were executed, and many fled to for- 
M^ hmds. From that time, a war of 
opmions has prevailed, to a greater or less 
degree, in the south of France, and, lately, 
since the restoration, has led to dreadful 
outrages in Nimes and other places. (See 
Sugnenokf and Drance in 1819.) 

Digitized by 



CETI.ON (SeflSon); an island in the In- 
dian ocean, containing 19,469 square miles, 
it J8 sepanied from the south-eastern ex« 
tremily of the Coromaudel coast bv the 
shallow strait of Manaar, but united to it 
by Adamls bridge-— a remaikable chain of 
sand-banks. Ceylon lies between the par- 
aUeb of 5^ 5(y and 9° 5(y N. lat^ and 
between 79° JWX and 8r SC E. Ion, For 
the fiiat oeitun infi>nnation relating to this 
island, which is considered as the cradle 
of the religion of Buddha, we are indebted 
to the Poituguese Almeyda, who, in 1505. 
ememl a port of Ceylon by accident, and 
was hospitably received by the natives. 
The Poituguese were induced to establish 
commercial settlements in the island, on 
account of the great quantity of cinnamon 
which it i>roduced ; but their cruelty, their 
avarice, and their ftnatieism, which they 
evinced in suppressing the religion of the 
natives, and endeavoring to convert them 
to Chrudanit^ by violence, made them so 
much abhoired, that the Cingalese, in 1603, 
WMSted the Dutch in drivkig them out of 
the island. By the conquest of the prin- 
cipal Portuguese town, Colombo, the 
Dutch succeeded, in 1656, in expelling the 
pQitugueBe. But the gn^tude of the na- 
tives, at their imagined deliveratice, which 
had induced them to cede the most valu- 
able districts to the Dutch, was soon 
changed into hatred. Bloody wars ensu- 
ed, in which the Europeans were the vic- 
tois, and forced tbein opponents to seek 
refuge in the interior of the island, where 
they remained independent After Hol- 
land had been erected into the Batavian 
repuhlic by the French, in 1795, the Eng- 
hAk took posseeaon of this island, and, at 
the peace of Amiens^ in 1802, it was for^ 
roally ceded to them. In 1815, they sub- 
jected die whole of it by the capture of the 
Cingalese king of Candy, and the conquest 
of bis principal town. The island is sub- 
ject immediately to the crown. The cap- 
ital is Colombo. Its coasts are flat and 
eofotd with rice-fields, interspersed with 
fbrests of cocoa-trees. The interior of the 
country is tr^veised by a chain of steep 
mottnl&iBfl» covered with wood, whicn 
ilirides the island into two almost equal 
parts, and the highest point of which is the 
famous Adam's peak (q. v.), or Hamaleel, 
6680 feet high, on which the Cingalese 
and aH the Hindoos worship the cdossal 
footst^eof Adam, whO) according to their 
be]ie( was apoted there, and, according 
to the religiote of Buddha, is Buddha him- 
a^ llie island seems to consist of prim- 
itive rock. It has many rivers, few of 
wluch, however, am navigaUe, as th^ an, 

ibr the most par^ too dnHow in the dry 
season, and too dangerous in the rainy 
seaacMi. The climate is, on the whole, 
mild and heahhy. Although near the 
equatpr, the heat is more moderate than 
on the continent, on account of the sea- 
breezes. The monsoons give variety to 
the climate. The difference between the 
longest and shortest day is not more than 
15 minutes. The island produces gold, 
silver, lead, tin, iron, quickalver and salt ; 
besides these, about 20 different kinds of 
precious stones, among them the amethyst, 
rock crystal, topaz, garnet, ruby, sapphire, 
hyacinth, turquoise, &C., are brought down 
by the rivers, after heavy showers in the 
rainy season. The rich soU produces nearly 
every plant peculiar to India and the trop* 
ical countries. All the tropical fruits grow 
wild. Rice, tobacco, pepper, sugar, cofiee^ 
pisang, tamarinds, several species of palm, 
the palmvra-tiee, ebony, talipot or talpat- 
trees, with enormous leaves, of which a sin- 
ffle one would co\'er finom 15 to 20 pe^e, 
hemp, die-Btu08, &c., are found here. The 
chief production, the cinnamon-tree, is pe» 
culiar to the island. About 340,000 pounds 
of cinnamon are annually sent to England. 
The best and most prolific cinnamon- 
woods, generally (Med dnnamo7irgarden$y 
are situated on the coasts. The annual 
produce is about AOOfiOd pounds. The 
thick forests, which are but seldom visited 
by men, contain numerous wild beasts-* 
herds of elephants (the hunting of which 
constitutes a fevorite amusement of the 
Cingalese), ferocious wild boars, leopards^ 
monkeys, jackals, &c. The island is also 
rich in tame aninials, poultry, &C., and the 
shores abound in fish. The pearl fishery, 
on the western coast, in the bay of Con* 
datchy, was femaerly very prolific. The 
inhabitants, whose numb^ Colquhoun 
esdmates at 6000 whites and 800,000 na- 
tives, but which, according to others, ex- 
ceeds 2,000,000, are divided (exclusive of 
strangers' settled there) into two principal 
nations, ouite distinct fiom each other, 
namel;^, Weddas (10,000) — a rude people, 
living m the interior of the forests, without 
any social order, who neither attend to 
agriculture, nor the breeding of cattle, but 
depend on the produce of the chase fer 
support—and the Cingalese, who have 
attained a certain degree of civilization, 
practise agriculture, work in iron and gold 
weave cotton, and possess a written la]»> 
guage. They are divided into certain 
castes, like the Hindoos, of which each has 
its separate laws, customs and dress, and 
are of the religion of Buddlia, which la 
distinguished fer its mild spint, and the 

Digitized by 




purity of its doctrine. Bendes these, diere 
nre Hindoos and Moon. The possession 
of the port of Trincomalee is of much 
consequence to the British, it being the 
safest of afl the ports in the East Indies. 
Bishop Heber says of CWlon, that the 
country ^ might be one of the happiest, as 
it is one of the loveliest, spots in the uni- 
verse, if some of the old Dutch laws were 
done away, among which, in my judg- 
ment, the most obnoxious are the monop- 
oly of cinnamon, and the compulsory labor 
of the peasants on the high roads, and 
other species of corvies.^ He mentions 
having heard that the number of Chris- 
tians on the coast, and amongst the Eng- 
lish setdements, does not fall short of hcQf 
a million : very many of these, undoubtedly, 
are merely nominally such. The church 
missionary society has four stations on the 
island. (For many other interesting facts, 
we must refer the reader to bishop Heb^s 
Mtrraiice of a Journey through the Upper 
Provinces qfJfndia,Jroin Calcutta to Bom' 
bay, ]8$24— 1825, wOh JSTotes upon CeyUm, 
2 vols., 8vo. ; London, 1838 ; Philadeiphia, 

Chaban (Francis Louis Ren^ Mou- 
chard), count of; bom Aug. 1757 ; counsel- 
lor of state, under the emperor Napoleon, 
and, in 1813, intendant of finances in 
Hamburg, while this city was under tliQ 
government of marshal Davoust. Chaban 
partook in all the violent measures which 
the officers of the French government 
thou^t themselves authorized to adoiit, 
afler Napoleon had declared the depart- 
ment containing this city hors <U la lot 
(out of the protection of the law\ on ac- 
count of an msurrection which haa broken 
out there. Chaban is known principally 
on account of certain silver pieces, nomi- 
natlv of the value of two marks, but, in 
reahty, of less, and bearing a date of an 
earlier period than that at which they 
were actually made, and called by his 
name, because he ordered them to be coin- 
ed out of the silver of the bank which 
Davoust bad taken by force, shortly before 
the commencement of the siege of Ham- 
burg by the allies. Chaban died in March, 
1814, of an hospital-fever, to which he had 
purposely exposed himself, as he said, on 
account of grief at his disappointments. 
After his death, die requisitions of the 
military governor became still more op" 

Chabanon, a member of the French 
academy, was bom at St Domingo, in 
1730, and died at Paris, July 10, 1792. 
For his deficiency in genius, he made 
amends by diligence. He tnuodated Pin- 

dar and Theocritos, in 1771 et seq. His 
best works belong to a species of criticism 
which is characterized by learning and 
taste, and affords mudi instruction and 
amusement, although never aspiring to a 
lofty elevation. Among these are his 
DUcovn 9ur Pindare et la Poisie huruiue 
(1769), and Ohaervations sur Id Munoue 
(1779 and 1785, 2 vols.; his best woik). 
His tragedies, comedies and academi- 
cal ^logea are sensible, neat, elegant, but 

Chabert, Joseph Bernard, marquis of; 
a distineuished navigator, astronomer and 
geograpner. He was bom at Toulon, 
Feb. 28, 1724, and entered the marine in 
1741. In 17^ he sailed to Acadia (Nova 
Scotia), vrith a French squadron. This 
voyage made him sensible of the imperfec- 
tion of all the charts of America, that haid 
been attempted. Immediately on his re- 
turn to Pans, he commenced tiie smdy of 
astronomv, and first introduced the naval 
ofiicers of France to an acquaintance with 
a science of great importance to their hon- 
or, and often to their safety. In the war 
which continued till 1748, he obtained the 
cross of St. Louis. After peace was con- 
cluded, he presented to the government a 
S Ian for a voyage of obsenration in the 
forth American seas, which was executed 
In 1750. (See the result in his astronom- 
ical and hydrograpliicai. woriE, entitled, 
Voyage surles C6tea de rAaUrique Septen^ 
trionale. 1753, 4to.) In 1758, he was 
chosen a member of the academy, and 
formed the project of a chart of the Med- 
iterranean. • He commenced thie work in 
1764. He was likewise made inspector- 
seueral of the naval depots. While he 
held this ofiice, the celebrated M^hain 
spent several yeaiB, under his direction, in 
reducui^ and arranging a great number of 
observations, which had been made by 
Chabert, as tlie foundation for a new atlas 
of the coasts of the Mediterranean. The 
American war iDtenupted the work, and 
called the brave Chabert to his post, where 
he distinguished himself so highly, that, 
in 1781, ne was made commander of a 
squadron. The revolution drove him to 
Ehigland, and he was received by doctor 
Maskelyne with great kindness. In 1800, 
he lost his sight, in consequence of his 
intense application to study, and, in 1802, 
returned to Paris, where Bonaparte assign- 
ed him a pensioiL In 1804, he was ap- 
pointed a member of the b^rd of longi- 
tude, and, in 1805, he presented to it a 
map of Greece, and a description of the 
coasts of that country. Notwithstanding 
his blindness^ his powerfiil memory ena- 

Digitized by 




Ued hnn 10 make additiotis^ tbe storeB of 
aoentific facts. Lalande praises his accu- 
ney in obsetTatioiis, his patience, his dil- 
igence, and his courage in oyerconung 
e?cnr obstacle, in the highest terms. He 
di^'Dec. % 1605, of a lung fever. 

Csabekt; a Frenchman, who attiracted 
much aneotion in London, in the autumn 
of 1S9, by swallowing seyeral species of 
misoi], and exposing himself to a great 
W in the Argyle rooms, and in various 
oiherplacea, in presence of a large number 
of peisons of respectability. He swal- 
lowed, in a manner which precluded the 
idea of deception, from 10 to 20 grains of 
phosphorus, and a teaspoonful of prussic 
and, before a company including seve- 
nl medical sentlemen. The antidote 
wiiicb he used, he said, was extremely 
smpk, and the newspapers stated that gen- 
demenof the London medical faculty had 
been treating with him few the purchase 
of his secret. Chabert exposed himself to 
the heat of an oven, from which he brought 
a theimometer standing at 380°; his pulse 
WBS thai beating 168 times in a minute. 
He called himself the Jtn king. (For a 
more minute account, we must refer the 
reader to the Lond<Mi papers of tlmt time.) 

Chacabcgo, Battle or ; celebrated in 
the history of modem Chile. In the be- 
ginmng of 1817, the Spaniards were 
wmpletely masters of Chile, having, in 
IBl.l, beaten Carrera, and compelled him, 
ud odierB, his compfettriots, to cross the 
iBoantains for safety. But, on the 12th 
of Felroaiy, 1817, the troops of San Mar- 
tin, commanded by O'Higgins, gained a 
deciare victory over the Spaniards under 
Naroto, at Chacabuco, which, with that 
ofMaypii,fimfht afterwards, gave inde- 
pendence to die country. (See ChUe, 
(fSmniy 3fawini.)---Stevenson's S.^m.j 

Chictaws. (See Chodaws.) 

Charohea ; a place in Bceotia, fiunous 
ftr the battle fought there, 338 B. C, be- 
nreen Philip of Macedon and the confed- 
oxed Greeks. (See Greece and PkUip.) 

Cbapalata ; the western branch of^the 
mouth of the MississipiH, which runs into 
Sl Beroanl's bay. 

Chaoaino, or CHAeoNe ; a town of 
fiinoah, on the west bank of the Irrawad- 
^f opposite to Ava, partly at the foot, and 
pvthr OD the side of a hiU, sometimes the 
«»dence rf the kinff ; Ion. 96° E.; lat 
"l* StK N. It stands very high, being 
°ii3t <m the slope of several hills, the tops 
^ irtiiph are covered vnth numerous 
^fSBx^ roost of them ornamented with 
■pna and gilded roofi, forming a beauti- 

^OL nz. 5 

fill prospect The bouses are of tiitaber, 
with tiled roofk The tovm derives great 
riches from its quarries of beautiful white 
marble, and the manuftcture of idols. 
These are chiefly statues of Boodh or 
Gaudama, the deity of the country, sitting 
cross-lecged on a pedestaL It is likewise 
a mart ror cotton, exported to China. 

Chaillot ; a village which is simated 
behind the Tuileiies, and now included 
viithin the limits of Paria It is orna- 
mented with splendid countiy-seats and 
gardens, afibrdmff delightful prospects of 
Uie Seine and tne surroundmg country. 
On the extremity of the qum BUh, op- 
posite to the celebrated bridge of Jena 
(now the bridge of the mUitaiy school), is 
the unfinished palace of the king of Rome, 
commenced by Napoleon at an enormous 
expense. The nuns of this palace, on 
entering the city from the side of Ver- 
sailles, afford a disagreeable prospect, and 
an unpleasant contrast with the beautiful 
architecture of the military school, imme- 
diately opposite to it The parish church 
is the sepulchre of the brave count Josias 
Rantzau, marshal of France, who vras 
buried here in 1650. The nuns of the 
order of Scdnte Marie de la witaHon had 
a celebrated convent here, where perse- 
cuted grandeur oflen sought an asylum. 
Here died, in 1669, the queen Hemietta 
of France, daughter of kmg Henry IV, 
wife of Charles I king of England, and 
her niece, the princess Louisa, of the Ba- 
varian palatinate, who, vrith the other 
nuns, used to make hay in the neighbor- 
ing fields. 

Chain, in surveying, is a measure con- 
sisting of a certain number of links of 
iron vrire, serving to take the dimensions 
of fields, &c 

Chain. In nautical language, chaim 
are strong links or plates of ux)n, the 
lower ends of which are bolted througk. 
a ship's side to the timbers. They are on 
the outside, and are used to contain the . 
blocks called dead-eyes^ by which the ^ 
shrouds of the masts are extended. — Top , 
chains are those which preserve the lower 
yards fi^om fidling, when, in time of battle, 
the ropes are rendered incapable of service. 

CHAiif-CABLE. (See Cable.) 

Cbain-Tihber ; a timber of larro di- 
mensions, placed in the middle of a build- 
ing, to give it strength. 

Chain-Wales. (See C^uamds.) 

Chaise, F±kb de la. (See Lachmn 
and Ctmdery.) 

Chalcedon (at present, the village Kor 
demki)*, under the Roman dominion, a 
flouiwhing city in Bithynia, on the north 

Digitized by 




w68t point of Aria Minor, opposite Con- 
sbmtinople, and not flur ftom the present 
ScutarL At this place, in the autiunn of 
451, Marcian, the emperor of the EasI, 
held the fixuth genend council, for the 
purpose of destroying the ascendency of 
the Monophysite doctrines (see MonKqthy-^ 
tites)^ obteined, in 449, by the influenoe 
of the Alexandrian patriarch Dioseuros, at 
the (so called) rohher-mfnod at Ephesus ; 
and to establieub a creed of Christian &ith, 
which, equally remote from the Nestorian 
and Monophysite doctrines, should satisfy 
all parties of ordiodox Chrisdans. The 
emoeror's commiasioners took the lead, 
ana after them came die legates of the 
Roman bishop Leo I, who had endeavored 
to establish articles of &ith without the 
aid of a council, but deemed it judicious 
to maintain his influence there, and take 
revenge for the excommunication pro- 
nounced against him by Dioecuroe. Thia 
council, which consisted of 600 bishops, 
mostly of the East, deposed Dioscuros, 
and, after violent debates, adopted into 
thdir articles of faith, at the instigation of 
the Roman legate, the tenor of a missive 
of Leo to Flavian, the fonoer patriarch 
of Constantinople, directed against Euty- 
ches, the founds of Monophysitism, be- 
ndes the confesncms of faith of the gen- 
eral councils of Nice and Constantinople; 
also two q^odal missives of the fonner 
patriarch, Cyril of Alexandria, condemn- 
tDf the Nestorian teneta The articles of 
6ith settled by them declared the mother 
of Jesus the parent of God, and establish- 
ed, in opposition to the Monoi)hyBite8, the 
bdief of two natures in Christ, existing 
without mixture or change, without divi»- 
ion or separation, so that, by the union of 
the two natures in one person a^id sub- 
fltance, their distinction is not destroyed, 
but the characteristics of each are retain- 
ed. Bestdea thia creed, the council pro- 
mulgated 90 canons against the abuses of 
the clergy, of which canons the 28th con*- 
eeded to the patriarch of Constantinople 
equal rights and privileges with the JRo- 
man, to whom it merely gave precedence 
of rank ; and thus the matter remained, 
notwithstanding the remoDstranoea of the 
Roman leeale& Bloody rebellions in Pal- 
estine and Egy^ were the immediate 
consequences of the decrees of the coun- 
cil of Chalcedon against Dioscuros and 
the Monophysites ; and not till after a long 
period or ecclesiastical contesta^ during 
which the Monophysites were entkely 
mperated ^rom the orthodox, and foraied 
a distinct church, did the Chalcedon for- 
mula of faith obtaxB the authority which 

it now has in the Catholic, Gveek, and 

many Protestant churches. 

CskALCKDOSfj ; a minendmdudinj^ sev- 
eral varieties, which have received distinct 
names in the arts. It occurs in small 
veins, or in cavities of other minerals, and 
appears to have been fonned by the filtra- 
tion of silicious matter. — 1. The common 
chalcedony has a cloudy or milky appear- 
ance when held between the eye and the 
light. It is semitransparent, or onb^ trana- 
lucent in various degrees. Though some- 
times nearly white, its more common color 
is ffray, more or less shaded with blue, 
^elu)w, brown, green, &c. The suriace 
IS ofien rough or uneven. Its fiacture is 
usually even, though seldom smooth. It 
is usually contained in amygdaloid, poi^ 
phyry, greenstone or basalt, or in the cav- 
ities of these rocks. It sometimes trav- 
erses them in veina Sometimes it occurs 
in metallic vdns, also in granite and 
■gneiss. Oberstein, in the palatinate of 
me Rhine, is one of the beet locatitiea. 
Fine specimens are found in the islands 
of Faroe. It is fc^'nd, also, in Vicentino 
and Iceland, and in Trevascus mine, in 
Cornwall, in New South Shetland^ in 
Nova Scotia, and in many parts of the U. 
States. It receives a good polish, and is 
much used for ring-stones, seals, &c. — fL 
Another of the principal varieties is car^ 
nelian. The prevailing coIcm* of this vari- 
ety is red ; sometimes it has a tinge of 
yellow or brown, or is nearly white. Its 
colors, or their difterent shades, some- 
times appear in spots or stripes, or gradu- 
ally pass into each other. It is commonly 
semitransparent, sometimes <Mily translu- 
cent. Its geological situation is simikr 
to that of common chalcedony, which it 
often acc<mipanie8. The finest specimens, 
sometimes odled Oriental cameUan^ coTn» 
from Cambay, Surat, &c in India. It is 
obtained, also, fiom Arabia, Siberia, Sar- 
dinia and Surinam. It is found on kke 
Superior near Portage river, m Missouri 
at Herculaneum, &C., in Maaaachusetts at 
Deerfield. It receives a good polish, and is 
much employed for sews^ bracelets, &c. 
The ancients often engiaved on camelian. 
—3. Sardonyx differs from camelian in hs 
color only, which is reddish-yellow, or 
neariy orange, sometimes vrith a tinge of 
brown. It often appears blood-r^ by 
transmitted light It is found in Massa- 
chusetts, at Deerfiekl, in greenstone. 

CHALoaLA., in ancient ^graphv; the 
southerly part of Babyloma, towajtls Ara- 
bia and the Persian gul^ lying west of the 
mouth o€ the Tigris and Ei^mtes^ for- 
merly a fertile countiyi now bama. The 

Digitized by 



diaUhnns won a Semhio tribe, and oee 
ofthemoBtfiunouBDatioiurof Aoa. Thej 
were the fint people who woiked in 
nietak^ and were not destitute of astro- 
Domical knowledge. They founded the 
BabykmiBn and AsByrian empirea Their 
name remained with the priesthood of the 
Babylonians, whose metnbeis were em- 
ployed in the worship of the gods, in 
expounding their acnplures, prophesy- 
ing, the practice of medicine, interpret- 
uig dreams, also in coi^pirationB^ nwgifiv 
aatrolqgy, &c. They kept their knowl- 
ed|e Beciet from tlie people. None of 
their writing? haye been handed down to 
u& It is supposed that the Chakieeans 
were originally called Kephefdana^ and 
lired on the Caucasus, and that they set^ 
ded on the Persian gulf aboitt SOOU G. 
(See BmbyltmiaA 

%rian CkrManSj and ChritHans ^ SL 

Chjllk. (See LmeJ) 

CHAU.S1TOE, to jurors, is an objectioa 
either to the whole panel or array, that is, 
the whole body of juxors returned, or to 
the poUtf that ia^ to the jurors individu- 
ally ; and it is either pertmpUny^ that ia^ 
without assigning any reason, or ^br eaust 
assigned. A peremptory challenge is al- 
fewed to be made only by the party ac- 
cused, and not by the government, or 
ptoaecutinff officer, and only in capind 
cases ; and is said to be perautted on the 
ground that a man is liable to conceive a 
preiudice against another fiom his mere 
looks and appearance, for which he can 
give no reason; and such may be the case 
of the accused ; and it is conceded in &vor 
of life, that, in such case, he may exclude 
the jimur 'without assigning any reason; 
and also on the ground that, by question- 
ing a iuror as to anv obtection to him, his 
prejamce may be thereny excited apunsi 
the prisoner, whO) to save himself from 
the effect of such prejudice, is permitted 
to have him rqeoted. The ground on 
which peremptoiy challenge is allowed, 
supposGB the prisoner's life to be in dan* 
l^er, and he is not entided to it if he pleads 
m bar or abatement ; for the trial or these 
pleas does not decide on his life. He 
must, b^re making such challenge, plead 
'^oot guilty," or some plea, the tnal of 
whkh decides on his hfe. Having plead- 
ed such a plea, the accused might, by the 
common law, peremptorily challenge 35 
iuron; but the statute of Heniy VlII, c, 
Jijfizoited the number to 20, m fdon^, 
and the fimitadon is to this number m 
some of the U. States^ By the aet of 

tongnas of April 30, 1790, a peremptofy 
chafienge of 35 jurors is allowed in trials 
for treason, and /&) in those cases of felony 
mentioned in the statute. A challenge o§ 
the whole panel may be made, beoiuse 
the jury is illegally drawn or summoned, 
whereli^ it is not a legal jury ; and a chal- 
lenge of this description may be made by 
the ffovemment as weU as by the prisoner 
Chall^ige to the polls may be made both 
in civil and criminal suits for cause, as 
that the juror is an alien^ not from the 
proper district, not duly quahfied as a 
freeholder, not of suitable age, &c., or is 
near akin to one of the parties, is Inasedi 
has been guilty of felony, is interested, or 
is subject to any other exception, acccnxib- 
ing to the common principles of proceed- 
inff, or the provisions of any statute on the 
subject In court-martials, a prisoner who 
objects to either of the judges must assign 
his reasonsL In other words, peremptoiy 
ehallenges are not allowed in these courtit 
The pnvilege of challenginff here belongs 
equally to the prisoner and the prosecutor. 
The nght of challen^ng the members of 
a court-martial prevmls on the continent 
ai Euiopey as well as in England and 

CluUUng» to fight a duel is punishable^ 
in EnglaiKl, with fine and imprisonment 
In several of the U. States, this offence is 
subject to the additional punishment of 
ineligibility to any public office, either for 
life or for a limited tenn. (See Dud.) 

CHAZ.0N9. There are two consideiable 
cities of this name in France— Chalons- 
Bur^S&one and Chalons-sur-Mame. The 
latter is the most important Anciently 
it was called Cato/amtusi. It lies on the 
river Mame, and is the capital of the de- 
partment of the Mame. It is 20i miles 
east of Paris; Ion. 4° 2Sif E.; lat 48^ 57' 
N. ; population, 10,784. Before the revo- 
lution, It was the see of a bishop, and 
chief place of the geneiahty of Cham- 
pagne. It has manufectures of coarse 
woollen cloth, is well built, and contains 
a Gothic cathedral ''0 churches, a publio 
lilMvury of 30,000 volumes, a museum, a 
botanic garden, and a cabinet of natural 
history. Attik, the Scourge of God, was 
here defeated by the Romans afler an 
obstinate and sanguinary oontest 

Chalotais, Louis Aen^ de Garadeiio 
de la; attorney-general at the parliament 
of Renne& He yma bom at Rennea, 
March 6, 1701, and died July 1% 1785. 
He w celebrated chieflv for the 1^ 
process against him, wbioh accelerated 
the approach of the French revolutiom 
By the force of his ehiquettce and the ise 

Digitized by 



dependence of his principles, Chalotais 
gained the esteem of the people, and, 
after the 60th year of his age, excited 
^neral attention by the attack which he 
commenced against the Jesuits. The 
French court mid j^ven them permission 
to remain in the kmgdom, but sought to 
weaken their influence. D'Alembert, Du- 
4^1os, Condillac, Mably, Montesquieu and 
Diderot, the friends of Chalotais, strove to 
effect the abolition of the order m France. 
But it was attacked with the greatest vio- 
lence in Chalotais' celebrated work, which 
first appeared in 1761, and has been fi^ 
^uently^ Teprinted — Compies rendus des 
VonshtuHons da Jhwit$; which he fiist 
rrad, in his official capacity, before the 
parliament of Rennea His example 
was folk>wed in the other parliaments, 
and the consequence was a dissolution of 
Che order. Chalotais wds supported, in 
this process, by that liatred which infalli- 
bly attends the abuse of power, and par- 
ticularly by the numerous Jansenists in 
France, who had so long opposed the 
Jesuits. He was aided, aim, by the irres- 
olution of the court, and the envy of the 
other religious orders. In vain did Ca- 
veyrac, who attempt^ at first, to justify 
the repeal of the edict of Nantes, write in 
defence of the Jesuits ; in vain did Me- 
Douc, Griffet, and the ingenious Cerutti, 
of their own party, plead the services 
which they had rendered to the cause of 
God and to the throne of France, and the 
brilliant talents which had been developed 
in their schools. The independent char- 
acter of Chalotais soon gave his enemies 
an opportunity of revenging themselves, 
when a dispute arose between the court 
and the parliament of Rennes, on account 
of the refusal of the latter to register cer- 
tain financial edicts which seemed to in- 
finnge the privileges of the duchy of Bre- 
tagne. Alter serving his country for 36 
years, Chalotais was arrested with his son 
and five counsellors of the parliament, 
who favored his cause, and thrown into 
prison. He suffered this treatment as the 
supposed author of several anonymous 
letters to dne of the ministry, in which 
the style of* a person of the to west class 
w«s imitated. The prisoner in vain pro- 
tested his innocence m several memorials 
(1766 et seq.), seconded by the pen of 
Voltaire and the pnblie voice. The com- 
mission appointed to examine him pub- 
lished their^proceedings, and condemned 
him before tne regular forms of law had 
lieen all eomplied with. Calonne, the 
minister who conducted the process, and 
tfce duke of Aiguilkm, governor, of the 

province, were the personal enemies of 
the prisoner. The parliament of Rennes 
was dissolved, and a new one summoned^ 
which assumed the right of iudging in 
the case of Chalotaia But the process 
had scarcely commenced, when the great- 
est part of the judges refhsed to serve ; 
the rest, 13 in number, were refused by 
the prisoner on account of theirpartiality 
to tlie side of die prosecution. The voice 
of the people at length prevailed. The 
remonstrances of the court, and of the 
duke of Choiseul, determined the king to 
put a stop to the proceedings. The pris- 
oners were banished to Saintes. Chalo- 
tais was requested to resign his office, but 
he refused. The parliament of Rennes 
desired the reinstatement of all its mem- 
bers. New pamphlets, in relation to the 
suit, appeared every day, and 150 distrib- 
utors of them were imprisoned in the 
Bic^tre. The officers of government at 
length grew weaiy of burning the numer- 
ous publications, or, as it was said pub- 
licly, of burning the truth. From this te- 
dious prosecution of the attorney-general, 
a new action arose. The parliament of 
Rennes commenced a process against the 
governor, the duke of^Aiguillon. Louis 
XVI, the succeeding king, set the attorney 
at liberty. After 10 years of persecution, 
he was reinstated in his office at Rennes. 
The whole process against Chalotais was 
characterized by weakness as much as by 
tyranny, and indicated the approaching 
ruin of a despotism which h^ lost its 
eneivy. In lo26, a Jesuit writer in Paris 
assailed the character of Chalotais anew. 
A prosecution was commenced against 
him by the heirs of the accused, and ho 
was brought in guilty. 

Chamade, in military language (gener- 
allv derived fit)m the Italian chiomartf to 
call), is a signal, eitiier by beat of drum or 
sound of trumpet, to obtain a conference, 
when any matter is to be proposed to the 

Chamber. Forcellini defines camera 
an arched roof or ceiling ; Herodotus uses 
the word xafidpa^ to signify a covered wag- 
on ; OttfHed and Notker, two early Ger- 
man writers, use hammer to denote a 
vaulted chamber, the keeper of which, as 
early as the time of king Da^obert, was 
called camtrarius, . The pubhc treasury 
of the princes was called, in the lOih 
century, camera ; and in Grerman, down to 
the present period, those sciences, an ac- 
quamtance with which is essential to the 
proper administration of the different de- 
partments of government, are called cam- 
erai^wissensdiqfUn, Words derived from 

Digitized by 


pffilTCTigR— nHAMttngM- 

die Lalm torn camera are coaimon in 
modem European languagee: thus emmr 
tra in Italian; in French, ehambre; m 
Eogljgfa, chamber; in Gennan, kammer; 
in Bpaniahy camara ; in Swedish, kamar. 
In many languages, duxmber is used to 
deagnaie a branch of government whoee 
members assemble in a common apart- 
ment : thus we have the camera apos^ 
toliea^ in Rome ; camara de fwUdOy in 
S|jain ; dhmbre dea tUpuUa, m France ; 
iammagerichlf in Germany, &c. — C/uan" 
ler tf a canmmy in artillery ; that part of 
the bore of a cannon which receives the 
powder with which it is charged^— C&am^ 
oer of a mortar ; the space where the 
powder lies. — Chamber of a mine; the 
place where the charge of powder is 
lodged that is to be us^ lor blowing up 
the woiks. — Chamber <ifa battery ; a place 
sunk under groimd to hold the powder, 
bumbs, &x^ so as to preserve them from 
rain or moisture. — Chamber of a lock is 
the RMice between the gates of a lock in a 
canal, in which the baige rises and sinks, 
eo as to pass the lock* 

CiuirBSR OF DsFDTiBs. (See CharU 

CiuiiBEii OF Peers. (See CharU 

Chamber, Impbrujl. The imperial 
chamber (in German, Meiehskammerfe- 
riehi) was a court of the German empire, 
established at Wetzlar, near the Rhine. 
It was instituted by the emperor Maximil- 
ian I, in 1495. In 1806, when the Ger- 
man enapire was dissolved, this court, 
of course, expired. The imperial cham- 
ber had concuirent jurisdiction with the 
aulic council (q. v.) at Vienna, and was 
intended, among other things, to adjust 
the disputes between the dSSferent inde- 
pendent membeis of the German empire, 
and also such as arose between them and 
the emperor. The intention of this es- 
tabhahment certainly was good, and its 
^fect, at first, btoeficiaL But the im- 
mense mass of cases which came before 
it, togethor.with the national pedantry of 
the Germans, eventually occasioned the 
protraction of the processes to an int^> 
minable length. By the conditions of the 
peaoe of Westphalia, after the thirw years' 
war, particularly b^ the treaty of Osna- 
burgf m 1648, the unperial chamber was 
composed of a Cathohc judge, 4 presi- 
dents, named by the emperor (2 Cathohc 
and 2 Protestant), and 50 counsellors, 26 
of whom were Catholics, and the rest 
Protestants. After that time, the mem- 
hea of the court were much reduced. 
The 8eiite9ce8 were without appeal, but 

were often powerien, because the diShr- 
ent German prinoes fiequently refimed 
to allow them to be executed in their 
territories. The histoiy of the imperial 
chamber aflbrds another instance of the 
oonectness of Napoleon^ judgment in 
dissolvinff the fabric of the Gennan em- 
|nre, cozm>rmahly to the demands of the 

Chakrerlain ; a couit officer, origin- 
ally employed, as the name indicates^ 
eitner to take charge of the private apart* 
ments of the king, or of the treasury, 
called, in die 10th centuiy, camera^ (8ee 
ChanUfer.) The golden key, which is 
worn by the chamberlains of the Euro- 
pean courts on two small golden buttons 
(as well as the buttons themselves, when 
the key is <nnitted)) indicates, arao, the 
origin of the office. At present, their 
employment (when their office is not 
m^^ly nominal) is to attend on the pei^ 
sons of the pnnces and their ronsorts. 
There is gencaally a chief or hiffh cham^ 
berlain. This officer, in England, is called 
lord great diamberiain of England. His 
office is one of great antiquity and honor^ 
being ranked as the sixth great office of 
the English crown. He dresses and un» 
dresses the king before and after the cor- 
onation. There exists, also, a lord cham- 
berlain of the household, a lord chamber- 
lain of the queen's household, &c In 
fact, there are almost as many chamber- 
lains as chambers.-^CAi»fi6€rZinn of Lofnr 
don is the officer who keeps me city 
money, which ia laid up in a chamber of 
London, in Guildhall He also presides 
over the affidrs of masters and appren- 
tices, makes free of the city, &c. 
• Chamberrt, or Chamreri (anciently 
Cameria, Cameritmi, and Cameriacum)^ 
capital of Savoy, at the conflux of two 
small rivers, near the Isere ; 121 poets £• 
Lyons; Ion. 5° 55^ E.; lat 45« 26^ N.; 
popidation, 11,991 ; houses, 1965. It is a 
bishop's see. It contains a cathedral, 2 
parish churches, 14 convents, 4 hospitals, 
a college, and a public hlkrary. In its vi- 
cinity are excellent baths, much fteauented 
in summer. It is situated in a delightfhl 
valley, and is def^ided by a casde ^aced 
on an emmence. Its suburtw are large 
and elegant ; all the ha'ises have piazzaa 
It has consideraltle manu&ctures and dis- 
tilleries^-— At this place the emperor Sigis- 
mund erected the earldom of Savoy into 
a dukedom, and it was once ihe residence 
of the princes ; but, after the <;ourt was 
removea to Turin, it lost its splendor. 

Chamrers, Ephraim ; a miscellcneooii 
writer, pnd compiler of a popular diction 

Digitized by 




417 of atts and aeienoM. lie wm a ntf 
tive of Milton, in Weatmorelandf and was 
•ducatod at a achoc^ at Kendal, under the 
frther of llie oeiebiatad biahop Watson. 
On leaving achool, he waa iqsprenticed to 
J. Senez, a mathematical inatnmient and 
l^lobe maker in London. Hepe he bc- 
<|uired such a taste for the study of aci*- 
ence, and made so much proficiency in it, 
that he not onh^ foimed the dengn of 
eompihng his nmous Cyclopedia, but 
actually wrote some of the articles for it 
behind his master^ counter. The firet 
edition of this work was published in 
1738, in 2 vols, folio ; and Cnambers was 
soon after chosen F. R. S. Two subse- 
quent editions, in 1738 and 1799, appeared 
weviously to his death, which happened 
May 15, 1740. Several improved editicHis 
of the CyckpcBdia have been published, 
and it has served as the basis of many 
aubsequent worka. (See Reesy Mrakam.) 

Chambbrs. (See Houtes of Legida^ 
iute^ and CharU ConstitutunmdU.) 

Cbamboro ; a castle, paik and villa^ 
with the sunvunding territory, compris- 
ing 5000 acres of forest and 23 farms: 
the vphole ground embraces 11,000 acres. 
It is situatM in the department of Loire- 
and-Cher, near Blois. It was intended 
by the French nation as a present to the 
son of the murdered duke of Beny, the 
young duke of Bordeaux ; but the con- 
duct of the ministry in this affiur did not 
meet with the approbation of the public. 
The splendid castle of Chamboid is sim- 
ated in the middle of a paik, enclosed bj 
walls extending eight leagnea. It coo- 
tains 440 rooms, 13 large staircases, and 
stalls for the reception chT 1200 horses. It 
Was built, in the Gothic style, by Frima- 
tion,'fi>r Frsncis I, and completed under 
Louis XIV. Here Francis I indulged his 
inclination for ^lant^; here the arts 
&st swung to hfe in France ; and here 
king Stanislaus Leczinsky reedded for nine 
years. In 1745, it waa given by Louis XV 
10 marshal Saxe, who med there in 1750. 
The emperor Napoleon ^ve the domaina 
of Chambord to the pnnce of Wagram 
f Beithier), and constituted it the prindpal*- 
tty of Wagram. When the widow of the 
marshal olfered the estate for sale, a com- 
pany waa ^rmed, which bou^t it for 
1,542,000 finnca, and gave it to the duke 
of Bordeaux in the name of the people of 
France, on the day of his baptism, May 
1, 1821. Several lithografdiic prints of 
Chambord, with descripticNis, were pub- 
lished bv Engelmann, Paris, 1832 ; also a 
large lithograph by Isabey, the largest of 
the kind in France. 

CBAimmv ARDSivTE {IVmth ; bnming 
ohanriier) ; fivrmeriy, in Fiance, a cham- 
ber in which state prisoners of high rank 
were tried liy torch-light. The Camber 
was hung with black cfeth. When Fran- 
cis 11, in the 10th centuiy, established a 
court to try the Protestants, who were 
usually condemned to be burnt, the people 
oalled this court, likewise, c^ambre cardenie 
in allu8i<Ni to its sentences. 

CaAMBaE iNT&ouvABLS (fVeiidk ; the 
chamber not to be ibund) ; an appelktion 
that was bestowed, in ridicule, on the 
French chamber of deputies, which met 
after tiie second restoration of Louia 
XVIII, for its coldness and antinuitional- 
kv. This appellation has been preserved. 
The party opposed to the principles of the 
revolution were extravagant in their ex- 
ultation, on account of their triumph ; but 
this reaction lasted only flY)m June 28; 
1815, to Sept. 6, 1816. in the proclama- 
tion dated from Cambray, the kin||^ had 
already sought to quiet the nation m re- 
spect to various apprehensions, whic^ 
may have contributed to tibe events of 
March, 1815. It was conceded that the 
government had, perhaps, been deficient ; 
me ministiy was to acquire more unity 
by means of a president ; the report of 
the intended reestablishment of tithes and 
fbudal rights was declared unfbunded; 
the purchasers of the national domains 
were once more assured of the inviolabil- 
ity of their property ; and a promise was 
made, that all classes of people shoidd be 
eligible to the offices of state, and even 
to those immediately connected with the 
couit. After the second return of the 
king, prince Talleyrand was appointed 
president of the ministerial council. The 
other ministers were Louis, Pasquieiv 
Gouvion St Cyr, Jaucoun, tiie duke of 
Richelieu and Fouch^. The chamber of 
deputies was dissolved, the number of 
deputies increased from 262 to 402, inter* 
mediate bodies of electora established for 
the choice of the membera of the chamber 
of deputiea, and the choice placed whol- 
ly in the hands of the richest pereons of 
each departmenL Before the chamben 
actually convened, the scenes in the soutii 
of Frsnoe, the massacre of the Mamelukes 
at Marseilles, of the Protestants at NisroeiL 
and of marshal Brune at Avignon, ^owed 
^friiat a savage spirit had broken loose. 
In August, the ministiy was again changed. 
The duke of Richelieu became president; 
Decazea took Fouch^^ place; Claikf^ 
duke of Feltre, was made minister of 
war; BaiM-Maibois, Dubouchage and 
Corvetto took the plaoea of Paaquier, 

Digitized by 



Jauoouit and Loon, The 

of the iiMiHBacanBB in the aouth leuiamed 
impunished. A royal ordinance, indeed, 
of Nor. dl, commanded that the murder* 
OS of genenl LajiBrde, and the authois 
of die other atrocitiee at Niamee, ahouM 
be brou^t to tnal ; but of 18 persona ac- 
eused, only two were actually tried. On 
the other hand, Ney atoned with lua life 
for hJB ineoDstancyf altboogh it admitted 
of much extenuation, and notwitbatanding 
tbe capitulatioii of Paria^ which had de- 
chied a aeneral amnea^ lor all pohtical 
dimei. On Oct 7, the seeaion of the 
ciumber of dqputiea waa opened: the 
choice of them had been guided by the 
SBOie spirit which now prerrailed in their 
pnNxedmgB. All the measurea which 
seemed to fiivor a relapae to the old etate 
of thin^B, and wfaieh could aerve aa in* 
stnimeota of revenge and perBecution| 
ireie adopted without diacueaion, and 
eieo demanded. Thia waa the caae widi 
Uw lawB of Nov. 9, 1815, respecting the 
pmufihnient <^ aeditioua prodamatjona ; 
of Dec 20, reapecting tbe reatoration of 
tbe oowv fif^adtofeff ; of Jan. 11, 1816, re- 


who bad never taken an active pait in 
puUJe ttSainf were removed from their 
cnpfeymeniBi en the pretence of thenr en- 
tertaming revohitkiDafy eentimenti ; and 
Cladbe, the niniater of war, acted alto- 
gedier aihitrarily in the new oiganization 
of tbe amy, degnding meritorious offi- 
oen sad promoting odien. The disad- 
rantagHNia peace of Nov. 90, 1815, the 
gieat burden wfaidi the foreign armlea 
imposed oo the peoirie, and the great 
•eudty which prevailed, augmented the 
cUnftction thereby occasioned. IKsturb- 
wtn broke oat at Grenoble, Toulouse 
and L^ooB, wiudi coat aome hundreds of 
miaguided peaaanta their lives, while their 
traeauthon remained undiscovered. The 
^oTCmoMBt became finally aware that 
thef could no longer proceed in this 
eomae without riaking a general erupdon. 
Tbe nunisters VaubiuiG and Bari)^-Mar- 
0018 were supenieded by Lain^ and Dam- 
bray, and the minister Decazes soon 
fmuned a decisive influence, it being 
MccBBBy lor him to possess a nu^rity in 
tbe chamber of deputieB, the chamber 
VMdiamlved, Sept 5, 1816, by an ordin- 
■iKeofthe king, and the deputes, at the 
nme time, reduced to the number of 258. 
Tbe kw of Feb. 5, 1817, subsequently 
cMibfiflhed new ndee for elections, which^ 
£)r a time, seemed to keep the two leading 

paitSea in a kind of equilibrium ; but, aa 
appehensiona were entertained that It 
might enable the eonsdtutiooaliBis to ob- 
tain the superiority, they were compelled 
to yield to their raponenta, by the new 
law of election of 1890. 

C1U11BI.SON {eha$iud€Oj Daud.); a ge- 
nua of reptiles bekmging to the saurian or 
lizard-like order, a native of parts of Asia 
and Africa. The very remancable poww 
which these animals possess of chuiging 
their color, and at pleaaurB producing a 
suooessicm of rich and beauaftdly vaned 
tints over the whole body, at a veiy eeoriy 
period called the attention of obeervers to 
their habits. Aristotle, the great Ghreek 
naturaJist, who never was equalled except 
by Geoi]ge Cuvier, has left a veiy perfect 
description laf the chameleon, in the llth 
chapter of his Sd book on the histoiy 
<^ animals. Various poets and fabulists 
have, at diflfisrent perioda, oontributed to 
ita celebrity, and, by inaccumte or finci- 
fol representations, have rendered it fbr 
more of a prodigy dian nature ever de- 
aigned it to be^— The skin of the chame- 
leon is composed of a sort of small, scaly 
j^niins, and, under ordinary circumstances, 
IS of a greenish-gTay color. The general 
fiMin of the body reminds one of die liz- 
ard, but the trunk is compressed, and the 
beck highly ridged or cutting. The occi- 
put, or posterior part of the head, is ele- 
vated pyramidically ; the eyes are large, 
prqjectmg for outwaids, yet almost entire- 
ty covered over bv the skin, except imme- 
diately opposite the pupil What is still 
more sin^lar, the eyes are capable of 
moving independently of each other, 
taking different directions at the same 
moment. There is no visible external 
ear ; the tongue is fleshy, cytindrical, and 
capable of great elongation ; the teeth ai« 
trilobate. The first ribs unite with the . 
sternum, the succeeding with their coire- 

ridents of the opposite side, enclosing 
abdomen in a perfect circle. Each 
of the feet has five toes, but these are 
separated into two portions (one contain- 
ing two and the other three toes) by the 
skm, which covers them entirely to the 
nails. The tail is long, ronnd and pre- 
henole, or capable of grasping twigs or 
branches, to sustain the animal. The 
lungs of the chameleon are vesicular, and 
so laive that, when inflated to the utmost, 
die whole body becomes almost transpa- 
rent. With the different degrees of infla- 
tion, the surfoee under^poes changes of 
color, owing to the venations prMluced 
in the distribution of the blood, and not. as 
has been flibled, by the animn tuittntf^ 

Digitized by 




ttie color of the body aj)on which it hap* 
pens to be placed It is scarcely possible 
to witness any thing more curious or beau- 
tiful than the rapid transitions from hue 
to hue, exhibited by the chameleon, when 
aroused to motion. The chameleons are all 
exceedingly slow, dull, and almost torpid. 
The only part which they move with ce- 
lerity is their long tongue. This or^^ is 
clothed, at its extremity, with a yiscid, 
gluey mucus, and is darted out for the 
purpose of capturing insects, upon which 
the animal subsists. As they feed but sel- 
dom, and are frecjuently seen inhaling tlie 
air, to inflate their bodies as above-men- 
tioned, ancient observera concluded that 
they fed altogether on air; but closer at- 
tention to their habits has shown that they 
require a diet rather more substandal. 
The specimens oecasi(Hially brought ahve 
to the U. States, rarely survive the first 
winter after their arrival, though they take 
food without much difficulty. Three or 
four species are well known, and are na- 
tives of Afirica and the Molucca islands. 
They pass their lives altogether upon trees, 
feeding upon small insects, for which their 
construction shows them to be perfectly 
adapted. Doubtless new qiecies will be 
added to the catalogue, as the countries 
of which they are natives shall be more 
fully explored. 

CcfAMisso, Adalbert de, a naturalist and 
circumnavigator of the world, bom 1781, 
in Champagne, left France, with his pa- 
rents, during the revolution, and found 4t 
new home at Berlin. He entered the 
Prussian army, afterwards studied, and 
became intimate with many of the first 
German literati. In 181^ he wrote the 
singular tale, called Peter SchUmUdy the 
histoiy of a man who had lost his shadow, 
which is tnmslated into English. Cha- 
misso went as naturalist on the voyage of 
'discoveiy, made at the expense of the 
Russian chancellor count Romanzoff. He 
sailed from Cronstadt in 1815, and returned 
to Berlin in 1818, where he received an 
appointment in the botanical garden. His 
Bemerkungen undAaMiehienj}\ eimar, 1821, 
4to. (Observations and Opinions) during 
the voyage of discovery, occupy the 3d 
volume of the work which contains the ac- 
count of the voyage. Charaisso is also the 
author of some very pretty German poems. 

Chamois {aniilope rvpicaproj Pall.); a 
well-known q>ecie8 of the genus antelope 
(q.v.), found only in high, mountainous ^ 
regions, where they feed, in small flocks 
or families, on the highest olifts affording 
vegetation, which are almost inaccessible 
to man. The chamois are exceedhpigly 

shy, and have veiy acute senses, so that it 
is only by great patience and skill, that the 
hunter can come sufficiently near to shoot 
them. They are so swift, and leap with 
so much vigor, and with such sureness of 
foot, as to render it impossible to overtake 
them in a fair chase. Hence the hunters 
of the Alps, where a few of this species 
are still found, are obliged to encounter 
the greatest perils in pursuit of this favor- 
ite game ; and, owing fjo the occurrence of 
sudden fogs, storms, avalanches, and vari- 
ous accidents, may alvi^ys be regarded as 
placing their lives in great jeopardy. 
Chamois are found unong the mountains 
of the Caucasian range, and among the 
heights of the Himalaya, in greater abun- 
dance than in the Alps and Pyrenees, 
where they are so closely pursued. Their 
flesh is considered a very superior article 
of food ; but whether it is in fact much 
better than that of other animals of the 
antelope or deer kind, may reasonably be 
doubted. The dun of the chamois is 
wrought into a soft, pliable leather, well 
knovim by the name of the animal fiir- 
nishing it. During the winter, the cham- 
ois keeps in tlie caverns and hoUows of the 
rocks. Its voice ii a short, sharp whistling 
or blowing. Two and sometimes three 
young are produced at a binh. — ^The 
chamois is about three feet in length, and 
two feet high ; its head resembles that of 
the domestic goat, but the nostrils are lesB, 
and the upper lip not so prominent It 
has no muzzle nor beard. The horns are 
six or seven inches long, round, almost 
smooth, at flrst straight and perpendicular, 
and suddenly terminatinff in a hook di- 
rected backwards, and sli^^y downwards. 
There are no ktrmerSf* nor cutaneous ap- 
pendages or glands, in fit>nt of the lower 
part of the neck. The skin is clothed 
with two sorts of hair^a very abundant 
and brownish woolly, and a dry and fran- 
gible, silky hair, varying with the sea* 
sons, upon the body exclusively, of a rath- 
er deep-brown in winter, of a brown ftwn 
color in summer, and slightly gray in the 
spring. Both sorts of hair are gray at 
the base throughout the year. The head 
is of a pale-yellow color, excepting a black- 
brown band, which commences near the 
nose, and ends at the base of the horns 
and ears, after surrounding the eyes. The 
tail is black. The inside of the thighs and 
the ears are white. The hoo& are concave 
beneath, and terminate by a projectiiig 

• The larmier is a construction appcMed to tb« 
eyes of various animals of the deer Kind, Jkc, (br 
which there ia no English name. Its use is un« 

Digitized by 




» eepeeiafly on the outaidi& The fe- 
doeeiy resemUes the male, except 
that ahe ie much amaJlen The kids are 
of a deep yellowiah color, having the im- 
der jaw, ooch eidea of the head, and the 
throat, white. There is a black band, 
beginning at the comer of the mouth on 
each cheek, sunoundinjg the eye, and end- 
ing on the forehead, without meeting the 
buid of the other aide ; end of the tail 
black; thighs white; a dorsal line, crossed 
by a tnmarerse one, upon the ahoukiers. 
Chamomiue. (See CktmamUe.) 
Chaxoxile, Roman {anthams nobilia, 
Lin.) ; a peretmial plant, native of Europe, 
and flowering in June or July, Chamo* 
mile fleweis, such as they are found in 
the abopa, are white, desiccated, of a veiy 
aromatic and rather pleasant smell, and of 
a TBiy bitter and waim taste. They con- 
lain an /essential oil, of a fine blue color, 
a gummo^resinous principle, camphor, and 
tannin. Water and alcohol dissolve their 
active principies. The Roman chamomile 
is a moderately energetic stimulant, pos- 
aeenng, on account of its bitterness, some 
tonic properties, which have rendered it a 
popular remedy for a number of diseases. 
At is employed with success to stimu- 
late the digestive fiinctions in dy^»epsia, 
chknosis, gout, in flatulent colics, &c. 
It is also advantageously used in slight 
ktermhtent fevers, and qmsmodic afiec- 
tiena. A strong iniusaon, taken warm, and 
in a huge quantity, provokes vomiting ; in 
eoQsequenoe of which it is used in this 
manner, especially in North America and 
Engtand, in order to assist the action 
of emetiesL It is also administered with 
adrantage as an anthelmindc. The com- 
mon chamomile {mairicaria chamomQla^ 
lin.) is now out of use. (See CamomiU,) 


Cbahoix ; a town of Savoy, in Upper FAu- 
cigmr; 13 miles E. S. £. Chambeiry, 42 
S. £. Geneva; population, 1500. It is 
ahualed in a edebrated vale, which lies N. 
of moitt B^anc, 8. E. of the lake of Gene- 
va; 18 miles long, and li broad. The 
river Arve flows mrough the centre of it 
The seeneiy surrounding the vale is unri- 
valled in bmity and grandeur. It is 9900 
feet above the sea. It is visited by all 
tmveUera in Switzeriand. 

Cbampaoitk; before the revolution, a 
eoomiy of France, boidered E. by Lor- 
raine and Fnnche-Comt£, 8. by Bummdy 
and Nivemois^ W. by the Irie of France 
end Picardy, and N. by Flandera. It 
» djout ld5 mifee in length, and 135 
broad. The kmd is fertile, and produces 
^be edebreted wine called after its name; 

also much gnun and pasturage. Troyes 
was the capital P<^ulatioD, 1,300,000. 
Square miles, 11,880. It now forms the 
whole of the departments of Ardennes, 
Mame, Upper Mame, Aube, and part of 
those of Yonne and Seine-and-Mame. 
(See ChampaigfL) 

Champaons, Pnillp, an eminent painter, 
bom at Brussels, in 1^)2, went to Paris in 
16Sil, where he was afterwards appointed 
painter to the queen Maria de Medicis, 
who save him the direction of the paint* 
ings tor the Luxembow^. He commenc- 
ed the GaUrie des Hommu iUuHres. In 
the suburb St. Jacques he painted six pic- 
tures for the Carmelites. Their church 
contains a crucifix by him, which, though 
painted on a horizontal surface, appears 
to the most practised eye to be perpendic- 
ular. The paintings in the dome of the 
Soriwnne are among his best works. He 
was director of the academjr of fine arts. 
When he began to feel the uiiirmities of 
age, he retired to the Port Royal, where 
his daughter was a nun. She afforded 
him the subject for a beautiful ])ainting. 
She is represented seated, a protract^ 
fever having brought her to the verge of 
death, ^iven up l^ the physicians. She 
is praymg with a sister or the convent, and 
regains her health. The figure of the 
daughter, particularly her head, is of ex- 
traordinary beauty. The museum of Paris 
possesses, besides this painting, six othera 
o£ the same artist, among which are ^ 
B§td*s Supper and a Mater Dolorostu 
Numerous works of his are also to be 
found at Paris, and scattered through 
many towns of France. Champagne was 
very conscientious. He would never paint 
naked figures. He deserves a very nigh 
place amongst the painters of tlie Flemish 
school He died in 1674. 

Chamfaone is a wine which is made 
chiefly in the department of the Mame, in 
the ci'devanl province Champagne, and is 
commonly^ divided into river and mountain 
wines {wns de la rivUre de Mame, and 
vins de la mcntagne de Reims) ; the former 
being, for the most part, white, the latter, 
red. Not all of these wines are sparkling 
or fit>thing, though by the name chant'^ 
pome, is generally understood such wine 
as nas been subjected to an imperfect fer- 
mentation, and contains a quantity of car- 
bonic acid gas, generated during the insen- 
sible fermentation in the bottle, which is 
disengaged on removing the pressure by 
which it was detained m solution. The 
briskest wines are not always the best; 
they BTe,, of course, the mostdefective in 
true vinous quality ; and the small portion 

Digitized by 



«f ^eohdl wliidi they eantttii immediately 
eecapes fixun tlie fifotfa as it riiBefl on the 
muAeoi carrying with it the aituna, and 
leaving the liquor that remains in the giaas 
neailv vapid. For it lias been shown, by 
Humboldt, that, when the fioch is 4X>llected 
under a bell-glass surrounded with ice, the 
alcoho] becomes condensed on the sides 
of the vessel Hence the still or the 
creanun|[ or sBgfatly sparkling Champagne 
wines {tnns er^uMS, or dend'moutseux) are 
more nighly valued by connoisseurs, and 
fetch greater prices than the iiill-frothing 
wines (tins grand mou8$eux). By icing 
these wines before they are used, tibe ten- 
dency to effervesce is in some degree re- 
fMnessed; but, when they are kept cool, 
this precaution is imnecessary. In general, 
it may be observed that the vin^ards on 
the banks of the Mame supply the choicest 
wines, and that the qualiQr degenerates in 
proportion as they recede from the river. 
Among the white vnnes of Champagne, 
the first rank is generally assigned to those 
of Siliery, the produce of the vineyards of 
Verzenay, SfaiUi, Raumont, &c. Of the 
Reims mountain wines, those of Verzi, 
Verzenay, Mailli, Bouzy and St. Basle, are 
most esteemed ; but the Clos St Thieny 
fumishes perhaps the finest red Cham- 
pagne. The name Jolly champagfUy un- 
der which, at present, a laive quantity of 
the best champagne is sold in the U. 
States, does not onginate fit>m a plac^ in 
Champagne, but mm the owner of ext^*> 
flive vineyards in that province, who C^ 
ports much champagne to the U. Statea 
The soil of the principal vineyards 
throughout Champagne is composed of 
a loose marl, resting on chalk, and some* 
dmes mixed with flints. For the manu- 
fiicture of the white Champagne wines, 
black grapes are now generally used. In 
making the red wines, die grapes are trod- 
den before they are introduced into the 
vat Champagne, when well made, and 
placed in cool cellars, will retain its good 

aualities fiom 10 to 20 yeara (For fiir- 
ler information respecting this d^- 
cious liquor, and the art of making it, see 
A. Henderson's HUUny of Anciemi and 
Modem Haines, London, 1^, 1 vol., 4ta). 
^ pHAMPARTr, or Champeett {campipar- 
HtiOf because the parties in champerty 
agree to divide the land, &^ in auesdon)| 
is a baigain with the plaintiff or defendant 
in any suit, to have part of the Iand| debt, 
or other thing sued for, if the party that 
undertakes it prevails therein ; whereupcm 
the champertor is to cany on the party's 
suit at his own expense. It ii a species 
of maintenance, ana punished in the i 
manner. (See MainUnance,) 

Champ Clos. TlHsw«ifl,fiomtheconi 
menoement of modem faisioiy, and Umg 
afterward8,a place authorized by tfie laws 
made by sovereigns for the purpose, and 
consecrated to particular conmls between 
diose who wished to delennine, in that 
maimer, either a lawsuit or dispute cf 
honor. This name was also giv^ to the 
place set apart finr touraaments. 

Champ n'AsiLt; a settlement of French 
BoMien, in the province of Texas, which 
was put down m its inftncy by the gov** 
emment of Mexico, because Spain vras 
nnwilhng to pennit its existence on the 
bordera of that state. In October, 181& 
the colonists were dispersed by a party or 
Spanish troop& General Lallenuuid, vHio 
was banished fitnn France, and resided in 
New Orleans, coUected them again, and 
led most of diem to a cokmy established 
by French emiarants on die Tombigbee, 
in the state of Alabama. The dirtrict 
where they settled, and part of which they 
purchased, while the rest was granted 
them, was called Jlfarmgo, and the capital 
which they built was called jf^^pIsmZfe. 
Aigleville was founded principally under 
the direction of generals Clauzel and Le« 
febvre Desnoueties. In the treaty eonelu* 
ded by the U. States with Spain, m 1819^ 
respectuig the cession of Florida, Texas 
was given up, without reserve, to New 
Spain. At the same time, the repubfic of 
Texas vras finmed, under a prertdent, 
general James Long, who was joined by 
several Frenchmen from the Champ 
d'Asile. The capital was ^/heodod^e9• 
This republic, likewise, was soon dissolv- 
ed, and general Long returned to the U« 
States. Texas, at present, belongs to the 
United Mexican States, forminga part of 
the state of Santander. (See Taau and 
San JRbj^) 

Cbamp^dk-Bataiijle (Jidd of Mtfe), 
in militaiy language, is the ground on 
which an action is fi>ugfat. The com- 
mander who obliges his advenanr to quit 
this ground, and abandon it to him, oh* 
tains the victoiy. 

CHABip^nE-MAas, or pb-Mai {eampu$ 
MotHm'L The campuB MartiuB vras a 
laige fi^d OB the Tiber, in ancient Rome, 
near the modem Ponte MoUe. AAer the 
expulsion of the last king, who was the 
owner, it was consecrated to Man, and 
served the Roman youth for a place of 
military exercise. The people need to 
assemble there for the ekction of magis- 
trate9, and the place was adorned with 
splendid buildings and rows of piHan. At 
a short distance appeared the tomb of Au- 
gustus and the Pantheon, now die MirMt 
rotunda. When the Franks had ccmquer- 

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ad tibe Gttdi^ fe 466» they hMtiwir imblk 
MTf.mhti eB» aeoonliiig to the Gennan cu»> 
•on^mtlieopmatf. In the fifth and soe* 
ceeding eenOizM, these aeaenibtiee were 
calkdi finm tfae time of meethif^ Aktrch- 
idigm In tfae 8th centuiy, they Wflieiruis^ 
fored by Pepin, the fiuh^rof Cfhaiiemagiie^ 
to ifae month cfMi^y and called the Mm^ 
fdd» ; bust the plain where the Fnmkiafa 
kingB annually reviewed the arniy, had 
tfae nme ofiheJM of Many or the cmm* 
ma Mm fi'im. At the May-fields, the king 
waa present wkh the memhen of his 
conrty tfae faiahofM, the nobles, and the 
people. The latter, howeyer, long neg* 
leeted the privilege of attendance^ am 
were at leo^ deprived of it. All quee- 
ckmsielaiing to publio afiain^ such as wai^ 
peaee, the enactment of lawB, were de- 
cided by tfae miyority. Pepn called to« 
cether oily the nobility and the clorgy; 
but GbariemagBe ordered that eveiy count 
dMwld being with him 13 assessorB, or die 
sBBie number of the meet req)ectab]e 
Ben within lus jurisdiction, to represent 
the pei^ile in the general assembly. The 
fint descendants of Capet departed fix>m 
this vemgB ; but Philip IV^ who reioned 
fipora ISBsS to 1314, restored the thiid es- 
tifts, fay calling together delegates finom the 
doea. — ^The modem Cluunp<le-Mars in 
Fbijb is an extennve plain, surrounded by 
ncnefaee, and fiamished with a fi)urlbld 
row of trees on each side of it The 
French guanki and the young men in the 
■kiliiaiy school, used it finr their place of 
aeieiee. Diuinff the revolution, public 
teivala weie celebniled, and mces took 
phoe here. Even Louis XVI and his 
ftfluly took jpait in the preparations made 
here, in 1790, for a great /e<e de ia /(idbio- 
fipM, which was succeetfed by scenes of 
tuiniik and bloodshed. In 1815, Nspoleon 
edected the Cfaamp-de-Man for the scene 
of a geoeml assembly of the French of the 
19th century. He detennined, after his 
return from Elba, to lay before the rei»o- 
sentatiyes of the nation the articles of a 
SBpplein^itaiy coustitatiDn, caUed the j^cfe 
adiktiatmd, which he had cbawn up inthe 
fivm of tfae Fnulosh capitularies, and 
tbis, by an imposing sliow, to estab* 
liih tbe legally of his second acces- 
ekm to the throne. This meeting was 
held June 1« ldl9u Afier a solemn 
mam, Dubois, one of the 500 deputies 
frcMn the ceatml conunittees of the eke* 
tflial eelleges^ reod «n address exprossiye 
oftbe allegiance of the French peo|^ to 
tbe gKnresnment of Napoleon. The high 
chaneeUnr then made known the assent 
of the people to the prt^xMed supfJemfflH 

to theconstitiitieiL Ahhongh no depotfci 
^ipeaied finom 40 of tike departments, the 
hendd announced that the acU was accept- 
ed by the French nation. Accordingly 
Napofeon signed it, and declared, in a 
speech before the assembly, that he enjoy- 
ed his distinction as an emperor, a consul, 
a soldier, in fine, diat he received eveiy 
thing, &cm the people. He then swore to 
observe the fimdamental laws of the em- 
pipe, and to enforce their observance. The 
whole assembly, connsdng of about 20,000 
pereons, repeatsd the oatti. Then a Te 
Jhum was chanted, and Napoleon distrib- 
uted the eagles to the nationid guards, and 
the sea and land forces, who were drawn 
up around him in the foim of squadrons 
and battalions. Inclunve of 37,000 na- 
tional guards, the whole number amount- 
ed to 50,000 men. After this fesdval, 
which partook of a political, religious and 
military character, Napoleon assemUed 
the cliamber of peers, and of the deputies 
of the people. Three weeks after the com- 
mencement of the session, the chamber 
received the abdication of the emperor. 

Champe, John, was bom in Loudon 
county, Virginia, and, in the year 1776^ at 
the age of 24, havmg entered into the rev- 
olutionaiy army, was appointed a ser- 
geant-major in LeelB regiment of cavalry. 
After the discovery of Arnold's treason, 
Washington received firequent intdhgence 
that many American officers, and one 
brigadier, high in his confidence, vrere 
cAcemed in the conspiracy, and, wishm|p 
to ascertain wiiether such vnis the case, or 
the report only an aitifice of the British 
general to -weaken his confidence in his* 
ofiioer^ he desired major Lee to select 
fit)m his legion some bolcl and trusty indi-* 
vidua], who ^ould proceed to the ene- 
my's army in tbe character of a deserter, 
make himself knovm to one of Washinff- 
ton's confidential agents in New Yoik, 
obtain, through his means, evidence of the 
innocence or guilt of tbe suspected officers, 
and transmit the result to minor Lee. He 
was also to seize Amold, and convey him 
alive to the American camp, but by no 
means to kill him, as Waslungton only 
wished him to undergo publio pimishment, 
and hoped that, by his arrest, ne would be 
able to imravel the conspiracy, and save 
the lifo of Andre. Lee fixed upon Champe 
to execute the project, who expressed his 
readiness to encounter any personal dan« 
ger fiv the eause of his countiy, but loadi 
ed the idea of deeertloB. Lee, however, 
finally induced him to undertake the hnz- 
aidous service. Having taken down his 
instructioos in a pecuaar cbsneter, and 

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passed the American lines with gnatdi^ 
nculty, he reached the British galtevs lyii^ 
below Paulus Hook, hotly pursued by his 
comrades as a deserter. After an exami- 
nation by sir Henry Clinton^ he was con- 
signed to the care of geEMaral Arnold, who 
retained him in his former rank. One ob- 
ject of his enterprise— -tlie presenration of 
Andre — ^was defeated by the precipitancy 
of that officer in confessing the nature of 
lus connexion with Amol(^ before prepar- 
ations could be made for the abduction of 
the latter. Champe, however, obtained 
full evidence of tne innocence of the 
American officers, and resolved on making 
a bold attempt to carry off Arnold. But, 
unfortunately, on the very night when the 
design was to have been executed, by 
seizing and gaggmg Arnold in a private 
garden, where he was accustomed to spend 
some time previous to retiring to rest, and 
then conveying him secretly to a boat, 
which Lee had stationed in the Hudson, 
he shifted his quarters in order to superin- 
tend the embarkation of some troops, and 
thus the plot was frustrated. On the 
junction of Arnold with lord Comwallis 
m Vir^nia, Champe found an opportunity 
of escaping to the army of general Greene, 
who provided him with means to return 
to Washington's camp, where he safely 
arrived, to the surprise and joy of his old 
confederates. When Washmgton assum- 
ed the command of the army under pres- 
ident Adams, he caused inquhy to be 
made concerning Champe, desi^iing^o 
reward him by promotion ibr his exem- 
plary conduct ; but he learned, with sorrow, 
that he had recently died in Kentucky. 

Champfort, S^bastien Roch Nicolas, 
was bom in 1741, in a village near Cler- 
mont, in Auvergne, and went, while he 
was young, to Paris. He was then called 
•Ytcoiof, and of his parents knew only his 
mother, for whom he always retained the 
tenderest affection. Doctor Morabin was 
his first patron and instnicter. With beau- 
tiful features, and an active mind, ingen- 
ious, and impatient of netraint, he .entered 
the theatre of life under the name of 
Chanif(forL He wrote several articles for 
the Jovamal Encydop^dique^ and was one 
of the editors of the Vocabtdaire Ftanfoia. 
He presented a number of papers to the 
French and other academies, and wrote 
some comedies, which were received with 
great approbation. His Le Marchand de 
Snufrne m still performed. His hefdth 
soon began to decline, and his income waa 
scarcely sufficient to meet his expenses. 
Chabanon, his most intimate fiiend, who 
eiyoyed a pension of 1200 Uvres^ compel- 

led Cfaainpfbrt to accept at it After lie 
was restored to heahh, he retired to the 
country to labor and to study. He pre- 
pared some of the most important articles 
m the Didi4mnain Dramatique (177^ 3 
vol&l and completed his tragedy MusUmha 
H Zhjuigir. This production procured ibr 
him the oS&ca of secretary to the prince 
of Cond6, which he occuped for a time, 
and then letired to Auteuil. In 1781, he 
was admitted to the Acadtmit Ihrngaise. 
His fine inaugural address was his last 
purely hterarv work. After this, he mar- 
ried, and lived in retirement, till the death 
of his wife, when he became reader to the 
princess Elizabeth, the sister of the king. 
At the beginning of the revolution, Champ<^ 
fort was connected vnth the leading char- 
acter of the two parties which hastened the 
approach of the revolution, the one by 
upholding, the other by attacking, abuses. 
He endeavored in vain to enlighten the 
former party, and, bemg compelled to 
choose between them, he sarriliced his 
interest, and joined the one whose char- 
acter and princkrfes were most asreeable 
to his own. His connexion with Mira- 
beau and others at first absoihed his whole 
attention. He had an important part in 
several of Mirabeau's speeches and wri- 
tings. After a time, Champfort's condi- 
tion was altered, but his principles remain- 
ed the same. He lost his pension and his 
office, and supported himself wholly by 
his own exertions. He was appointed, by 
the minister Roland, librarian in the great 
national hbraiy ; and thus his ntuation was, 
for a short time, improved. But, disgust- 
ed with the horrors of the revolution, he 
expressed himself without reserve, and was 
thrown into prison with Barth^lemy and 
two other officera of the Ubrary. m was 
soon set at liberty ; but his short confine- 
ment had filled mm with such horror, that, 
when he was to be thrown into prison a 
second time^ he attempted to put an end 
to his existence. The care of his firiends, 
and medical aid, saved him for a time ; but 
he died in April, 1794, in consequence of 
his wounds. His writings bear the maiks 
of much study and pure taste. His integ- 
rity, fideUty and disinterestedness cannot 
be disputed. His works were published 
in 1795^ by Ginguen^, in 4 vols., and two 
editions have appeared smce. 

Chabcfion. In the rudest state of soci- 
ety, men revenge their own wrongs urith- 
out restraint One step is made towards 
a better state of things, when the state 
(rude as the beginnings of political sodety 
may be) confines this right within certain 
bounds, and allowB it to he exercised only 

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with certain fermalities. In some coun- 
tries, however, particularly in England, the 
legal recognition of the right of j^vate 
combat (aee CowImU) had this injurious 
effect, that the practice became so settled 
as to be fdlowed to continue, even after 
moie ratiotml ideas had grown up on the 
subject of the administration of justice. 
The oaaAmty after it had become a com- 
mon means of settling disputes, was not 
always waged by the contending parties. 
This was the case, indeed, in appeals of 
feloDv, and if the heir, either from sex or 
age, was incapable oftooj^ng kia boftfe, as 
it was called, the question was left to a 
more mtional mode of settlement But, 
in the writ of right, the last and most sol- 
emn decision respecting real property, the 
tenant was required to produce his cham- 
pion, who threw down nis glove as a chal-* 
leage to the champion of the demandant, 
and the latter, by taking it up, accepted the 
challenge. The laws authorizing judicial 
combat, though ftllen into disuse, continu- 
ed to di^race the English statute-book till 
the begmning of the reign of George IV, 
when, an appeal of muraer having been 
made in the case of Abraham Thornton 
(repotted 1 Barnwell and Alderson), he 
was advised by his counsel to claim his 
right of trial Inr battle. (See J^tpptal^ vol. 1, 
p. dOSi) As the judffes decided that this 
could not be refused hhn, the next heir, 
the brother of the deceased, a lad of Id, 
declined any ftuther proceedings. Even 
the right to the English crovm was, in 
some degree, put in issue, by appeal to 
judicial combat; and the appearance of a 
efaampioD, offering battle to any one who 
painsays the rij^t of the king to the crown, 
H still a part of the ceremonial of an Eng« 
fish eoronation. At the last coronation, a 
qoeadon was long agitated m the court of 
daima, as to the right of a champion to 
appoint a deputy, in case of his personal 
nicapecity, either through age or profes- 
SMO, The eldest son of the official cham- 
pion (Mr. Dymocke, in whose ftunily the 
efaampiofiflhip is heieditaiy, and who was 
hknself in holy orders) was at length al« 
knved to appear as his father^s represent* 
ative- — ^^ When I see," says a German 
writer, *'thc number of fbllies with which 
goveniinRntB have leisure to concern them- 
sehres, I cannot think that nations are very 
fifficuk to be governed." 

CBjLMPi.Anv, Samuel de ; a French naval 
offiear in. flie 17th century, who explored 
the gulf of St; Lawrence, m Nordi Amer- 
ica,6iiDded Quebec and Montreal, in Can- 
ada, aad gave his name to an inland 

voi» ui. 

He was king's lieu- 

tenant, and afterwards governor-general 
of Canada, where he died in 1634. M, de 
Champlain was the author of a curious 
work, entitled Voyages and Travels in 
J^tw IVaneey or Con^ (1632, 4to.). 

Chabiplaiiv ; a lake of the U. States, ly- 
ing between New York and Vermont, ex- 
tending 6x)m Whitehall, in New York, to 
Sl John's, in Lower Canada ; about 130 
miles long, and from 1 to 15 broad, con- 
taining 600 square miles, about two thuds 
of which lie in VennonL It contains up- 
wards of 60 islands, the largest of which 
are North and South Hero, and Motte isl- 
and, and receives the waters of several 
rivers. Otter creek, Onion river, Lamoile 
and Missisque flow into it fiom Vermont ; 
and the Chazy, Saranac, Sable, Bouquet 
and Wood rivers fiom New York. It dis- 
charges its wateri northward into the St 
Lawrence by the Richelieu or SoreUe. 
Two steam-boats ply on this lake, betweeii 
Whitehall and St. John's. The Gripping 
on the lake, in 1629 amounted to 8181 tons, 
belonging chieflv to Burlington. The prin- 
cipal towns on the lake are Burlington, St. 
Alban's, Plattsburg and Whitehall.— Sept. 
11, 1814, commodore Macdonough, com- 
mander of the American fleet, gained a 
complete victory over the British fleet, on 
this lake, in Cumberland bay, which lies 
directly in front of the town of Plattsburg. 

Ckamplam Canal, in the state of New 
York, forms a communication between 
lake Champlain and the navigable waters 
of the river Hudson. It commences at 
Whitehall, at the south end of the lake, 
reaches the Hudson at Fort Edward, is 
continued along the yrest bank of the river, 
and forms a junction with the Erie canal 
at Watervliet, the whole length, including 
about 17 miles of improved natural navi- 
ffation in Wood creek and Hudson river, 
being 64 miles. It is 40 feet wide on the 
surface, 28 at the bottom, and 4 deep. The 
amount of lockage is 84 feet. This canal 
was begun in June, 1818, and completed 
in November, 1822. (See Canaly and Jb- 
land Navigation.) 

Champollion ; two French literati of 
this name, viz : 

ChampoUion (/. F.) ike Yovnger, bom at 
Figeac, 1790, professor of history at Gre- 
noble, studied the Coptic and other Orien- 
tal languages, investigated the inscription 
on the Rosetta stone (q. ▼ ) and sevend 
rolls of papyrus, particularly while he Wus 
at Turin, m 1823 and 1824, and published 
the PantfUan itgypHen — a collection of 
designs taken fiom figures on E^rptian 
monuments, with explanations (Pans, 1824, 
4to.). He next publiahed his Pricis dn 

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lieftf, with en^viogB (Parisi 1834). 
this work, he gives ms discoveries of die 

eonetic alphabet, in which he supposes 
has found a key to the whole system 
of hieroglyphical writing. Hieroglyphics, 
according to his theojy, are partly pho- 
netic (thoee which serve as si^ps far 
sounds), paithr hieratie (those which ex- 
press whole ideas). The two kinds of wri- 
ting, he says, are intemungled in the an- 
cient inscriptions. Champollion's system 
rests on the views of Warburton and 
Young. Th. Ausonioli, in his .^tnalyse de 
la T^lSoric dt M, Champ, U Jeune^ svar le$ 
HUrogl des one. EgwU (Paris, 1824), has 
undertaken to show mat his grounds are 
untenable. In 1825, Champollion deliv- 
ered lectures on his system m Rome. In 
1826, Charles X appointed him to super- 
intend the new department of the ro^al 
museum in Paris (in the Louvre), which 
contains the antiquities of Egypt, brought 
by Dtovetti to Leghorn, and purchased by 
the king, and the monuments of Eastern 
antiquity in general In 1828, M. Cham- 
pollion went with an expedition of learned 
inen to Egypt, at the expense of the king. 
The results of this journey seem to be of 
the highest importance. The 11th letter 
of M. Cliampoilion has reached ua We 
hope to be able to eiye, in the articles 
Egypt and HUro^if^vics, a sunomaiy of 
the oiscoveries of Uus ingenious decipherer 
of the Eg^tian mysteries. 

Ch/xmpoUMfirFigecu:, J, J., the elder 
brother of the preceding, and his instructer, 
was bom at Figeac, in ^ercy, in 1779L 
He was fbraieriy raofessor at GrenoUe, and 
has distinguishea himself by his Lettre sur 
rbtsqripHon du TempU de DeruUrah^ and 
other archiBological essays. HisAnHqmUs 
de GrenohU (Grenoble, 1807, 4to.) is much 
esteemed. niaJhmaUadesLagidts^PaxiBf 
1819, 2 vols.) received the prize of the 
royal academy of inscriptions, and waa 
completed by him in 1820. He has pub- 
fished, also, inquiries into andent chronol- 
ogy. With Motte, the lithognmher, ho 
published La Tourwns du Roi RetU (af- 
ter the original manuscripts and designs 
feund in the royal library), vrith observa- 
tions, and 20 engravings (Paris, 1826y folioi 
Only 200 copies were printed, and eacn 
copv was valued at 130O francs. Cham- 
pollion is a member of the royal institutQ 
of France, and other literary societies. 

Chance is used to signify accident, and 
also probability. The latter is its meaning 
in mathematics. The doctrine of chances 
teaches how to find the probability of a 
given event taking place fiom a^ e^ESOir 

inadon «f the drgt uiistau ces a^cdng it; 
It is called, more propeity, by the Frmeh, 
ctdcid du probabinUs* ft is imp(»tant for 
the calculation of insurance risks, the v^orth 
of life-aonuities, &c. Pascal, Huygens^ 
De Moivre^ Parisot {ThdU du Caicul con- 
Jedvnd, &c, Paris, 1810, 4to.), Lai^ace, 
JLacroix {TVaiti dhnenkdre du Caicul des 
Pro&a6t{i^, Paris, 1816), and odiers, have 
written ably on this subject James Ber* 
nouiUi undertook a work De Arte cwijee^ 
tandij but his death prevented its com- 
pletion. (See ProbabUiiy.) 

Crakce-Medlkt; homicide happening 
either in self-defence, on a sudden qiienel^ 
or in the commissioB of an unlavriul act, 
without any detiberate intentkm of doin§^ 

Chancel is that part of the choir of m. 
church, between the altar or oommuni<m« 
table and the rail that encloses it, where 
the minister is placed at the celebration of 
the communion. 

Chancellor; an. officer supposed t» 
have been originally a notary or scribe^ 
under the emperors, and naoaed canceBa* 
nttf , because he sat behind a lattice, called^ 
in Latin, caitceUti«,to avoid being crowded 
by the people, lliere are, however, other 
derivations of this title. Whatever may 
have been its origin, the office and name 
of cfumceUor were undoubtedly knovm at 
the court of the Roman emperars, wfaefe 
the title seems to have signified, originally, 
a chief scribe or secretaiy^ viiio was after* 
wards mvested vrith several judicial pow- 
ers, and supeiintendence over the other 
officers of the empire. From the Roman 
empire the title and office passed to the 
Roman church, and hence every bi^op 
has, to this day, his chancellor, the princi- 
pal judge of his connstoiy. When die 
modem kingdoms of Eiuope were estab* 
lished upon the ruins of the empirs, almost 
every state preserved its chancellor, witli 
difierent juredictioDS and dignitieB, accord- 
ing to their different constitutions. In all, 
he seems to have had the supervision of 
all charteiB, letters, and such other poblio 
instruments of the crown as vrere antlieD- 
ticaled in the most solemn manner, and, 
ther^re, when seals came into use, he 
had always the custody of the king's great 
seaL This officer has now great authority 
in all tibe countries of Europe. 

The Lord High ChtauMir ofEngimid 
Ib the first judi^ officer of the crown ; 
and first lay peoson of the state, after the 
bloodn^aL U^ is created neither by vnil 
nor patent, but % the mere delivery of liie 
great seal into his eustody. In like man-* 
mxf the ad of takhig mmmy die seal by the 

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ekf a pnvy couDsellor, and, according to 
kxd Fillwamere, prolocutor of the house of 
lords b^ prescnptioo. l^e queetion of 
aqpuadng the office of prolocutor of the 
lofds fiom the office of ehaoeeUor has 
beoi lately a^tated. He has the ^poiut- 
DKDt af an jUBticeB of the peace in the 
tiDgdaniy is visitor, in the king's right, of ail 
roffii ibundation8,and patron of ail crown 
1ivin«| under the value of 20 mazlcs, in the 
Imp booka The office having, in early 
imst been alvvays filled by ecclesiastict 
(for DO otfaeiB were then capaUe of an em- 
dojBieiit requiting so much vmtin^), he 
beoiue ke^r of the king's eonscience ; 
ud, by tpeaal appointment, he now exer- 
cises t glBneral superintendence as giuuv 
(fiBBorar aB inftnis, idiots and hmracs; 
thougb tfaoBe latter powers are not necee- 
auily attendant on his office, as Black* 
mm Beams to have imagined, but can be 
delegated by the crown to any other judi- 
cal officer ; as, in &Gt, they were delegated 
era as late as the reign of James I, when 
die seals were heM by doctor Williami^ 
then dean of Westniinater, and afterwards 
bohop of lincohi. The^great seal has 
been aot unfiequently put in commisnon, 
ml was last so on the resignation of lord 
Tfanrlow, in &e year 1793. 

The Vice ChmueO/or is an officer recent- 
ly crested, who takes precedence after the 
kmi chief justice of the common pleas^ 
ttd before the chief baron. He is ad- 
dicased, like the master of the rolls^ by the 
ayle of his honor. Though the appoint- 
ment was made with a view to meet the 
eoapiamis against delay, and to fiicilitate 
the UiaiDeaB of suitors, yet, as an appeal 
Iks afterwards to the chancellor, the ex- 
periment has not been attended vrith great 
oiccesL (For an account of the court of 
Gfaaooeiy, see Equity Courts qf.) 

ThROiaHttaarofiUExdiquar is the 
principal finance minister (^ the govem- 
oen^ and, as all questions of supply origi* 
one ia the bouse of conunons, a peer can^ 
Dot be convenieiitiy appointed to this office. 
When the fiist lord commissioner of the 
ris a commoner^ the two offices are 

ier preades in the court of ilie duchy 
dnoiber, to decide questions rdating to 
hndshoiden of the king, as duke of Lan^ 
ttster; but it does not appear that this isa 
cwit of record. The dtancellomhip is 
faMsfljr bestowed duxinuleasuiB, though 
iheRiie two instances oflh being granted 
fiv fife; the last bekig thai of the ceiebratr 
eiiknlAshbwton. TheohaneelkMrofthe 

duohy of Lan^hster 'm one of the king^ 
cabinet ministers. 

The ChanctUor fif Oxford is the supreme 
head of that university, elected for me by 
the members of convocation. He is gen- 
erally a nobleman of the highest rank, who 
is installed with great ceremony. The 
duties of the office are almost entirely die- 
chaiged by the vice-chancellor ; the chan- 
cellcnr's own acts being limited to the 
signing of diplomas, &Cd — ^Under the vice- 
chancellor are four pro-vice-chancellors, 
nominated by him from amone the heads 
of colleges, to one of whom, in his absence 
fiiom the university, he delegates lus au- 

The dumcdkr qf Carnbruigt^ whose 
ihitiee are very similar to those of the 
chancellor of OxjRxrd, is elected biennially 
by the senate ; but there is no instance, at 
least m modem times, where a reelection 
has not taken place. — The title ekancdlor 
is given, in England, to several other 
officers of inferior bodies. 

The chancellor was one of the high- 
est officers in the Gennan states, and, 
by the influence of his office, was one of 
the most in^rtant In Germany, this 
digni^ was, jfrom the remotest times, 
vested in one of the higher clergy, untii 
the head of the German clergy, the arch* 
hishop and elector of Mentz, united it for 
ever virith his office as arch-chanceUor of 
the empire. The two other spiritual elect- 
ors held the same dignity, but it was 
merely titular; the archbishop of Co- 
logne, as arch-chancellor of Italy; the arch- 
bi&op of Treves, as arch-chancellor of 
Gaul, and Aries, i. e., the kii^dom of 
Burgundy, once belonging to Germany. 
The arch-chancellorship of Mentz, on the 
oontraiy, had important duties attached 
to it — the direction of the diet, and of the 
public business, as well as of all the impe- 
rial chanceries. The elector appointed a 
vice-chanceUor, who was the actual min- 
ister €)i the empire at the imperial courtw-^ 
The chancellor of France was the highest 
officer of state, and the only one, v^o, 
when once appointed, could not be dis- 
missed* In case, therefore, it was desired 
to remove him from participation in affidrs^ 
a keeper ofthe seals {garde des scutux) vras 
appointed. As the ^ancellor was prop- 
erly the minister of justice, he was chosen 
fiom the body of jurists. A relic of his 
spiritual character was, that all his fumi^ 
ture, hveries, and even ids coach, were 
black. This dignity is now restored. Be- 
sides the diancelknr of the kingdom, the 
tkanedier de Erance, the queen (in Geov 
many, also^ the empress had her arch- 

Digitized by 



^uncellcr, the fawhop of Fulda), the boos 
and grandsons of the kinff* the firat prince 
of the blood, the ordevs of knighthood, the 
universities, &c^ all had their chancellors. ' 
The German states began about the mid- 
dle of the 15th century to appirint chan- 
eeliors, whose duties are widely different, 
but are generally united with the office of 
president of the hi^er judicial and exec- 
utive authorities. In mvaria, for exam- 
ple, thero were a chancellor of the privy 
council, and a court-chancellor, a chan- 
cellor of fiefe, and executive chancellors, in 
the different provinces. King Frederic 
(I (the Great) of Prussia establuhed, some 
years after his accession to the throne, in 
1747, the office of a grand-chancellor and 
thtf de jutUce lor the famous Samuel de 
Cocceji, to whom he had committed the 
reform of the judiciary. He had several 
successors in this dignity, but it was final- 
ly abolished. In the Austrian monarchy 
there are three court-chanceries — 1. the 
unperial-royal,at the head of which stand 
the high court-chancellor, with three other 
court-chancellors, viz., the Bohemlan-Ga- 
lician, the Lombardo- Venetian, and the 
Austrian-IUjrrian ; 2. the Hungarian ; and, 
8. the Tranaylvanian. In Austria, almost 
every office of importance is called a 
court office. The dignity of a privy- 
chancellor of the court and state was 
conferred^ after a long interruption, on 
prince Mettemich. 
Chancery. (See Equity^ Courts of.) 
Changes. (See Con^nnation.) 
Channel, Enolish ; the sea between 
England and France, the passage of which 
is oiten very tedious for vessels going from 
the Atlantic into the German ocean. (See 
Calais and Dot)er.) 

Channels, or Chain- Wales, of a ship ; 
Droad and thick planks projecting hori- 
zontaUy fix>m the ship's outside, abreast 
of and somewhat behind the masts. They 
are formed to extend the shrouds from 
each other, and form the axis or middle 
line of the ship, so as to give greater se- 
curity and support to the masts, as weU as 
to prevent the shrouds from damaging the 
gunwale, or being injured by ruU>]ng 
against it 
Chant. (See Cktarek Music) 
Chantret, Francis ; an English statu- 
ary. The opinion of Enelish critics is 
not vrithout foundation, that this artist, 
who was formed in the school of nature, 
and who has struck out a new career by 
llie power of his ovm genius, has exercis- 
ed a favorable influence on the improve- 
ment of sculpture in England. He was 
bom in 1783^ at Morton^ a village on the 

bordem of Derbyshire. While a schod 
boy, he made models in clay. His moth- 
er, the vndow of a wealthy fiirmer, had 
destined him for a lawyer. But the very 
di^ that he arrived at Sheffield, to enter 
his new school, he saw some images ex- 
hibited 'at the vrindow of the sculptor and 
Slider Ramsay. That moment decided 
bis destiny ; and, in obedience to his im- 
pulse, he resolved to become an artist. 
He became a pupil of Ramsay, labored 
three yt^ai^ without cessation, designed 
and modelled every leisure moment, and 
studied from nature, but was obliged to 
conceal his productions from his dissatis- 
fied master. In 1802, he went to London, 
where he became known by a successful 
bust of the celebrated Home Tooke, in 
which he displayed the principles of a 
teee^ natural style. The city or London 
now intrusted him vrith the execution of 
the statue of George III ; afler the com 
pletion of which he prepared a design of 
a monument, to be erected on the shore 
of Yarmouth, in honor of Nelson ; but the 
idea, in itself tasteless, of erecting the 
statue of the hero 130 feet high, with a 
star on bis lelft breast (to be iOurainated 
by night], as a Pharos, on a pier project- 
ing mr mto the sea, and on a pedestal 
made of the boves of vessels taken from 
the enemy, was too gigantic to be execut- 
ed. Chantrey's reputation vnis more in- 
creased by a arom of two sisters (in the 
cathedral of Litcnfield) embracing each 
other in the gentle slumber of death, 
whose childish forms exhibit repose and 
tranquilhty in eveiy outline and in every 
member; a kneeling female, lady St Vin- 
cent, and a hvely girl, standing on tiptoe, 
and caressing a dove in her oosom (the 
daughter of the duke of Bedford), placed 
at Wobum abbey, at the side of Canova's 
Graces. He has also executed several 
other monuments in St FbxlVb church 
and other places. His latest prodnctiona 
are highly esteemed— the busts of Play- 
ftir, Walter Scott, Benjamin West, Words- 
worth, &c. In 1814, Chantrey visited 
Paris, where he viewed the models of 
Italian sculpture, and afterwards travelled 
to Italy. He has, nevertheless, remained 
foithfru to his original natural s^le. One 
of the last works of Chantrey is the statue 
of Washington, in the state-house at Bos- 
ton. He has lately completed a broDze 
statue of Pitt, 12 feet high, in modem cos- 
tume, for the city of Londion. 

Chaos; acceding to the significatioH 
of the word, ttl void which embraces aU 
things. Heraod mentions, as the original 
ininciples of aU things^ Chaos^ Earth, Tar* 

Digitized by 




I iifus and Eros (Love) ; otker ancient po- 
ets made Chaos alone the p mneval source 
fiom which every thing is derived ; otfaere 
tdded to it Night, Erebus and Tartarus ; 
and otheis still represented Chaos as the 

' pueDt of the Earth and Heaven ; after 
the production of which, Eros (Love) 
completed the creation. In later timesL 
by (kao9 is understood the unformed 
primeval matter, of which every thing is 
made. Chaos, according to Hesiod,, pro- 
duced by and out of itself Erebus and 
Ki^ who, in turn, were the parents of 
JEdierand Day. 

Chafel H11.L ; a post-town in Orange 
eountv, North Carolina, near the head of 
New hope creek, a branch of the Haw ; 
28 miles W. N. W. of Raleigh ; Ion. 79° 3^ 
W.;laL35"4(yN. It has an elevated 
and bealdiy situation, and contains about 
dObousesL The surrounding country is 
kilhr, abounding in sprines, and the soil is 
not ranarkably fertile. This is the seat 
of the univeraity of North Carolina, which 
was incorporated in 1793 ; and degrees 
were first conferred in 1797. The college 
buildings consist of a chapel, two spacious 
e^ces for the accommodation of students, 
aB of brick, and a president's house. The 
fiinds consist of 30 or 40,000 dollars in 
bank stock, 50 or 60,000 acres of land, and 
aO escheated property. There is a good 
cbemical apparatus. The coUege library 
eontaiM about 1800 volumes. The exec- 
otire officers consist of a president, who is 
also professor of moral philosophy, and 4 
profenora, 1 of mathematics, 1 of chemis- 
tiT, 1 of languages, and 1 of rhetoric ; and 

Chapelain, Jean, better known by an 
unsuccessful poem than many poets bv 
wecessfiil ones, was bom in Paris, Dec. 4, 
1595. Marini, who went to Paris to have 
)mMmi8 printed there, induced him to 
write a preface to tliat poem, by which 
Chapelain attracted the notice of cardi- 
Qal Richelieu. The latter, having the 

I weakness to set up for a hd tmii^ stood 
in need of a poet who would labor with 
Imn, and, at times, also, for him. Chape- 
bin was posseased of talents and learning ; 
be was obsequious and (which was the 
principal thinff) discreet, and thus his for- 
tone was made. He became one of the 
firat members of the Acadimit Fran^ceUey 
and was charged with the organization of 
that body. He received a large pension, and 
w» became the oracle of the French 
p«te of that time. It would have been 
wtter, however, if he himself had not set 
ttp for a poet His Maid of Orleans (Pw- 
^] was begun in 1630, and was, con- 

aequently, one of the fint epic attempts in 
French uterature. As it was announced 20 
years before its publication, great expecta« 
tions had been raised, which were oy no 
means answered on its appearance (1656). 
In the first 18 months, indeed, six editions 
were rapidly sold; but it soon became 
an object of ridicule with the modem 
French poets, and sunk into oblivion. 
As a man, Chapelain was universally 
esteemed. He died Feb. 22, 1674. The 
most complete edition of his PucdleilS 
books) appeared at Geneva in 1762. The 
royal library in Paris contains all the 24 
books in manuscript 

Chapells (properly Claude £manuel 
Luillier) ; so called from La Chapelle, a 
village near Paris, where he was bom in 
1626 ; one of the most amiable and pleas- 
ing of the French poets. His lively and 
convivial disposition, his wit and talenta» 
j)rocured him the fiiendship of persons 
the most distinguished for rank and learn- 
ing : among the latter were Racine, Boi- 
leau, Moli^re, Lafbntaine, Bemier, &c» 
The productions of Chapelle bear the 
stamp of his characteristic ease, gayeQr 
and Mit His description of a journey to 
Montpellier, Relation cT un Voyage fait m 
France (1662, 12mo.), written jomtJy with 
Bachaumont, is a model of ease and pleafih 
antry. He also wrote many songs, son- 
netB and epistles. He possessed, in a re- 
markable degree, the talent of saying 
many witty things on a barren subject 
He died in 1688. 

CHAPLAiif properly signifies a person 
provided with a chapel, or who dis- 
charges the duties thereof. The name is 
applied to clergymen both in the Catholic 
and Protestant churches. The origin of the 
term is generally explained in the follow- 
ing manner : Bishop Martin (q. v.) is said 
to have worn a hood (capa) which was val- 
ued as possessing miraculous powers, and 
was, therefore, preserved, after nis death, in 
a separate house, called, firom this hood, 
eapella (chapel|, and the persoii stationed in 
the chapel to show it to pious spectators 
was termed chapkdru Charlemagne is said 
to have possessed St Martin's hood amonff 
his relics, and to have erected a chape^ 
called by the name of St Martin, in Ger- 
many, at the place where F{irth afterwards 
arose. This emperor is also related to 
have built similar chapels at Nuremberg 
and Altenfurt Another less probat)ie der 
ivation deduces the word, mdeed, from 
eapella, but explains it to ognify the box 
in which the first missionaries carried the 
requisites for celebrating the Supper, who 
were thence denominated ohaplaxM* 

Digitized by 



Gbaff£ b^Avteroche, Jean, borii m 
the year 1722, in Auvergne, took clerical 
orders, and devoted himself to the study of 
astronomy. In 1760, he was appomted 
by the academy to observe the transit 
(q. V.) of Venus over the sun's disk, at 
Tobolsk (June 6, 1761). He had tlie 
good ibrtune to find the sky clear and 
serene at the time when he wished to 
make his observations. After an absence 
of two years, he returned, and published 
a narrative of his travels. Besides much 
valuable information, it contains many 
unfavorable remaiks on Russia, so that the 
empress Catharine II herself wrote a reply 
to it, in a pamphlet, entitled Antidote contre 
k Voyage de PMbi Chappe. The same 
phenomenon, by which Chappe had been 
attracted to the north, prompted him, in 
1769, at the suggestion of the academy, to 
undertake a voyage to California ; but, be- 
fore he could complete the object of his 
voyage, he died at St. Lucar, Aug. 1, 1769. 
His obeer\'ations on this v^age have 
been published by C. F. Cassini, un- 
der the title Voyage de Califomie (Par- 
is, 1772, 4to.). They did not ansvi'er the 
expectations which bad been entertained 
of them. 

Chappe, Claude, nephew of Chappe 
d'Auteroche (q. v.), bom m 1763, celebrated 
as the inventor of the telegraph, attracted 
notice, in his 20th year, by several valu- 
able essays in the Journal de Physique, 
Wishing to communicate %vitli his irieuds, 
who hved at the distance of several miles 
from him, he conceived the idea of con- 
versing with them by means of signals : 
and his experiments ror this purpose led 
him to his important invention. Having 
Succeeded in erecting his machine on a 
large scale, he laid a description of the 
work, which he called tdegrauh, before 
die national assembly, in 1792. The 
establishment of the iiret telegraphic line 
Was ordered in 1793 : the first event com- 
municated by it was the capture of Cond6. 
Tlie convenuon, having received this news 
at the openmg of a session, forthwith de- 
ereed that Cond6 should be crflled, in fu- 
ture, MtrdHbre, and was apprized, in the 
tame sitting, that the edict bad been dc- 
fivered and published to the army.* The 
method of interchanmng messages by sig- 
nals was known to tne ancients, ana has 
been used by navigators fix)m tune im- 

* The tdemph at Liverpool communicated in- 
telligeoce to mat at Hofy Head, 156 miles distant, 
•ad received an answer, the whole within the 
period of 35 seconds. This is supposed to be the 
<|uickest interchange of communication that ever 
look Dlate. A/lw (London paper), Sept. 17, 1829. 

memorial. The tactician Mneas men- 
tions several attempts to express the letters 
of the alphabet at a distance by signals ; 
and, towards the cQd of the 18lh century, 
a trial of this kind was made by Amon- 
tons. The sjrstem of the former, however, 
admits of only a veiy limited application ; 
a whole night being hardly sufficient to 
compose two or three words according to 
his method. Amontons, who is generally 
jplaced among the inventors of the tele- 
graphic art. left no sketch of the machine 
contrived by him. The problem, there- 
fore, still remained to be solved. The 
object was, to discover an expedient for 
conveying any information with despatch 
to any place and at any time. Chappe 
invented a machine, the signals of which 
are veiy distinct, while its motions are 
easy and simple. It may be erected at 
any place, defies every kmd of weather, 
and, notwithstanding its simplicity, con- 
tains signs enough to convey any ideas, in 
such a way that not more than two ag- 
nals are commonly necessary. The honor 
of this invention was contested by many 
persons. The chagrin which these dis- 
putes produced in the mind of Chappe 
threw him into a deep melancholy, and, in 
1805, he put a period to his existence by 
precipitating himself into a well. His 
brother, Jean Joseph, became director of 
die telegraph in Paris. 

Chaptal, Jean Antoine Claude, count 
of Chanteloup, peer of France, bom in 
1756, devoted himself to the study of medi- 
cine and the natural sciences. Having 
been long known as a distinguished phy- 
sician, he rendered himself conspicuous 
as an adlierent to the cause of the revolu- 
tion, at the assault upon the citadel of 
Montpellier, in 1791. Being called to 
Paris, in 1793, on account of the scarcity 
of gun-powder, his chemical knowledge, 
and his activity in the enormous fiictory 
at Grenoble, enabled him to supply tlie 
necessary quantity, by the production of 
3500 pounds eveiy day. In 1794, he re- 
turned to Montpellier, received a place in 
the administration of the department of the 
Herault, and the professorsnip of chemis- 
dy, which had been foimded there for 
him. In 1798, he was made a member 
of the Instiuite, favored the revolution of 
tlie 18th Brumaire (q. v.j, was appointed 
by the first consul, in 1799, counsellor of 
state, and, in 1800, minister of the interior, 
hi which post he encoura^d the study of 
all the aits, and established a chemical 
manufactory in the neighborhood of Paris. 
In 1804, he fell into disgrace : the reason 
assigned is, that he refused to declare, in 

Digitized by 




one of hk reports, that flugur prepared 
from beets -was better than that firom the 
8U|^-€aDe. In 1805, however, he was 
made, by the emperoi^ grand croae of the 
iegioD dr honor, and member of the con- 
flervatiYe senate. After the return of Na- 
poleon fiom Elba, he was appointed di* 
reetoF-general of commerce and manufiie- 
tareay and minister of state. On the res- 
toration of the king, he was obliged to 
tetire id private life, and, at the same time, 
to enter into negotiations with the prin- 
cesB of Orleans, relative to Chanteloup^ 
which formerly had belonged to her. m 
March, 1816, the king nominated him a 
member of the ac^emy^ of sciences. 
CbaptaFs works on national industry^ 
chemistry, the cultivation of the vine, &c., 
are very much esteemed; especially his 
Ckimu appliqiUt aux Jiris (Paris, 1807, 
4 ?o]s.) ; his Chinde apptiquie h V^^grir 
f^twrt (Paris, 1823, 2 vols.) ; and Dt Vbtr 
Auine IhrnfmsCj Pans, 1819, 2 vols.). 
He was director of two chemical manu&c- 
lories, at Montpellier and Neuilly, discov- 
ered the application of <dd wool, instead 
of oil, in the preparation of soap, and the 
mode of dyeing cotton with Turkish red. 
He invented several kinds of cement and 
artificial Puzzolanas, by means of native 
calcined ochre, 'mthout the aid of foreign 
oxatters ; new vamiahes for earthen ware, 
without the use of lead ores and plum- 
bago, &€^ which are so often destructive 
of health and tife ; and extended the ap- 
plication of chemical agents to bleaching. 
Cbapter (fiom the Latin eapuiy head) $ 
one of the chief divinous of a book. As 
the rules and statutes of ecclenastical 
estsblirinnents were ammged in chapters, 
80 also the assembly of the members of a 
lefigious order, and of canons, was called 
a dustier, because some or all of the chap- 
ters, containing the rules, were read there ; 
and the place where they assembled, as 
well as the reproof administered to a de- 
Gnfuent member, by reading the rules of 
the chapter transgressed, had the same 
name. The orders of knights, which 
originally had much of the ecclesiastical 
coDstimtion, used this expression for the 
meetings of their members, and even some 
coipoiBtions of mechanics or tradesmen 
tall their assemblies ekapUrs. In £ng- 
hod, as elsewhere, the deans and chapters 
had the riffht to choose the bishop, but 
Hemjr Vlli assumed this ri^t as a pre- 
ngBtwe of the crown« In Prussia, also, 
Prototant btshope have been lately elect- 
ed, tad, still more lately, an archbishop, 
without the vote of a chapter, by a mere 
<Bderof the govenmieat This aiUtnury 

and partial imitation of ancient forms, by 
which a bishop and archbishop ma^ be 
elected or degraded like an officer of^ the 
army, afibrded just occasion of ridicule to 
the Catholics. 

Character. This name is g^ven to 
certain marks, used to signify ol^ects or 
ideaa The written language of the Chi- 
nese is a language of figures, every object 
or notion being expressed in it by a par- 
ticular figure. We, also, for the sake of 
brevity and precision, use, in several sci- 
ences, certain signs: for instance — At" 
tronomieal Signs: Q Sun; 3) Moon; 
ffi Eaith ; gAlcrcuiy ; 9 Venus ; ^ Mars ; 
5 Vesta; 5 Juno; $ Pallas; $ Ceres^ 
5 Jupiter; rj Saturn; i^ HeracheL The 
twelve signs of the zodiac: Y Aries; 
y Taurus; n Gemini; 25 Cancer; 
g(,Leo ; Tij^ Virgo ; £i Libra ; rti Scorpio ; 
f Sagittarius ; "VJ Capricornus ; sr Aqua- 
rius; X Pi8ces.--Jlfa(A«ffMrficcrf andAnthr 
mettcal SignSf &c. : Roman ciphers : 1, 1 ; 
11,2; III; 3; IV, 4; V,5; VI,6; VII,7; 
VIII, 8; IX, 9; X,10; XX, 20; L,50; 
C, 100; CC, 200; D or 10, 500; M or 
CIO, 1000, &c. In Algebra, the first let- 
ters of the alphabet, a, 6, c, commonly 
denote given magnitudes, while die last 
letters, x, y^ z, &c., stand for unknown 
magnitudes, which are to be found. Fur- 
diermore, + ( plus) more, — (miniu) less, 
signify addition and subtraction; X de* 
notes multiplication, -^division, = equal- 
ity, V TOOi{radix). Also : ^degree ; ' min- 
ute ; " second ; '" third ; &c. — Chefnicai 
Signs: Aair; V«uth; V^'^aterj Afi^e; 
3) silver; Qgold; 9 copper; (J iron; 
h lead ; Jti? tin ; g quicksilver ; © nitre ; 
ealt ; ^ sulphur ; Q tartar. — GeoTneiri- 
eal and Trigonometrical Signs : L angle ; 
^ triangle ; D square ; O circle ; 03 simi- 
kurity ; I j or ^if parallel ; ^ equality and 
similarity, or coincidence; A ]p> B, 
A greater than B, — Formerly there were 
more signs and abbreviations used in sci- 
entific works Uian at present. In Prussia,* 
the use of si^s in medical prescriptions 
has been abotished on account of the dan-' 
ger of their being confounded. 

Character Masks; such as appean^ 
not in dominos, but in the usual dress or 
certain ranks. 

Charade ; a syllabic enigma ; that is^ an 
enigma, the subject of which is a name or 
a word, that is proposed for discovery 
fix)m an eniffmaticai description of its 
several enrllables, taken separately, as so 
many individual words. A charade may 
be caUed complete, if the .different enig- 
mas which it contains are brought into a 
proper relation to each other, and, as a 

Digitized by 




whole, unite in an epigrammatic point. 
The most agreeable manner of expressing 
Buch conceits is in verse. Sometimes cha- 
rades are proposed mider the form of little 
stories, sonnets, &c. 

Charcoal. ^See Ctarbon.) To the in- 
formation contamed in the article Carbon, 
we will only add a fact lately announced 
in the scientific journals, that, in Picardy, 
and other provinces of France, where turf 
IS almost exclusively used as fuel, the in- 
habitants, by means of a cheap apparatus, 
are able to carbonize it so as to render it 
equal to the best charcoaL 

Chardin, Jean, son of a Protestant 
jeweller in Paris, and a jeweller himself 
was bom in 1643w Before he had reached 
his 22d year, his &ther sent him to the 
East Indies, in order to buy diamonds. 
After a short residence in Surat, Chardin 
lived six years in Ispahan, where he was 
less engaged in mercantile business than in 
profound studies and scientific researches, 
makinff use of his connexions at court 
for collecting the most authentic informa- 
tion of the political and miUtaiy state of 
Persia. He collected the most valuable 
materials relating to antiquities and his- 
tory. In 1670, he returned to France. 
Finding, however, that he could hope for 
no employment on account of hisrehgion, 
he again lefl France for Persia, in 1671, 
taking with him a considerable quantity 
of jewels, &c. He spent 10 years partly 
in Persia and pardy in India. In 1681, 
he arrived in London, where, soon after 
his arrival, Charles II bestowed on him 
the honor of knighthood. Chardin pub- 
lished tlie first volume of his travels, in 
London, in 1686. The other volumes were 
about to follow, when he was appointed 
minister plenipotentiary of the kinff of 
England to tlie states-general of HoUand^ 
and agent of the English East Lidia com- 
pany to the same. His new duties did 
not distract him fix>m his favorite employ- 
ment, so that, in 1711, two editions of his 
travels appeared. He soon ^ler returned 
to England, where he died in 1713. The 
exactness and truth of his statements, and 
the extent of his knowledge, have been 
Confirmed by all succeeding travellers. 
The best edition of Chardiu's travels is 
tljat by Langles, 1811, in 10 vols. 8vo., 
with an atlas in folio. 

Charente; a river in France, rising 
in the department of the Upper Vienne. 
It foils into tlie sea about 8 miles below 
Eochefort, opposite to the isle of Oleron, 
after a course of about 100 miles. It 
gives its name to a department (See i>e- 

Charenton ; a maritet-town about 
three leagues and a half firom Paris, on 
the road to Troyes and Lyons, at the con- 
fluence of the Mame with the Seine. To 
its simation, Charenton, which is a very 
busy and populous pkuce, owes its nu-^ 
merous mercantile and manu&ctuiing 
establishments. The bridge across the 
Alame must be considered as the key to 
Paris on this side ; hence the memorable 
attacks upon it both in the civil wars of 
France, and in those with foreign ene- 
mies. In 865, the Normans made them- 
selves masters of it, and destroyed it In 
1814, its possession was warmly con- 
tested. The students of the veterinaty 
school at Alfort, in the neighborhood, had 
solicited fixmi the government pennission 
to defend this post against the advancing 
troops of Wirteml)ei^ and Austria. It 
was intrusted to them ; but they were 
compelled to retire, after a heroic de- 
fence, before superior numbeiB. At Petit- 
Charenton is the celebrated hospital for 
tiie insane, where many unfortunate indi- 
viduals, of both sexes (usuaUy 4 — 500), are 
treated with great care, in order to efi^t 
their cure : those who are declared incur- 
able are sent to Bic^tre. Here died, in 
1813, Sade, the author of JusHnty whom 
Napoleon, on account of tiiis immoral and 
dangerous pubUcation, had ordered to be 
treated as insane. 

Charett£ de ul Coutrie. (See Venr 

Charo^ d'affaires. (See MimsUr, 

Charitt, brothem and sistrnis o£ (See 
Fr€UemiHe3J) • 

Charko w ; capital of Slobodsk-Ukndne, 
in Russia, contaming about 1500 houses, 
and nearly 15,000 inhabitants. It car- 
ries on considerable conmieroe, and four 
neat fairs are held in the plaoe every year. 
In 1803, the high school at Charkow was 
erected into a university, and several {»t>- 
fessors were invited thither fifom Germa- 
ny. The emperor granted it an annual 
income of 130,000 paper-rubles, and, in 
addition to this, a donation of 400,000 
rubles was offered by the nobilior of the 
country for its organization, of which 
sum, however, the greater part was yet 
unpaid in 1809. The number of profes- 
sors is 38, and that of the students about 
300 ; 60 of whom are supported at the 
emperor's expense. The latter are boimd, 
after leaving the univerRty, to teach, for 
six years, in the schools within the dis- 
trict of the univennty, and are fMretty arbi- 
trarily sent, br the univernty, to those 
places in which they are to be employed 

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Tlie wrivcfsity possesses a library, and a 
cabinet for the natural sciences. Uharico w 
also contains a gymnasium, a military 
academy, &c. A philotechnic society 
like-wise holds its meetings there. 

Chari^tan (in Itah'an, ciarlaUmo); a 
monntebank, quack-doctor, empiric ; hence 
cveiy one who makes loud pretensions to 
knowledge or skill ^liiich be does not 
l^ioeBeaB. The word is probably derived' 
Irom the Italian ciarlare (to prate J, because 
the chief art of a charlatan consists in 
lx)asting and idle talk. We find charla- 
tans in all sciences, politics, religion, &c 
Of the latter, Moliere says: — 

Aossi ne vois-je n'cn qui soit plus odieux 
Que les dehors platrcs d'un zpie specicux ; 
Que ces francs charlatans, que ces devots de 
place, d&c. 

How inany political proclamations r&- 
semble, in charlatanism, the boasting pla- 
cards of quacks, or the advertisements of 
new ^sterns for teaching lan^ages, &c^ 
r^ a few hours ! (For further mformation, 
see the interesting article Charlatan in the 
Enndop^die Modemey and for instances 
of charmtanism, see the daily papers.) 

Gh AaLEMAONC (Caroltu Magnus, Charles 
the Great); one of those characters whose 
achie\'ements bear the impress of gigantic 
power, by whom nations have been formed 
and destroyed, and who have exercised an 
influence which has been felt for centu- 
riesy and comi)elled succeeding generations 
to admire their greatness, though unable 
to justify all their actions. Charlemagne, 
Idog of the Franks, and subsequently em- 
peror of the West, was bora in 742, in the 
castle of Carlsberg, on the lake of Wurm- 
see, in Upper Bavaria. Others mention 
the castle of Tngelheim, near Mentz/and 
others Aiz-la-Chapelle, as the place of his 
nalivit}^ His &ther yma Pepin the Short, 
king of the Franks, son of Charles Martel. 
After the decease of his father, in 768, he 
was crowned king, and, according to the 
wish which Pepin had expressed, divided 
France with his younger lirother Carlo- 
man ; but the conditions of this partition 
were several times altered, without being 
ever adjusted to the satisfaction of tlie 
partiea. Their mutual discontent was 
fostered principally by the king of the 
Lombards, Desiderius (the father-in-law 
ofbotfa princes), because Charlemagne had 
repudiated his wife. Desiderius sought 
levenge for the rejection of his daughter, 
hf exciting and encouraging commotions 
in Fiance, in which he was assisted by 
the drcumstance that the nobles aspired 
to independence. The people of Aquita- 
' nia were the fint who attempted to be- 

come independent. Chariemagne mair^h* 
ed against them with rather a smdl army ; 
but ne relied on the assistance of his 
brother Carloman, to whom a portion of 
Aquitania then belonged. Carloman ap- 
peared, indeed, in the field, but, in the 
decisive moment, deserted his iMXJther, 
who was obliged to sustain, alone, an un- 
equal conflict His great courage and 
conduct, after a Ion j and doubtful contest, 
procured him tlie victoiy, in 770, and the 
msurgents submitted. In this camuaign, 
the youthful hero displayed such distm- 
guished militair talents, that the fear of 
his name curbed his fiercest vassals. 
This contest convinced Charlemagne of 
the necessity of repressing the nobles, and 
employing them thenceforward in impoN 
tant enterprises, in order to divert toeir 
attention nom the internal affairs of the 
empue. Had he not, therefore, himself 
been inclined to wars of conauest, in 
which his talents could be exhibited in 
all their splendor, he would have been 
induced to undertake them by the inter- 
nal condition of the empire. At Carlo- 
man's death, in 771, and after the flight 
of his wife and her two sons to her father, 
in Italy, Charlemagne made himself mas^ 
ter of tlie whole empire, the extent of 
which was aheady very great, as it em- 
braced, besides France, a large part of 
Germany. He now formed the plan of 
conqtienng the Saxons, for which his zeal 
for Christianity and its diffusion served 
him as a tolerable pretence. The Saxons, 
a nation of German heathens, were is^ 
possession of Holstein and Westphalia, 
between the rivers Weser and Elbe, and, 
like other barbarians, preferred pillaging 
to peaceful occupations, and a wandering 
to a settled mode of life. They had sev- 
eral leaders, and constituted various tribes, 
which were seldom disposed to codperate. 
An invasion of the Saxons into the terri- 
tory of the Franks was the alleged cause 
of the first war which Charlemagne began 
against them m 772. The other wars 
were produced by the rebellions of this 
warlike nation, which, overpowered, but 
not entirely vanquished, was never re- 
duced to complete submission till the 
peace of Seltz, in 803, after it had em- 
braced Christianity. A part of the Sax- 
ons Charlemagne removed to Flanders 
and Switzerland, and their seats were oc- 
ciq)ied by the Obotrites, a Vandal tribe in 
Mecklenburg. The famous pillars called 
IrminBauU were destroyed by Charle- 
magne, as monuments of pagan worship. 
Thus for 32 years did the Saxons resist a 
conqueror, who, at times, indulgent to 

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imprudence, often eerere to cruelty, strir- 
ing, with equal eagerness, to convert and 
to subdue them, never became master of 
their country till he had d'ansformed it 
almost entirely into a desert. The Sax- 
ons might have made a more successful 
defence against the power and genius of 
Charlemagne, had they not been distracted 
by inteniu dissensions. The most cele- 
brated of their leaders was Wittikind, 
and, next to him, Alboin, who finally em- 
braced Christianity in 783. To explain 
the protracted resistance of the Saxons, 
we must remember that the manner in 
which the armies of those days were or- 
ganized produced an armistice every year 
(the levy of troops being only for one 
campaign) ; that Charlemagne was obliged 
to wage wars at the same time against 
the Lombards, the Avars, the Saracens 
and the Danes ; and that the magnitude of 
his states facilitated the rebellions of his 
vassals, on which account all his attention 
was often required to preserve internal 
tranquillity, and maintain his own author- 
ity. While he was combating the Sax- 
ons on the banks of the Weser, pope 
Adrian implored his assistance against 
Desiderius, who had torn fit)m him the 
exarchate of Ravenna, which Pepin the 
Short had presented to the holy see, and 
who was urging the pope to crown the 
nephews of Charlemagne, that Charle- 
magne himself mi^ht be considered a 
usurper, and his subjects be induced to re- 
nounce their allegiance. The danger was 
urgent Charlemagne immediately left 
Gennany, and marched with his army to 
Italy. Desiderius fled to Pavia, which was 
bravely defended by the Lombards. The 
city finally fell, and Desiderius, with tlie 
widow and sons of Carioman, were carried 
prisoners to France. Desiderius ended 
nis life in a monastery. Respecting the 
fate of the others, history is silent. In 
774, Charlemagne was crowned king of 
Italy with the iron crown. Although the 
kingdom of Lombaniv was noW extinct, 
the provmces of which it consisted were 
allowed to retain their former laws and 
constitutions, it being a general maxim of 
the great monarch not to deprive the 
conquered nations of their usages and 
laws, nor to govern them all under one 
form. In this he followed the dictates of 
flound policy, which, in so turbulent times, 
led him to beware of consoUdating all liis 
Tassals into a political body with equal 
rights, which might render a general com- 
binatiou against their ruler practicable. 
In 778, he repaired to Spain, to assist a 
Moorish prince. He conquered Pampe- 

luna, made faimseif nuuter of the cour^ 
of Barcelona, and spread the terror of h]9 
name every where. But, on his return, 
his troops were surprised in the valley of 
Roncesvalles by the Saracens, in connex- 
ion with the mountaineers (the Gascons), 
and suffered a severe defeat ; remariiable 
from the circumstance, that Roland, one 
of the most famous warriors of those 
times, fell in the batde. (See Ckhalry.) 
The disaffection of the trioes of Aquita- 
nia induced Charlemagne to give them a 
separate ruler : for this puipose he select- 
ed the youngest of his sons, Louis (caUed 
le Ikbormaire). The Lombards were no 
less turbulent, and the Greeks made in* 
cessant efforts to reconquer Italy ; and the 
nobles, to whom he had intrusted a part 
of the sovereignty of this country, evinced 
httle fidelity. He therefore gave them his 
second son, Pepin, for a monarch; his 
eldest son, Charl^ remaining constantly 
with him, and assisting him in his mam- 
fold undertakings, m 780, he caused 
these two sons to be crowned by the pope 
in Rome, hoping, by this means, to render 
the royal dignity inviolable in the sight 
of the people. Charlemagne had another 
son, also called Pqnrij who was the oldest 
of all his children, being the son of his 
divorced wife. This circumstance prob- 
ably inspired the monarch with an aver- 
sion to Pepin, and prevented him firom 
admitting him to participate in the gov- 
ernment. Pepin, thererore, became the 
instigator of a conspiracy against his fa- 
ther, and finallv died in a monastery. 
After returning from Spain, Charlemagne 
was again obliged to take the field agauist 
the Saxons. Exasperated by the defeat of 
his generals in 78^, he caused 4500 Sax- 
ons to be massacred at Verden — a measure 
which ui^ed to fury the hatred of the 
people. The year 790, the S22d of his 
reign, was tlie only one which he passed 
wiuiout taking up arms. As his powxr 
increased, he meditated more senously 
tlie acconiplishment of the plan of his 
ancestor, Charles Martel, to restore the 
Western empire. To prevent the partition 
of the empue, the empress Irene, who 
then reigned at Constantinople, proposed 
to Charlemagne to marry their children, 
by which means the world would a^ain 
have been imited under one domiiuon. 
Her proposition was accepted ; but Irene's 
ambition carried her so far, that she de- 
throned her own son, to render herself 
supreme, and offered her ovi'n hand to 
Charlemagne, who did not seem averse to 
this singular union, which would have 
afforded the world an unparalleled spec- 

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Mle, htd DOC Irene henelf been deposed. 
ta the year 800, Charlemagne was crown- 
ed emperor of the West by pope Leo III ; 
and, Jthoufffa his journey to Rome had, in 
all probahifity, no other object, he pro- 
fessed himBeuTniuch surprised at this cer- 
anooT. On Christmaa-day, he was pro- 
cinimed Ccesar and Augustus ; he was 
masted with the ornaments of the ancient 
Roqian emperors, and the only thing for- 
emen was, that the empire could not 
subsist long in a family where the au- 
tboiitywas, by law, divided among the 
cbiidreQ of the deceased monarch. After 
OuHanagne had made a monk of one 
of hisscms, Pepin, king of Italy, died in 
810, whose death was S)Uowed, tlie next 
Tor, bv that of Charles, the oldest Thus, 
of hk ifgitimate sons, one only remained, 
LouiSjking of Aquitania, whom he adopt- 
ed as his colleague in 813, as his age and 
increasing weaxness gave him warning 
ihit the end of his life could not be far 
dbaot He died Jan. 28, 814, in the 71st 
year of his age and the 47th of his reign, 
with anticipations and fears that his em- 
pire would not long witlistand the attacks 
of fijreign enemies ; apprehensions which 
the eyent confirmed. lie felt, too late, 
tint the same Saxons, part of whom he 
bad driven from their seats, would one day 
take revenge on his empire, and in their 
min bring with them other barljarians. 
Ciuirlemagne was buried at Aix-la-Cba- 
pelle, his favorite and usual place of resi- 
dence. He was deposited in a vault, 
where he was placed on a thfone of gold, 
in fiiU imperial costume. On his head he 
wore the crown; in his hand he held a 
chalice ; at his side was the sword ; on his 
kwa lav the book of the cVangelists ; at 
hisleei his sceptre and shield. The sejv 
oichre was sealed, and over it was erected 
a kind of triumphal arcli, on which were 
the words " Here lies the body of Charles, 
tbe great and orthodox emperor, who glo- 
riwwiy enlarged, and for 47 years happily 
pjverned, the empire of the Franks." 
Cbariemagne was a friend of learning; 
he deaen'es the name of restorer of the 
Kiences and teacher of his people. He 
aftneted, by his liberality, the most dis- 
tinguished scholars to his court; among 
oJhere, Alcuin, from England, whom he 
chose for his own instructer ; Peter of 
ftsa, who received the title of his gramma- 
Mn; and Paul Wamefried, more known 
Wider the name of Paul Dictconus, who 
gwc the emperor instruction in Greek 
Mid Laun literature. By Alcuin's advice, 
9!*tenagne establish^ an academy in 
iu« palace at Aix-la-Chapelle, the sittings 

of which he attended, with all the scien- 
tific and literarv men of his court — Lei- 
drades, Theoduiphus, the archbishops of 
Treves and Mentz, and the abbot or Cor- 
vey. All tlie members of this academv 
assumed names characteristic of their tfu- 
ents or inclinations. One was called JDo- 
matasy another Horner^ another Candidus ; 
Charlem^ie himself took the name of 
David, From Italy he invited teacheiB 
of the languages and mathematics, and 
estabUshed tliem in the principal cities of 
his empire. Iiy tlie cathedrals and mon- 
asteries he founded schools of theology 
and the liberal sciences. He strove assid- 
uously to culdvate his mind by inter- 
course with scholars ; and, to the time of 
his death, tliis intercourse remained his 
favorite recreation. He spoke several 
hinguages readily, especially the Latin. 
He was less successful in wiiting, because 
he had not applied himself to it till he 
was further advanced in yearsi In the 
winter he read much, and even caused a 
person to read to him wliile he took his 
meals. He endeavored to improve the 
liturgy and church music He was de- 
sirous of introducing tlie Roman liturgy 
into his states ; but Uie clergy, who clung 
to the ancient usages, offerra^ some resist- 
ance. Several churches, however, com- 
plied witli tlie wish of the monarch, and 
otliers minded tlie Roman and Gallican 
litui^\ lie attempted to introduce uni- 
formity of measures and weights, but waa 
unable to accomplish liis design. Another 
great i)lan of his was to unite the Rhine 
with tlie Danube, and, consequently, the 
Atlantic with the Black sea, by means of 
a canal. The whole army was employed 
on the work ; but its accomplishment was 
prevented by the want of that knowledge 
of hydraulic architecture which has been 
since acquired. The arts, however, imder 
his imtronage, produced other monuments 
of his fame. The city of Aix-la-Clmpelle 
received its name firom a splendid chapel, 
which he caused to be built of the most 
beautiful Italian marble. The doors of 
this temple were of bronze, and its dome 
bore a globe of massive gold. The impe- 
rial palace was buih in the highest style 
of splendor. Charlemacne also erected 
baths, in which more than 100 persons 
could swim in warm water. He waa 
himself very fond of swinuning, and &e- 
quentlv used these Inths, with all the no- 
bles or his court, and even with his sol- 
diers. At Seltz, in Alsace, he had r no 
less splendid palace. To Charlemagne 
France is indented for its first advances m 
navigation. He built the light-house at 

Digitized by 




Bonlogne, and constructed several ports. 
He encouraged agriculture, and made 
himself immortal by the wisdom of his 
lawi^ Thus his law dk vUlia is esteemed 
a monument of his views on rural econo- 
my ; and Mcnzel, in his history of the 
Germans, says of him, ^ His greatest praise 
is, that he prevented the total decUne of 
the sciences in tbe West, and supplied 
new aliment to their expiring light ; that 
he copsidered the improvement of nations 
as important as their union and subjuga- 
tion. This love of intell^tuai improve- 
ment is the more laudable in a prince 
whose youth was spent in military exer- 
cises and tlie chase, and his whole after 
life in the whirlpool of war ; at a time, too, 
before the charm of beautiful models had 
made intellectual occupation an enjoy- 
ment, but when literature and science, 
appearing in heavy forms, destitute of 
erace, deterred rather than invited. His 
fame filled even the East. He received 
ambassadors from the patriarch of Jeru- 
oalem, from the emperors Nicephorus and 
Michael and was twice complimented 
with embassies from Haroun al Raschid, 
the famous calluh of Bagdad, all of which 
he received with a splendor unexampled 
even in the East He convened coun- 
cils and parliaments, published capitula- 
ries, vnx)te many letters (some of which 
are still extant), a graiimiar, and several 
Latin poems. His empire comprehended 
France, most of Catalonia, Navarre and 
Arragon ; the Netherlands, Germany as far 
as the Elbe, Saale and Eyder, Up|)er and 
Middle Italy, Istria, and a part of Sclavo- 
nia. In private life, Charlemagne was 
exceedinglv amiable ; a good fatlier, and 
generous niend. His domestic economy 
afforded a model of frugality ; his person, a 
rare example of simphcity and greatness. 
He despised extravagance of dress in men, 
though, on solemn occasions, he appeared 
in all the splendor of majesty. Hjs table 
was very frugal. His only excess was his 
love of the other sex. He was large and 
strong ; his height, according to Eginhard, 
equalled seven times the length of liis foot 
His head was round ; his eye large and 
lively ; his nose of more than common size ; 
his countenance had an agreeable expres- 
sion of serenity. His gait was firm; his 
bearing manly. He enjoyed constant 
health, till the last four years of his life, 
when he was attacked by fevers, and be- 
gan to limp. In summer, he was accus- 
tomed to repose for two hours afler dinner, 
for which purpose he used to undress; 
but at night he slept uneasily. He wore 
tbe dress of his country ; on his body, a 

Hnen shirt, over which was a coat with a 
siUc border, and long breeches. For his 
outer dress, he wore a cloak, and always his 
sword, the hilt and belt of which were of 
^Id and silver. He possessed a natural, 
impressive eloquence, and, in his expres- 
sion of countenance, there was something 
to excite respect, united vnth gentleness 
and kindness. (See I^ntvoardL) 

Charlemont and (jivet ; one of the 
strongest fortresses in France, in the de- 
partment of the Ardennes, with 3500 in- 
habitants. The works occuny both banks 
of the Mouse, about 25 miles above Na- 
mur, at the junction of several roads, on a 
steep mountain. The two places com- 
pletely command the river, and serve as a 
point of support to a friendly army, ad- 
vancing alonff the Meuse, and as a serious 
obstruction if the forces belong to the en- 
emy, obliging them to leave behind a corps 
of obsenation, at least double the numl)er 
of that which composes the ganisoiL The 
castle and small town of Chariemont were 
built in 1555, by Charles V. Louis XIV, 
who had obtained possession of the place 
by the peace of Nimeguen, as it was capa- 
ble of containing only two battahons, en- 
larged it by fortifying the small town of 
Givet, which lies at Uie foot of the hill, 
and by increasing the fortifications of 
Chariemont At present, the place con- 
sists of four fortresses, two of which, 
Chariemont and Great Givet, lie on the 
lefl bank of the Meuse, and the other two, 
Little Givet and Mont d'Haur, upon the 
right Charhimont rises fix>m a narrow 
rock, which is 200 feet high, commands 
almost every direction, descends perpen- 
dicularly towards the Meuse, and the west 
side, on the north, is very steep, and de- 
scends with a gentle slope on the east 
Tliis last side, tlie only one on which an 
atUick can be apprehended, is defended by 
six bastions, a nom and a crown-work, 
and several detached works. Almost all 
the moats are hewn in the rock, and well 

{provided with casemates. Great Givet 
las four bastions and three ravelins with 
dry ditches. Little Givet contains four 
bastions, and full ditches, but no covered 
wav; and Mont d'Haur, a hill opposite 
to Chariemont, is included within tbe hues 
of tlie fortress by a strong crown- work, 
and may, at the same time, serve as a for- 
tified camp. Tbe fortress Ib calculated for 
a garrison of 11,000 men, but, in case of 
necessity, can contain 25,000, and may be 
defended by 3 — 4000 men. Though the 
two Givets and Mont d'Haur would not 
offer great obstacles to an attack, yet Char- 
iemont is almost impregnable. It has 

Digitized by 




lever yet been seriously attacked. Tbe itary in his family. Chilperic IT, king of 

PHnianSi indeed, contemplated assailing the Franks, refusing to acknowledge 

'x in 18l4 hut abandoned the design, al- Charles Martel as mayor of the palace, 

dioogh the GiiretB and Mont d'Haur had the latter deposed him, and set Clothaire 

dready capitulated. R^ the treaty of Paiis^ IV in his pbce. After the death of Clo- 

itiraB occupied by a Russian garrison. thaire, he restored Chilperic, and, subse- 

Chablxrot, or Charles sua Sambre; miently, placed Thlem on the throne, 

a town in the Netherlands, in Namiir, on snowing now absolute was the control of 

tbe nocth side of the river Sambre, in a the mayor, and that the royal dignity was a 

phce finrmeriy called Chamoy ; 20 miles mere phantom. Charles Martel rendered 

£.N.E.Mons, 20 N. £. Maubeuge ; lat his reign famous by the great victory 

50P '28^ N. ; ten. 4° 3Sy E. ; population, 3744. which he gained, in October, 732, over tlie 

It his manufactures of glass, hardware and Saracens, near Tours, from which he ac- 

iroolen stufis, and in the neighborhood quired the name of J^ar^e/, signifying ^m- 

are extensive pitsof turf and coal. It was mer. He died in 741. His son Pepin the 

taken by the French, imder general Va- Short governed the Franks till the vear 

lence, in the month of November, 1792, 752, nominally under the effeminate king 

nith 4000 prisoners. It was recovered by Childeric HI; but, in this yeai-, pope 

the AufiUians, in the month of June, 179^ Zachaiy replied to a question put to hun 

wiien the French were twice defeated ; by tlie states of France, that he ought to 

once with the loss of 4000 men, and again be king who had the royal power ; in con- 

of 7000. July 25, 1794, it a^ain surren- sequence of which the Franks declared 

deied to the French at discretion, with the Pepin king at Soissons, in 752. He died 

guiison of 3000 men and 60 pieces of in 768, highly honored by his subjects, 

cumon. His sons were Charlemagne and Uarlo- 

Charles ; the name of many important man. (See Charlemagne,) 
pasonages, whose lives are here given or Charles IV, emperor of Germany, of 

Kkmd to, in tUe following order: — page the house of Luxemburg, was bom in 

Chalks Martel, 73 1316, and educated at Paris. His father, 

Charies IV, emperor of Germany, . 73 John of Luxemburg, king of Bohemia, 

Charles V, emperor of Germany, celebrated in historv for his chivalric spirit^ 

and king of Spain, 75 fell in the battle of Crecy. The quarrels 

Chfiries Vl, emperor of Geimany, . 78 of the emperor Louis the Bavarian with 

Charies VII, 79 thekin^of Bohemia, the father of Charles, 

Charles die Bold, 82 the choice of the latter, in the room of the 

Charies VH of Fiance. (See lYaiict^ emperor, excommunicated by Clement VI, 

and Joan of Arc,) 82 and the victory which Louis, far his supe- 

Charies IX, King of France, .... 82 rior in power and talents, obtained over his 

Charies X, king of France, 82 rival, we have not room to relate. Afler 

Charies I, king of England, 85 the death of Louis, Oct 21, 1347, Charles 

Charies II, king of England, .... 89 of Luxemburg, who inherited tlie kingdom 

Charies Edw. StuarL 'See JEdtoanL) 91 of Bohemia, and had been chosen emperor 

Charles XII, king of Sweden, ... 91 in 1346, by five electors, hoped to occupy 

CharlesXIII, king of Sweden, ... 94 the imperial throne without opposition. 

Charies XTV, king of Sweden, ... 94 But the very means which had raised him 

Charies Emanuel, duke of Savoy, . . 98 to the throne created him enemies. The 

Charies I, king of Spain. (See princes of the empire regarded him as a 

Ckades V, empercr of Germany »\ . 99 sen^ant of the pope. Ten years had not 

Charies IV, lung of Spain, 99 yet elapsed, ranee Germany, at the diet of 

Charies Louis of Austria, 99 Kense, had adopted the most energetic 

Charies Augustus of Weimar, (see measures against the claims of the holy 

Wfmar\ 100 see. The election of Charles IV was tlie 

For the sovereigns of this name not enu- first infiringement of the celebrated consti* 

merated here, we refer the reader to the his- tution of 1338. In consequence, the arch- 

tMyitf the countries to which diey belong, bishop of Mentz, whom Clement IV had 

Cbaeles Martel; a son of Pepin He- deposed, the electors of Brandenburg and 

M (mayor of the palace underlie last the palatinate, tlie duke of Saxe Lauen- 

^mp of the Merovingian dynasty). His burg, who arrogated a vote in the election^ 

fctber had governed under the w€«k kings assembled at Lahnstein, declared the 
>f Fnace with so much justice, and so choice of Charles to be void, and elected 
much to tbe satisfaction of the people, that Edwaid III of England, brothei-in-law of 
he was enabled to make his office hered- the last emperor ; but this monarch, thi^ii 

TOl. HI. 7 

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at war with France, ^lade use of the offer 
of the electors so far only as to steure the 
neutrality of the king of Bohemia, and 
rejected the proffered crown. Equally 
fruitier was the choice of Frederic the 
Severe, landgrave of Meissen ; upon which 
the enemies of Charles elected the virtuous 
and heroic count G(inther of Scbwarz- 
burg, whom Charles, as some writers, 
tiiough without sufficient authority, assert, 
put out of his way by poison. Those 
who surrounded Giinther in his last mo- 
ments extorted from him an abdication, for 
which they were munificently paid by 
Charles, who was as liberal, when the 
gratification of his ambition was concern- 
ed, as he was unjust and rapacious in sat- 
isfying his avarice. Charles now used 
every effort to appease his enemies. He 
married the daughter of the elector of the 
palatinate, gave the elector of Branden- 
burg Tyrol as a fief, and was unanimously 
elected emperor, and consecrated at Aix- 
la-Chapelle. But no sooner was he crown- 
ed, than he took possession of the imperial 
insignia, and, contrary to his express prom- 
ise, conveyed them to Bohemia. He per- 
suaded his father-in-law, the elector of^the 
palatinate, to subject a great portion of the 
npper palatinate to the feudal court of 
Bohemia. This tribunal, which he regard- 
ed as the most proper instrument for the 
subjugation of Gennany, was enlarged in 
Its jurisdiction more and more. In 1354, 
the emperor went to Italy, to be crowned 
by the po])e ; but this favor he purchased 
on terras which made him an object of 
ridicule and contempt He engaged to 
appear without any armed force. Having 
been consecrated at Milan king of Italy, 
he confirmed the Visconti in the possession 
of all the usurpations of whicii he had 
promised to deprive them. He also an- 
nulled ail the acts of his grandfather, Hen- 
ry VII, affainst Florence, and, by a treaty 
concluded at Padua, resigned the latter 
city, with Verona and Vicenza, to Venice. 
Traf&cking thus with his rights, he went to 
Rome, and was crowned by a delegate of 
the pope, but did not dare to remain there 
a single day. He refused the request of 
some Romans, to claim the city, as belong- 
ing to him, in the name of the empire, and, 
in a treaty, renounced all sovereignty over 
Rome, tlie States of the Church, Ferrara, 
Naples, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, and 
even took an oath not to return to Italy 
without the consent of the pope. Despis- 
ed by the Guelphs, detested by the Ghi- 
bellines, Charles returned to Germanv, 
where he issued the celebrated ffolden bull, 
which, till recently, continueu a fundap 

mental law of the German empire. {&em 
Bull.) He thus acquired some claims to 
the public sratitude ; but these were soon 
efSaiced by Uie general indignation, excited 
by the proposal made, with his consult, by 
the papal nuncio, to introduce a tax, equal 
to the tithe of all ecclesiastical revenues, for 
the benefit of the holy see. All the menx* 
bers of the diet opposed it ; and CharieSy 
in his anxiety to conciliate the princes o€ 
the empire, announced that he would pro- 
pose to the assembly a reform of the Ger* 
man clergy. The pope, enraged at this 
proposal of the emperor, exhorted the 
electors to depose him. Charles inmiedi- 
ately relapsed into his accustomed submit- 
siveness, and not only abandoned all hi« 
reforms, but even confirmed, in 1359, all 
the privileges of the clergy, all their pre9* 
ent and fiiture possessions, and made them 
independent of the secular power. Sudi 
vacillating cop^uct subjected him to the 
contempt of both parties, of which he re* 
ceived a proof before the close of the same 
diet, which was held at Mentz. Several 
princes had, by degrees, obtained posses- 
sion of many territories, formerly nefe of 
the empire. Charles attempted to reunite 
them with the empire ; but the dissatisfac- 
tion which was manifested at ^e attempt, 
frustrated this plan of the wfHik emperor, 
who indemnified himself by selling to the 
kin^ of Poland the rights of sovereignty, 
which had be^i^ hitherto exercised by the 
German emperors, oyer some of his prov- 
inces. It may be easily supposed that, 
under such an emperor, Gennany did not 
enjoy internal tranqiiiliity. Bands of rob- 
bers plundered the country in all quarters. 
The emperor marched against them with- 
out JEUScomplistiing any thing, and, finally, 
left the princes and cities to protect them- 
selves by mutual alliances, as well as they 
were alne. The state of Italy was no less 
melancholy. Tuscany was suffering the 
evils of anarchy ; Lombardy was distract- 
ed by civil wars, and the Visconti had 
made themselves masters of the Milanese. 
The emperor, true to his principle of sanc- 
tioning power wherever found, appointed 
thesis usurpere his vicars-general m Lom- 
bardy. Imbqlden^ by this, Barnabas 
Visconti threi^ned to subject all Italy to 
bis yoke. Pope Urban V sent an invita- 
tion to Charles to concert measures of 
resistance with him, hastened fh)m Avign- 
on to Rome, concluded several alliances, 
levied troops, and waited fyr the emperor, 
who actually impeared with a considerabla 
^rce ; so that Italv, fi>r a short time, deem • 
ed itself safe. Charles took advantage of 
the pope's situation to persuade hmi ta 

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crown his fourth wiie, Elizabeth of Ppm- 
enmia, at Rome, and, in return, entered 
bito the most positive engagements with 
Uihan. Notwithstanding tms, he again 
ensaged in negotiations with the ViscontL 
and pold them a formal confirmation of 
all their usurpations. In like manner, 
during his residence in Italy, he sold states 
ind cities to the highest bidder, or, if they 
themselves offered most, made them inde* 
pendent republics. With great treasures, 
nut despised by his enemies, and hated by 
his allies, he returned to Germany. Gre^- 
ory XI, having given his consent that liis 
son Wenceslaus should be elected king 
of the Romans,* he employed his ill- 
gotten wealth to purchase tlie votes of the 
electors, who were irritated at the conduct 
of the pope, and distributed among them, 
in addition, the domains of the empire on 
the Rhme, and several free imperial cities. 
Thus he attained his object. To maintain 
&eir rights against the arbitrary measures 
of the emperor, the imperial cities in Sua- 
bia formed the (so called) Suabian league^ 
which Charles opposed in vain. To tho 
pope he manifested his sratimde by ex- 
tending the privileges of the clergy. The 
empire was nearly ruined, when Charles 
died at Prague, in 1378. To his eldest 
son, Wencedaus, he left Bohemia and Si- 
lesia; to the second, Sigismund, the elec- 
torate of Brandenburg ; and to the third, 
Lttsatja. His reign is remarkable for the 
improvement and prosperity of Bohemia ; 
lor the founding of the universities of 
Prague and Vienna; for a terrible pex-secu- 
tion of the Jews, and as the period when 
the sale of letteis of nobility commenced 
in Germany. The history of this prince 
afibrds a fine illustration of the soundness 
of the theory of legitimacy, many of his 
usurpations having become a part of the 
"divine right" of succeeding rulers. 

Charles Y, emperor of Germany and 
king of Spsdn fin the latter capacity, he is 
called Charles I\ the eldest son of Philip, 
arch-duke of Austria, and of Joanna, the 
daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of 
Spam, was bom at Ghent, Feb. 24, 1500. 
PhiUp was the son of the emperor Maxi- 
milian and Maiy, daughter of Charles the 
Bold, last duke of Burgimdy. Charles's 
Inith gave him claims to the fairest coun- 
tries of Europe. He was educated in the 
Ketheriands, under the care of William of 
Croy, lord of Chiivrea Charles preferred 
nulhaiy exercises to study. Uhi^vres, 
'Without diverting him fi'om his favorite 

* TUt was the title given to the person elected 
^Qnogthe lifetime of t^ emperor, to succeed him 

occupations, taufht him history, formed 
him for afSiirs of state, and implanted in 
him that gravity which he retained through 
life. After the death of Ferdinand, his 
grandfather, in 1516, Charles assumed the 
title of king of Spain. The management of 
this kingdom was intrusted to the celebrat- 
ed cardmal Ximenes, who, by his genius, 
prepared the way for the glorious reign or 
Chai'les V. In 1519, Maximilian likewise 
died, and Charles was now elected empe- 
ror. He left Spun to take possession of 
his new dignity, for which he had to con- 
tend with Francis I, king of France. His 
coronation took place at Aix-la-Chapelle, 
with extraordinary splendor. The elective 
capimlation ( WxWcapTiuiah'on, see Capitu- 
lation), signed by his ambassadors, he rat- 
ified without hesitation. The chief fea- \ 
tures of it were the reservations made by 
the electors, seeming themselves against 
foreign influence. Ihe emperor was no< 
to begin any war without their consent ; 
no language* but the German or Latin was 
to be used in the administration of the 
aftairs of the empire ; and the rich com- 
mercial confederacies of merchants, whose 
wealth, as the instrument expressed it, had 
enabled them to act according to their own 
will, were to be abolished by the emperor, 
assisted by the advice of the members of 
tlie empire The association aimed at was 
the powerful Hanseatic league, whose in- 
fluence had excited the electors' jeal- 
ousy. The progress of the reformation in 
Germany demanded the care of the new 
emperor, who held a diet at Worms. Lu- 
ther, who appeared at this diet, with a scde 
conduct from Charles, defended his cause 
with energy and boldness. The emperor 
kept alent ; but, after Luther's departure, 
a severe edict appeared against him, in the 
name of Charles, who thought it for his 
advantage to show himself the defender of 
the Roman church. The claims which 
Francis I had advanced to the empire, and 
those which he still preferred to Italy, the 
Netherlands and Navarre, made war ap- 

Eear inevitable. Charles prepared for it 
y an alliance with the pope. Hostilities 
broke out in 1521. The French, victori- 
ous beyond the Pvrenees, were unsuccess- 
ful in the Nethenands. A congress held 
at Calais only increased the irritation, and 
gave Hennr VlII, kin^ of England, a pre- 
text for declaring himself for Charles, 
whose party daily acquired strength. A 
serious insurrection in Spain was happily 
subdued. The defoat of^ Bonnivet, in the 
Milanese, and the accession of the consta- 
ble of Bourbon, indemnified Charles V for 
his wnnX of success in Provence. Franci* 

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wbo was besiegmg Pavia, was defeated by 
the imperial forces, and taken prisoner, in 
1525. On tills occa^on, Charles feigned 
the moderation of a Christian hero. With- 
out improving- his advantages, he remaine<l 
inactive in Spain. But he thoi^ht to attain 
his object in anotlier way. He proposed 
to Francis I such hard conditions, that this 
unfortunate prince swore that he would 
die in captivity, rather than accede'to them. 
Meanwhile, he ^vas carried to Spain, and 
treated witli respect. Charles, however, 
did not \isit him, until he was informed 
that the life of his prisoner was in danger. 
The iuteniew was brief Charl^promised 
his captive a speedy release. The treaty 
of Madrid vras finally concluded in Janu- 

/ary, 1526. The power of Charles now 
became a source of uneasiness to most 
other princes of Europe. Pope Clement 
VII placed himself at tne head of a league 
of the principal states of Italy ajpinst tlie 
em^^ror ; but their ill-duected enorts were 
productive of new misfortunes. Rome 
was taken by storm by the troops of the 
constable, sacked, and the pope himself 
made prisoner. Charles V puolicly disa- 
vowed the proceedings of me constable, 
went into mourning with his court, and 
carried his hypocrisy so far as to order 
prayers for tlie deliverance of the pope. 
On restoring th^ holy father to liberty, ne 
demanded a ransom of 400,000 crowns of 
cold, but was satisfied with a ouarter of 
mat sum. He also released, for 2,000,000, 
the French princes, who had been ^ven 
to him as hostages. Henry VIH of Eng- 
land now allied himself with the French 
monarch against Charles, who accused 
Francis of having broken hia word, given 
on the honor of a gentleman. The quar- 
rel brought on a challenge to a duel, which 
did not, however, take place. The war 
was terminated in 1529, by the treaty of 
Cambray, of which the conditions were 
fiivorable to the emperor. Charles soon 
after left Spain, and was crowned in Bo- 
logna as kmg of Lombardy and Roman 
emperor. On the occasion of tliis solem- 
nity, the proud Charles kissed the feet of 
the same pope who had been his prisoner. 
In 1530, ne seemed desirous, at the diet 
of Augsburg, to reconcile the various par- 
ties * but, not succeeding, he issued a de- 
cree against the Protestants, which they 
met by the Smalcaldic leiu^ue. He also 
pablishedf in 1532, a law of criminal pro- 
cedure. (See Carolina.) Notwithstanding 
his undertakings in favor of the Catholic 
reliffion, Charies always ^owed himself 
moderate towards the Protestants, when- 
ever his interest left room for toleratioiL 

Nor did tlte Protestant princes he^tate lo 
furnish their contingents, when he was 
assembling an army against the Turks. 
Having compelled Solyman to retreat, he 
undertook, in 1535, an expedition asainst 
Tunis, reinstated the dey, and refeased 
20,000 Christian slaves. This success 
added to his character somewhat of the 
chivalric, which gave him still more influ- 
ence in Christendom, and promoted his 
political projects. He manifested this chiv- 
alrous spirit still more in a speech, which 
he made at Rome, before the pope and 
cardinals, when hostilities were renewed 
in Italy against France. In this he pro- 
posed a duel, in which the duchy of Bur- 
gundy on the one part, and the duchy of 
Milan on the other, were to be the prize ; 
but, on the following day, he expressed 
himself in such a manner to the French 
ambassador, that it was suspected that his 
challenge was only a figure of speech. 
His invasions of Provence and Picardy 
met with small success. A truce was 
concluded in 1537, and, in 1538, prolong- 
ed for 10 years. The two monarchs had 
an interview, in which they spoke only of 
mutual respect and esteem. Soon alter, 
Charles, who was in Spain, where he had 
annihilated the old constitution of the 
cortes, v^ahed to pass through France to 
the Netherlands. He spent six days with 
Francis I in Paris, where the two princes 
appeared together in all public places like 
brothers. Courtiers were not -^wanting, 
who advised the king of France to detain 
his gue^ until he hiui annulled the treaty 
of Aladrid ; but Francis was satisfied with 
promises, which Charles very soon ibrgot. 
Having queUed the disturlmnces in the 
Netherlands, Charles resolved, in 1541, to 
crown his reputation by the conquest of 
Algiers. Against Doris's advice, he em- 
barked in the stormy season, and lost a 
part of his fleet and army, without gaining 
any advantage. After his return, his re- 
fusal to invest the king of France with tlie 
territory of Milan involved him in a new 
war, in which the king of England em- 
braced his part. The army of Charles 
was defeated at Cerisola; but, on the 
other hand, he penetrated to the heart of 
Champagne. Tne disturbances caused in 
Gennany by the reformation induced the 
emi)eror to accede to the peace of Crespy, 
in 1545. The policy of Charles was to 
reconcile the two parties, and, towards 
the Protestants, he employed alternately 
threats and promises. After some aho^vr 
of negotiation, the Protestant princes raised 
the standard of war. The emperor de- 
dared, in 1546) the heads of the league 

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o&der the ban of tbe empire, excited diyis* 
kms amoDg the confederates, collected an 
vmy in haste, and obtained several advan- 
tages over his enemies. John Frederic, 
the elector of Saxony, was taken prisoner 
in tbe battle of Muhlberg, in 1547. Charles 
leceived him sternly, and gave him over 
to a conrt-martial, consisting of Italians 
aixl Spaniards, under the presidency of 
Alva, which condemned him to death. 
Tlie elector saved his life only by renounc- 
ifigliis electorate and his hereditary es- 
tates; bot he remained a prisoner. Mean- 
viiOe, the emperor appeared somewhat 
more moderately inclined towards the 
Tanqaiahed party. On coming to Witten- 
berg, he expressed surprise that the exer- 
cUe of the Lutheran worship had been 
(tijcontinued. He visited the grave of 
Lather, and said, ^^I do not war with the 
dead : let him rest in peace : he is already 
before his Judge." The landgrave of 
Hesse Cassel, one of the heaos of the 
Protestants, was compelled to sue for mer- 
cj: notwithstanding his promise, Charles 
^rived him of his freedom. After hav- 
ing dissolved the league of Smalcalden, 
the emperor again occupied himself with 
tbe plan of uniting all religious parties, 
ttid, for this purpose, issued the Interim 
(q.T.)« so called, which was as fruitless as 
this measures proposed by him at the diet 
of Augsburg. Neither was he successful 
m securing the imperial crown to his son. 
Discord still agitated public sentiment, and 
anew war broke out against him. Mau- 
lice of Saxony, whom he had invested 
with the electoral dignity, formed a league, 
vhich WM joined by Henry II, king of 
Fnnee, the succesaor of Francis. The 
pre|Antionf had been made with the 
greatest secrecy. Charles was at In^pruck, 
npeiinteDding the delibenitiona of the 
council of Trent, and mediuting great 
plaos against France and Turkey. He 
was expecting the aid of Maurice, when 
ibif prince threw off the mask, appeared 
nddenly at the head of an army, and in- 
tided the Tyrvl m 1552, while Henry II 
altered Lorraine. Charles was near being 
wiprised in Inspruck, in the middle 
of a stormy night. Tormented by the 
gwrt, he escaped alone, in a litter, by diffi- 
cult roads. Maurice abandoned the impe- 
iW caade to plunder, the* council of Trent 
*wdifl8ohred,and the Protestants dictated 
t|» conditions of the treaty of Possau, in 
}53l Charles was not more successAil 
mUrraine. He was unable to recover 
Metz,defcnded by the duke of Guise. In 
It?!y, he lost Sienna, by a revolt He 
^iMpcw to BniSBels, where, hard pressed 

by his enemies, and suffering flom the 
^out, he became gloomy and dejected, and. 
ior seveml months, concealed himself from 
the sight of every one, so that the report 
of his death was spread through £uro[)e. 
His last exertions were directed against 
France, which constantly repelled his as- 
saults. The diet of Augsburg, in 1555, 
confinned the treaty of Paasau, and gave 
the Protestants equal rights with the Cath- 
olics. Charles saw all his plans frustrated, 
and the number of his enemies increasing. 
He resolved to transfer Iiis hereditary 
states to his son Philip. Having convened 
the estates of tlie Low Countries at Lou- 
vain, in 1555, he explained to them the 
rea^sons of his resolution, asserted tiiat he 
had sacrificed himself for the interests of 
religion and of his subjects, but that his 
strength was inadequate to further exer- 
tion, and that he should devote to God tiie 
remainder of his days. He then turned to 
Philip, who had tlirown himself on his 
knees, and kissed tlie hand of his fatlicr; 
reminded him of his duties, and made liim 
swear to labor incessmitly ibr the good of 
the people. He then gave him his bless- 
ujg, embraced him, and sunk back ex- 
hausted on his chair. At that time, Charles 
conferred on Philip the sovereignty of tlie 
Netherlands alone. Jan. 15, 15.56, ho con- 
ferred upon hhn, in Ukc maiujcr, the Span- 
ish throne, reserving for himself merely a 
|iension of 100,000 ducats. The remain- 
mg time that he spent in the Netherlands 
he employed in reconciling his son with 
France, and eflected the conclusion of a 
truce. Having mode an unsuccessful at- 
tempt to induce his broilier Ferdinand to 
transfer the imperial crown to tlie head of 
his sou, he sent a solemn embassy to Ger- 
many, to announce to the electors his al>- 
dication ; after which he embarked at Zea- 
land, and landed on the coast of Biscay. 
It is said that he threw himself on the earth 
on landing, kissed it, and exclaimed, ^'Na- 
ked I left the womb of my motlier, and 
naked I return to thee, thou common 
mother of mankind." He had selected for 
his residence the monastery of Sl Justus, 
near Placensia, in £stremadura, and here 
he exchanged sovereignty, dominion and 
pomp for the quiet and solitude of a clois- 
ter. His amusements were confined to 
short rides, to tlie cultivation of a garden, 
and to mechanical lalx>rs. It is said that 
he made wooden clocks, and, beincr imable 
to make two clocks go exactly alike, was 
reminded of rfie folly of his eftbrts to bring 
a number of men to tlie same senti^nents. 
He attended religious services twice every 
day, read books of devotion, and, by de- 

Digitized by 




grees, fell into such dejection, that his fitc- 
uhies seeme^l to suffer from it He re- 
nounced the most innocent pleasures, and 
observed the rules of the monastic life in 
all their rigor. In order to perform an 
extraordinary act of piety, he resolved to 
celebrate his own obsequies. Wrapped 
in a shroud, and surrounded by his reti- 
nue, he laid himself in a coffin, which was 
placed in the middle of the church. The 
funeral service was performed, and the 
monarch mingled his voice with tliose of 
the clergy, who prayed for him. After the 
last sprinkling, all withdrew, and the doora 
were closed. He remained some time in 
the coffin, then rose, threw himself before 
the altar, and returned to his cell, where 
he spent the night in deep meditation. 
This ceremony hastened his death. He 
was attacked by a fever, of which he died, 
at tiie age of 59 years, Sept. 21, 1558.— 
Charles had a noble air, and refined man- 
ners. He spoke litUe, and smiled seldom. 
FuTii of purpose ; slow to decide ; prompt 
to execute ; equally rich in resources, and 
sagacious in the choice of them ; gifted 
with a cool judgment, and always master 
of himself, he steadily pursued his pur- 
poses, and easily triumphed over ol)stacles. 
Cut;umstances developed his genius, and 
made him greaL Although lus want of 
faith was notorious, he imposed, by the 
semblance of magnanimity and sincerity, 
even on those who had already experienc- 
ed his perfidy. An acute judge of men, 
he knew how to use them for his purposes. 
It is improbable that it was liis intention to 
establish a imiversal monarchy. In mis- 
fortune he appears greater tiian in pros- 
perity. He protected and encouraged the 
arts and sciences, and is said to have pick- 
ed up a brush, which had fallen fit)m the 
hana of Titian, with the words, "Titian is 
wortiiy of being 8er\'ed by an emperor." 
By his wife Eleonora, daughter of Kman- 
uel, king of Portugal, he had one son, 
afterwaras Philip II, and two daughters. 
He had, also, several natural chil(hen. — 
Charles V is one of the most remarkable 
characters in history. He exhibited no 
talents in his youth, and, in after life, when 
his annies in Italy were winning battle 
after battie, he remained quietiy in Spain, 
apparently not much interested in tnese 
victories ; but, even in his early youth, his 
motto was, not yet (nondum), U was not 
tiS his 30th year, that he sliowed himself 
active and mdependent; but, ftom this 
time to his abdication, he was, throughout, 
a monarch. No minister had a marked 
influence over him. He was indefatigable 
iu businesB, weighing the reasons on both 

sides of eveiy case with great minuteness; 
very slow in deciding ; unchangeable of 
purpose ; so that he once said to a courtier, 
who praised him for his perseverance and 
firmness, that he sometimes insisted U]K>n 
things not right Granvella was the only 

Serson who possessed his entire conn- 
ence. (See GranveUa.) Wherever he was, 
he imitated the customs of the countiy, 
and won the fiivor of every people except 
tiie Germans. Among them he was not 
liked, owing to his want of the ftrankness 
which they expected m their emperor. 
Charles was slow in punishiii^, as well as 
in rewarding ; but, wnen he md punish, it 
was with severity ; when he rewarded, it 
was with munificence. Ifis health early 
declined. In his 40th year, he feh him- 
self weak. His sufferings fit>m the gout 
were extreme : he could not even open a 
letter without pain. After his mother's 
death, he thougnt sometimes that he heaid 
her voice, callmg to him to follow her. It 
is said that, when aiming for battle, he 
trembled; but, in the heat of the en- 
gagement, was as cool as if it were im- 
possible for an emperor to be killed. We 
know of no work, in which the character 
of Charles has been delineated with mora 
truth than in the valuable production of 
Mr. Ranke, professor in the universitv of 
Berlin, — ^The Princes and Nations of the 
South of Europe in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth Centuries (Hftobui^, 1837). 
Among the numerous sources of the 
history of Charles V, we would tnentioii 
Hormayr's .^tu durckaia wngedruclOen Pet- 
pUreUj in his Archil), fur ueogr. Htslorie^ 
&C. (Jahrg. 1810> The work of Robert- 
ton is too well known to need recommen- 

Charles ^^[, the second son of the 
emperor Leopold I, was bom Oct 1, 1685. 
His &ther destined him for the Spanish 
throne. The last prince of the house of 
Hapsburff, Charles IL disregarding the 
house of Austria, wnose right to the 
Spanish throne was undoubted, according 
to the law of inheritance by descent, hac^ 
by his will, made Philip, duke of Ajijou, 
second grandson of Louis XIV, heir of 
the Spanish monarchy, and, after the 
death of Charles II, Nov. 1, 1700, Philip 
had taken possession of the vacant king-* 
dom. England and Holland united against 
him, and mis alliance was soon joined by 
the Grerman empire, Portugal and Savoy 
Charles was prockumed king of Spain, at 
Vienna, in 1703, and proc^ded, by way 
of Holland, to England, fix)m whence, in 
January, 1704, he set sail, with 12,0OC 
men, for Spain, which was almost wholly 





wcimied b^ die French, and landed in 
CataloiiiB. He succeeded in making him- 
adf master of Barcelona ; but he waa 
aooti beaieced there by his rival Philip V. 
The French had already taken Mont Jouy, 
pependons were malung for an assauh 
on the city, and it seemed as if Charles 
eooid not escape being captured. Never- 
tbelesB^at the head of a garrison of hardly 
200O men, he made tl^ most obstinate 
leautancey till the long-expected English 
fleet tspp&aicd, which^put to flight the 12 
Freaeb ships that blockaded the harbor, 
and laiided a body of troops, which com- 
peiJed the French speedily to raise the 
aege. This event was followed bv al- 
leraaae leverees and successes. TSidce 
Owries reached Madrid, and twice was 
hedriveo from the ciQr. The first time, 
in 1706, he caused himself to be pro- 
dainoed king, in the capital, under the 
name of Charles IIL He had been a sec- 
ond tirae compelled to flee to the \valls 
of Bareekma, when he was informed of 
ibe death of his brother Joseph I. Ac- 
cording to the will of Leopold, this event 
etsA the double crown of Charles V on 
bead ; to his claims on Spain, it added 
tbe more certain possession of the Aus- 
trian dominions. Bat the allies were 
avene to seeing so much power united in 
the same hands. Charles repaired to Ger- 
wmaj by way of Italy, and, on his arrival, 
feazned that, at Eugene's suggestion, he 
had also been elected emperor. His cor- 
onatioQ took place at Frankfort, in De- 
cember, 1711, and, in the following year, 
he received, at Presburg, the crown of 
Hmigary. At the same time, he still re- 
tained die empty title of king of Spain. 
He now prosecuted, imder the conduct of 
Eugene, the Spanish war of succession, 
wliich his brother had carried on with so 
moeh fluocesB in the Netherlands; but 
Hariboiough'd disgrace, and the retreat of 
tbe £ngii& army, having resulted in a 
defeat at Denain, tbe allies concluded a 
peace with France at Utrecht, in 1713, in 
^lila of all the efibrts of the emperor to 
preveot it. He was obliged, in the fol- 
lowing year, to sign the treat^ of Rastadt 
This treaty secured him in the possession 
of Milan, Mantua, Sardinia and the Neth- 
erknds. Soon id%er, in June, 1715, the 
Turks declared war afiainst Venice. The 
emperor imdertook me defence of this 
tepuhhc His bra^ amdes, led by Eu- 
gene, achieved decisive victories at reter- 
wardein and Belgrade. But, as tbe Span- 
iBidi menaced fialy, Charies conchided, 
in 1718, the peace of Passarowicz, by 
wideli he obtained Belgrade, the north of 

Servia, and Temeswar. Cardinal Albe- 
roifl, who was at the head of the cabinet of 
Madrid, involved Austria, by his schemes, 
in a new war. But the quadruple alli- 
ance, concluded at London in 1718, ter'> 
minated the war with the removal of this 
minister, in 1720. To secure his domin- 
ions to his daughter Maria Theresa, in 
default of male heirs, Charles strove to 
induce the various powers to guaranty 
the pragmatic sanction, which settled the 
succession in her favor. He succeeded, 
bv degrees, in gainiug the concurrence of 
all the European powers. The emperoL 
availed himself of a short period of peace 
to establish various institutions for the 
benefit of commerce. He visited, in per- 
son, the coasts of Istria, where he caused 
roads and harbors to be constructed, and 
vessels to be buik. His plans respecinff 
the Indian trade in the Netherlands haa 
not the same success, and he was com- 
pelled to sacrifice them to the pretenMons 
of the maritime powers. The reign of 
this prince, by nature a lover of peace, 
was marked with perpetual agitations. 
The succession to the Polish throne, after 
the death of Augustus II, in 1733, dis- 
turbed the peace of Europe. Charles, 
with Russia, supported the son of this 
prince; but France and Spain declared 
themselves for Stanislaus Leczinsky. 
From this arose a bloody w^ar, which 
terminated, in 1735, in the loss of the Two 
Sicilies and a part of the duchy of Milan. 
Austria received Tuscany in exchange for 
Lorraine, and obtained Parma. lurdly 
had Charles finished this war, when his 
alliance with Russia involved him anew 
in a war with the Turks. In 1737, his 
troops, under field-marshal Seckendor^ 
invaided Servia, without any declaration 
of war, and occupied Nissa. But the 
Turks renewed their attacks with a con- 
tinually augmented force, and obDsed the 
emperor, after three unsuccessful cam- 
paiens, to cede to them, by the peace of 
Belgrade, in 1739, Walachia, and the 
Austrian part of Servia, with Belgrade. 
Charies cDed Oct. 20, 1740, at a time 
when he was employed in the improve- 
ment of his distracted finances, and waS 
about putting the last hand to the prag- 
matic sanction, by causing the grand-duke 
of Tuscany, his son-in-law, to be chosen 
king of the Romans. 

CharlE) VII (properly ChmUs JSht7i)y 
king of the Romans, bom at Brussels, in 
the year 1697, was the son of Maximilian 
Emanuel, elector of Bavaria, then gov- 
ernor of the Spanish Netherlands. His 
youtiii was spent at the imperial court) and. 

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in the war against the Tiiiics, he com- 
imanded the army of auxiliaries sent by 
his fiither. In 17^ he married the 
daughter of Joseph I, having previously 
renounced all rights which this marriage 
might give him to the succession to the 
throne of Austria. In 1726, he succeeded 
his father as elector of Bavaria. He was 
one of the princes who protested against 
the pragmatic sanction, guarantied, in 
1732, by the diet of Ratisbon, and, in con- 
sequence, concluded a defensive alliance 
with Saxony. After the death of Charles 
VI (q. v.), in 1740, he refused to acknowl- 
edge Maria Theresa as his heiress, found- 
ing his own claims to the succession on a 
tt«tament of Ferdinand I. He was sup- 
ported by the king of France, with a con- 
siderable force. In 1741, he was recog- 
nised, at Lintz, as arch-duke of Austria. 
The obstacles thrown in his way by car- 
dinal Fleury, who wished not to dismem- 
ber the Austrian monarchy, as well as the 
want of artilleiy and ammimition, pre- 
veuted him fix>m getting possession of 
Vienna. On the other hand, he took 
Prague, where he was crowned and pro- 
claimed king of Bohemia. In 1742, he 
was unanimously elected king of the Ro- 
mans : he made a solemn entry into 
Frankfort, and was crowned by his 
brother, the elector of Cologne. But for- 
tune soon deserted him. The armies of 
Maria Theresa reconquered all Upper 
Austria, and overwhelmed Bavaria. It 
was necessary to abandon Bohemia. 
Charles fled to Frankfort, and convoked 
a diet, when an attack of the king of 
Prussia on Maria Theresa dlowed him to 
return to MCinich in 1744, in which city 
he died in January, 1745, exhausted by 
grief and disease. He was succeeded in 
Uie electorate by his son Maximilian Jo- 
seph, in tlie imperial dignity by Francis I, 
husband of Maria Theresa. 

Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, 
son of Philip the Go<)d and Isabella of 
Portugal, bom at Dijon, Nov. 10, 1433, at 
first bore the name of count of CharolmSj 
under which he distinguishea himself in 
the batdes of Rtipebnonde, in 1452, and 
of Moibeque, in 1453. He was of a vio- 
lent, impetuous disposition, sometimes 
breaking out into fuiy ; and early displaycnl 
that unhappy ambition, which was the 
source of his errors and misfortunes. His 
dislike of the lords of the house of Croy, 
the favorites of his father, was insur- 
rooimtable; and, being unable to procure 
thdbr disgrace, he withdrew from the 
court, and went to Holland. He was 
again reconciled, however, with his fiuher. 

whom he inspired with his own hatred oT 
Louis XI, and placed himself at the head 
of the par^ then forming against that 
monarch. Having passed through Flan- 
ders and Artois, he crossed the Somme at 
the bead of 26,000 men, and appeared 
before Paris. The king sent the otshop 
of the cify, Alain Chartier, to reproach 
him for waging war against his sovereign. 
But the heir of Burgundy answered, 
'« Tell yoiir master, that against a prince 
who makes use of tiie dagger and poisoA, 
there are always sufHcient grounds of 
war, and that, in marching against him, 
one is very sure of finding, on the way, 
companions enough. Moreover, I have 
taken up arms solely at the urgent request 
of the people, nobility and princes : these 
are my accomplices !" Louis met him at 
Montlheri. Charles broke through one 
wing of the royal army, and allowed him- 
■elf to be carrwd on too far in purniit of 
the fugitives. Surrounded by fifteen gena 
tTarmes, who had already killed hie roe** 
ter of the horae, he received a wound, but 
lefueed to eurrender; performed prodigies 
of valor, and thus gave his soldiers time 
to come to his release. From this time, 
Charles conceived so high an opinicm of 
his talents for war, that the greatest re- 
verses could not cure him of it. He suc- 
ceeded his father in 1467, and immedi- 
ately engaged in a vnur with the citizens 
of Liege, whom he conouered and treated 
with extreme severity. Before this under- 
taking, he had been obliged to restore to 
the citizens of Ghent the privileges which 
had been mken from them by Philip the 
Good. He now revoked his forced con- 
cessions, caused the leaders of the insur- 
recdon to be executed, and imposed a 
large fine on the city. In 1468, ne mar- 
ried Margaret of York, sister of the king 
of England, and resolved immediateiy to 
renew the civil war in France ; but Louis 
disarmed him by givins him 120,000 
crovms of gold. Oct 3 of the same year, 
the monarch and the duke had a meeting 
at Peronne, in order to adjust then: difier- 
ences. Th^?e the duke learned that the 
inhabitants of liege, instigated by the 
king, had rebelled anew, and made them- 
selves masters of Tongres. Charles was 
enraged. In vain did Louis on oath pro- 
test his innocence ; he was imprisoned 
and strictly guarded. Afler hesitating 
long between the most violent measuies, 
the duke finally compelled the king to 
sign a treaty, the most disgracefiil condi- 
tion of which was, that he should march 
vrith Charles a^inst the city of Liege, 
which he had lumself excited against the 

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ClmkB enctanaff^d before Liege, 
in conxpdoj with the king: the city was 
tnkeo by stonn, and abandoned to the fluy 
of the soldiers. 8uch success rendered 
the mind of the duke utterly obdurate, 
and added the last traits of that inflexible, 
sanguinary character, which made him 
the scourae of his neifribbors, and led to 
his own destruction. Edward IV con- 
feired on him, in 1470, the order of the 
guter. Shortly after, he received, in 
FlandeiB, Edward himself who came to 
seek an asylum with the duke. Charles 
£BTe him money and ships to return to 
En^and. About the end of the same 
year, the war between the king of France 
and the duke of Burgundy was renewed ; 
and never did Charles show himself more 
deserving of the name of the Bdd, or 
Rathj tfean in tbis war. Forced to sue 
for a truce, he nevertheless soon took up 
arms anew, accused the king, publicly, of 
macic and poiscxiing, and, at the head of 
24,000 men, crossed the Somme. He 
look the ci^ of Nesle by storm, caused 
file to be set to it, and, as he saw it burn- 
ing, said, with boibarous coolness, ^ Such 
are the firuits of the tree of vrar." An 
enemy to tranquilhty, insensible to pleas- 
ure, kmsg nothing but destruction and 
bloodBhed, and, notwithstanding bis piide, 
master of the art of procuring allies, 
Charles, who desired to be equal to Louis 
XI in dignity and rank, as well as in 
power, fonned the plan of enlarging bis 
dominions on the Rnine, and elevating his 
states into a kingdom, under the name (^ 
Belgie GauL He visited the emperor 
FrSeric III, at Treves, to obtain the title 
of king and vicar-general of the empire, 
which the emperor had promised him, on 
condition that be should many his daugh- 
ter to the archduke ; but, as neither would 
foier first into obligations, they separated 
m dissatisfaction, and the ne^tiation was 
bn^en ofL Louis, meanwmle, involved 
Charies in greater embarrassments, by ex- 
citing against him Austria and the Swiss. 
Cbanes now determined to dethrone him, 
and, for this purpose, made an alliance 
with the king of England ; but, being 
eompelled to hasten to the aid of lus rela- 
tive, the bishop of Cologne, he lost ten 
idodUib before Neuss, which he besieged 
in Tam, and then hastened to Lorraine, to 
take revenge on the duke Rene, who, at 
the instigation of France, had declared 
^<^ against him. Having completed the 
conqiust of Lorraine by the taking of 
Nancy, in 1475, he turned his arms against 
the Swiss ; and, notwithstanding the rep- 
RKmations of these peaceful mountaia- 

eers, who tM him that dl that he cpoU 
find among them would not be worth so 
much as tne spurs of his horsemen, he 
took the city of Granson, and put to the 
sword 800 men, by whom it was defended. 
But these cruelties were soon avenged by 
the signal victory which the Swiss ob- 
tained near the same city, March 3,.1476» 
The loss of this battle plunged Charles into 
a gloomy dejection, whicn disturbed hki 
mind aiM his health. With a new army, 
Jiie returned to Switzerland, and lost the 
batde of Murtcn (Morat), June 22d. The 
duke of Lorraine, who had fought in the 
army of the Swiss, led the victors to the 
walls of Nancy, which surrendered Oct 
6th. At the first information of this siege, 
Charles marched to Lorraine, to reUu^e 
the city of Nancy flom the duke Ren6. 
He intrusted to the count of Campo-Basso 
the charge of the first attack, and, on 
learning that this officer was a traitor, he 
regarded the information as a snare. 
Campo-Basso protracted the siege, and 
gave Ren^ time to come up with 20,000 
men. On the approach of this army, he 
deserted, ynth his troops, to the enem^, so 
that the army of Charles now cona^^ed 
of only 4000 men. Against the advice of 
his council, Charles persisted in risking 
battle with unequal forcea On the &h (» 
6th Jan., 1477 (John von Miiller himself 
is in doubt respecting the day), the two 
armies met : the vdng of the Burgundian 
was broken through and dispersed, and 
the centre, commanded by me duke in 
person, was attacked in fiY>nt and flank. 
As Charles was putting on his helmet, the 
gilded lion, which served for a crest, fell 
to the ground, and he exclaimed, v^th 
surprise, "E^ce marnum signum Dei!*' 
Defeated, and carried along with the cur- 
rent of fugitives, he fell, with his horse, 
into a ditch, where he was killed by the 
thrust of a lance, in the 44th year of his 
age. His body, covered vnth blood and 
mire, and with the head imbedded in the 
ice, was not found till two days after the 
battle, when it was so disfigured that for 
some time his own broth^« did not recog- 
nise it. He was finally known by the 
length of his beard and nails (which he 
had suftered to grow suice his defeat at 
Morat), as well as by the scar of a sword- 
cut, which ho had received in the batde 
of Montlheri. With this prince expired 
the feudal government in Burgundy. 
Charles was not without good qualities. 
In the government of his people, we find 
no traces of the severity with which he 
treated himself, and his disposition made 
him attentive to the administradon of jufl- 

Digitized by 




tice. He was buried at Nancy, at the 
eommand of the duke of Lorraine. In 
1550, CharieaV, his great-grandson, caus- 
ed h& remains to be conveyed to Bruges. 
He -was married three times, but left only 
one daughter, Maria, heiress of Buimmdy, 
by Isabella of Bourix>n, his second wiie. 
{QeeMaximiUan I.) — Compare the woik of 
the baron de Butmte, peer of France, 
lEst, des Dues de Bowgogne de la Maiaon 
de Valois (Paris, 1624, 10 vols.). In Quen- 
tin Burmrd, sir Walter Scott has de- 
scribed the character of Charies,and some 
of the quarrels between him and Louis of 

Chakles VII, kmff of France. (See 
jFVonce, and Joan of Arc ^ 

Charles IX, kmg of France, son of 
Heniy II and Cathajine of Medici, bom 
in 1550, at St. Germain-en-Laye, ascend- 
ed the throne at the age of 10 years, after 
die death of his brother Francis IT. No 
rejE;ency was appointed, and it was deem- 
ea sufficient to write to the parliament, 
through the young prince, that he had re- 
quested his mother to undertake the ad- 
ministration of the public aftairs; and the 
parliament acquiesced in this resolution, 
to avoid t^citinff new contests between 
the Guises and me princes of the blood. 
Catharine consented that the king of Na- 
varre should be appointed governor-gen- 
eral of the realm, as she was too well 
aware of the weakness of his character to 
^ar it. In order to gratify her ambition, 
she resolved to throw every thin^ into 
conftision. (See Catharine de Memci.y- 
The Guises soon saw that they must op- 
pose a Catholic league to the political asso- 
ciations of the Calvinists. (See Guwc.)— 
The cruel persecutions agcunst the Hugue- 
nots now broke out (See Bartholomew's 
Day, iSt.)—- The duke of Guise, who ob- 
tained possession of the person of the 
young king, was shot by an assassin be- 
fore Orieans, in February, 1563. In his 
last moments, he advised the king and the 
queen mother to negotiate with the par- 
ties. This advice was followed ; a treaty 
was signed, March 19, and Havre was 
taken from the English, July 27. The 
king, who was the same year declared of 
age, visits the provinces in company 
with his mother. At Bayonne, he had a 
meeting with his sister Isabella, the wife 
of Philip II of Spain. This excited such 
suspicions in the Calvinists, that they took 
up anns, and immediately formed the plan 
or attacking the kinff on his return to 
Paris. Being warned in season, he es- 
caped the danger ; but this plot could not 
fiul to arouse the hatred of Charles, who 

was proud by namre, and more to be |Ntr- 
ed than blamed ibr his too great confi* 
dence in his artftil mother. After the 
battle of St. Denis, 1567, in which the 
constable of Montmorend lost his life, 
Catharine entered into negotiations for 
peace. But tiie Calvinists reserved a 
part of the places which they were to 
nave surrendered, and continued to keep 
up a communication with Ebigland and 
the German princes. A new civil war 
soon broke out Notwithstanding the 
jealousy of Charies, Catharine placed the 
duke of Anjou at the head of the royal 
army. The prince of Cond^ having been 
shot in the batde of Jamac, in 1569, and 
the admiral Coligni having been defeated 
at Montcontour, in tiie same year, the 
king concluded peace, in 1570, on terms 
which were so fiivorable to the Calvinists, 
that they seem even to have suspected 
treachery under them. The heads of 
that parnr did not therefore all appear at 
court when Charles celebrated his mar- 
riage with Elizabeth, the daughter of 
Maidmilian II. By degrees this distrust 
disappeared, and the marriage of the 
young kinff of Navarre (afterwards Heny 
iV) with Margaret, sister of Charles IX, 
seemed to biuiish eveiy suspicion. This 
marriage took olace August 18, 1572. On 
the 22d, the nrst attempt was made on 
tiie life of Coligni, and on the 24th be- 
gan that massacre known under the name 
of the massacre of St. Bartholomew's, fit)m 
having taken place on the night of the 
festival of that saint. Civil war broke 
out for the fourth time, and Catharine 
now became aware of the errore of her 
policy. Charles could no longer conceal 
nis aversion to her, and was on the point 
of assuming himself the reins of govern- 
ment, when he died, childless, in 1574. 
He was succeeded by his brother Heniy 
III. Charles was brave, indefatigable, 
ambitious, of a lively, penetratmg genius, 
and loved the sciences. The cruelties 
which disgrace his reign should be laid 
to the. charge of his mother rather than 

Charles X, Philip, king of France and 
Navarre, brother of Louis XVI and Louis 
XVIII, succeeded the latter on the throne 
of France, Sept. 16, 1824. Till 1795, he 
bore the tide of count ofArtois; till 1824, 
that of monsieur. He was bom at Ver- 
sailles, Oct 9th, 1757, and, in 1773, mar- 
ried Maria Theresa of Savoy, the sister of 
the countess of Provence, his brother's 
wiffe, who bore him the duke of Angou- 
l^me (q. v.) and the duke of Berri (q. v.), 
and died June 2d. 1805. He was educat 

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ed ac ihe eomt of Loois XV, and mani- 
fested in his youth an amiable disposition, 
tod a capacity for mental improvement, 
together with a fondness for iheflU$ thai 
ftahioDable at Veraailles, and for ezpen- 
Bve fteasurea. At a ball in the ODera-hall, 
in 1778^ he palled off the mask of the 
daeheas of Bouifaon. This afiront save 
ne to a duel with the duke of BounKMi, 
Khted by the baron Bezenyal in his Mi' 
SMwnef. In 1782. the count of Artois 
served as a volunteer in the camp of St 
Boch^ before GibrakBr, and was created 
chevalier of St Louis. In 1787, as presi- 
dent of a bureau of the notables, he pur- 
sued different views fiom hie brothers, the 
king BDd the count of Provence. The 
people, ther^ro, believed that he was 
opposed to the refiHrm, which was so uni- 
venall^ desired ; and, wlien, with the count 
of Provence, he had c<»npleted the regis- 
tnBtkm of the stamp and land tax acts, 
maiiileated their ill will by an attack on 
his peracm. Two days after the 14th of 
July, 1789, he and the prince of Cond6 
save the signal for the fiital emigration, 
fiom which so much misery has sprung. 
The covnt of Artois repaired to Turin, 
had an interview with tne emperor Leo- 
pold in Mantua, resided some time at 
Wonns, at Brack near Bonn, at Brussels 
and Vienna. The monarchs assembled 
at Pilnitz (q. y.) aAerwards promised him 
to support the cause of his nLmilv. Louis 
XVI took the oath to maintain the consti- 
tution, S^yt 14th, 1791, and invited the 
French princes who were at Coblentz to 
letom to France; but they refosed to 
obey, and protested acainst the new con- 
adtutioii — equally disobedient to their coun- 
Hyand their king. Hereupon the legis- 
hiive assembly of the nauon withdrew 
fiom die count of Artois, May 19, 1792, 
the appanage of 1,000,000 fiancs, assigned 
him oy the constitution, and referred his 
ciedit«X8 to his estates. The prince vnis 
then at Turin, from whence he excited 
oommotions at Lyons, and in other parts 
of Fnmee. He then undertook the com- 
mand of a corps of emi^rantB, which, in 
eomiezion with the Prussian army, invad- 
ed Champagne. Afler the issue of this 
campaign, so unfortunate for the Bour- 
bons, ti^ count retired toHamm,in West- 
f^alta, where, after the death of Louis 
jCVI, he was appomted by his brother, 
who had taken the tide of rtgeni^ lieu- 
tenant-fneneral of the kingdom. He now 
0oficii)ed the assistance of the empress 
Oadnine, who received him at her court 
with the greatest distinction; and present- 
ed Jam with a valuable sword, ^povar It 

rHMUiemmt d la gfoirt de votre maisonJ* 
The English government save him, at the 
end of 1794, a pension of £15,000 sterling. 
He had himself sent his diamonds, aiMl 
the sword which Louis XVI had given 
his son, to marshal Broglio, to relieve, by 
the sale of them, the most pressing wants 
of the emigrants. As Russia seemed dis- 
posed to send troops to the assistance of 
the French royalims, the count proceeded 
fix)m Hamm, by way of Cuidiaven, to 
England, in Julyy 1796, embariced fiom 
that country on board the squadron of 
commodore Warren, and landed on the 
Be-Dieu Sept 29, 1796, expecting to carry 
aid to the chiefs of Vendue. But advices 
fix>m England that the Russian auxiliary 
corps was not to be expectedy made him 
resolve to re-embark. He returned to 
England, where he afterwards resided in 
the castle of Edinburgh. In 1799, he left 
Scotland, in order to join the band of the 
prince of Cond^ in the Russian army in 
Switzerland ; but, being informed of Koi^ 
sakow^ defeat and Suwarrow's retreat, he 
returned to England. After the peace of 
Amiens, he agim took up his residence in 
Edinburgh. On the renewal of the war in 
1803, he went to London, and, subse- 
quendy, till 1809, resided at Hartwell, an 
estate which Louis XVIII had purchased. 
In 1613, he went to the continent, to await 
the result of the entry of the allies into 
France. In February, 1814, he crossed 
the Rhine, and was at Vesoul, when the 
complaints made by the duke of Vicenza, 
at the congress of Chatillon, induced him 
to return. After Napoleon's abdication, 
he, as lieutenant-eeueral of the kingdom, 
immediately proclaimed, in Nancy, to the 
French people, "the triumph of liberty 
the reipi of the laws, the abolition of the 
conscnption, the suppression of the droits^ 
rhmU, and the entire oblivion of the pasL^ 
April 1% 1814, he entered Paris, and as- 
sumed the supreme authority dll the arri'> 
val of Louis XVIII, in whose name he 
declared to the president of the senate, 
April 15, that the king, his brother, would 
recognise for the basis of the constitution- 
representation in two chambers, personal 
liberty, fi:eedom of the press, and other 
lights, for which they had been so long 
contending. He now entered immediate- 
ly on the work of reform. He causa* the 
papal archives and other things, taken 
from Rome by Napoleon, to be restored 
to the holy fether: the cours nrevOiaUs 
the tribunals of the customs, ana a portion 
ofthe(2rotto-r^mf, were suppressed. The 
(q. V.) were afterwards re» 

He then signed the 

Digitized by 



treaty of April 23,1i]r which France aban- 
doned 53 strong places occupied Iw French 
troops, 31 ships of the line and 12 fiigates. 
Lotus XVIII appointed him coloneEgen- 
era! of the French national guards, and 
of the Swiss. Monsieur, in the same 
year, travelled through the southern de- 
partmentSy visiting Lyons, Marseilles and 
Avi^on. When the news of Napoleon^ 
landinf^ in France reached Paris, Mon- 
sieur unmediately proceeded to Lyons, 
March 8th, where, however, he &und 
such a disposition prevailing, that he 
«oon left the cij^, accompanied by a 
single cavalry officer. In Paris, he ac- 
companied the king, March 16, to the 
chamber of deputies, and swore, ** in the 
name of honor, fidelity to the king and 
charter." It being impracticable to de- 
fend Paris, he, with the duke of Berri, 
foUowed die kinff to the Netheriands. 
After the return of the kins, July 7, 1815, 
he presided in the electoral college of the 
l^apital, by which means he conciliated 
somewhat the pc^ular favor. On the 
opening of the chambers, Oct 7, Mon- 
sieur, as well as the other princes, renew- 
ed their oath of fidelity to the charter. 
He took apart in several subjects brought 
before the chamber of peers, as president 
of a bureau ; but, of late years, the French 
princes have made no use of their seat 
and vote in the chamber. In 1818, he 
resigned the conmumd of the national 
guards. He was, moreover, the founder 
and distributor of the decoration of the 
lily. The party, in particular, of the ul- 
tra-royalists, and of the ultra-montanists, 
seems to have attached itself to him or to 
his fiiends ; and, during the last part of the 
reign of Louis XVIII, he had an impor- 
tant influence on the course of public af- 
fain and the appointment of ministers. 
On the day of his brother's death, whom 
he had not left for a moment during the 
two last days of his life, he was received, 
Sept 16th, 1824, with the ancient and cus- 
tomaiy cry ** Le roi eat morif Vive le rot r* 
&epL 17, the members of the royal family, 
the diplomatic corps, and the first cii^ 
authorities, rendered him their homage. 
The duke of AnsoulSme now assumed, 
in conformity with ancient usage, the title 
of dauphin; his wifo was «Uled cbti- 
Mnes9; the duchess of Berri, madame, 
Charies X inunediately conferred on the 
Louse of Orleans the title aUesst royale. 
He was received with applause when he 
made his public entry on horseback bito 
Paris fit>m St Ck)ud, Sept 27. Some 
traits of goodness of heart, marks of kind- 
ft«B| and peculiar exjwessions, indk^itiBg a 

certain chtvalri; IMing and French ttma 
of sentiment, gained I dm fiivor. The 
greatest impression was made by die res- 
toration of the fiieedom of the press widi 
respect to periodicals, Sept 29, 1824. 
The former ministry, under Vifl^le (q. v.), 
was, however, retained. But the dauphin 
received a seat and voice in the ministeri- 
al councils, and the count of Clermont- 
Tonn^was made minister of war, and 
the duke of Doudeauville minister of the 
kui^s household. Sept 22, 1824, the 
session of the chambers was opened by 
Charies X. The same was done by hiin 
Jan. 31st, 182a With respect to the 
measures of his reign, the indemnification 
of the emigrants, the restriction of the 
ultra-montane and Jesuit parties, the ac* 
knowledgment of the independence of 
Hayd, the process of Onvrard, the law of 
BBcrilege, of substitutions, &c., we refer 
to the article IVance. The solemn coro- 
nation of the king at Rheims, May 29, 
1825) was an important national event, 
where many ancient and some ridiculoue 
usages were revived ; for instance, die vial 
containing the holy oU (which was brought 
in former ages by a dove fitnn heaven) 
was again restored!* Charies X swore 
to govern accordinff to the charter. Aftar 
the death of the duke of Montmorenci, 
he appointed the duke of Riviere covem- 
or and tutor of his grandson, the nuke of 
Bordeaux, presumptive heir of the throne, 
and Tharin, bishop of Strasburg, a fiiend 
of the Jesuits, teacher of the prince. The 
first minister of the king, the count of 
Viil^le (q. v.), had to undergo a hard con- 
test in the chambers with &e liberal and 
royalist opposition, especially on the sub^ 
ject of the financial deficiencies, the at- 
tempts of the theocratical-Jesuiticad party, 
and some measures respecting foreign «^ 
fiiirs. Strong efforts were afterwards mad<» 
for the reftstablishment of the censorship 
of theperiodical press, and it was restored 
in 1827. Seventy-six new peen were 
created, because the chamber of peers had 
showi^a spirit of opposition to M. Villi^le. 
The speech of Charies, at the opening 
of the chamber, a short time after the 
batde of Navarino, excited much sensa- 
tion, because it was rather fiivorable to the 
Greeks. The monarch did not, like his 
royal brother, the king of England^ speak 
of the engagement as an ** untoward 
eventi** August 29, 1888, and durinff 
some days foUowing, the French gen^iu 

* The spleiidid work Baert de 8. M. Chnrlea X 
dam la MKtropole de Rheinu. U 29 3^. 1825, has 
been lithomphed by Laagl^ine, at Paris, from 
Deroy ana Aoam't designs. 

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J who bed amved with 154 tiaiis* 
Doit Teasels in the bay of Coion^ in the 
Moiea» landed his forces, amounting to 
15,000 men, who were destined to support 
the Greeks. Admiral de Rigny had previ- 
oosly assisted in the battle of Navarino, 
Oct. 20, 1827, as conmiander of the 
French squadron. Villi^le lost his office 
in 1828^ having become unpopular b^ 
yielding to the ultra aod to the Jesuit 
imity, as well as by his avarice. The 
king now appointea a ministry rather 
liberal in its character, the chief person of 
which was Portalis ; but, as ean^ as the 
middle of 1829, he supplanted this minis- 
Oy by an ultiu-royaliHt one, under the di^ 
rection of prince rolignac, who had been 
till then ine French ambassador in Lon- 
don. It is believed by many, that prince 
Polignac is the offspring of an intrigue 
between the king and a princess PoligoAC, 
a lady of the court, and that Charles has 
long desired to make him prime minister, 
wi£out le^utl to the character of the 
ministry which he should form^ Thus it 
K said in Paris, that Polignac, before the 
members of the present ministry were se- 
lected, ofiered a place to the distinguished 
liberal Royer-Collard, and that, seeing he 
could not find support or confidence 
anaaae the liberals, ne decided to throw 
liimself into the arms of the other party* 
However this may be, the sudden and in- 
consistent changes of the ministry, which 
have taken place during Charles's reign, 
seem to indicate that he is not possessed 
of very great talents for government He 
is said to be a strict Catholic The Bour- 
bons have TDLUch to do to win the &vor of 
the French. They are regarded as aliens, 
and then- conduct hitherto has been such 
as to strengthen this feeling. The minis- 
tiy of Polignac has been very unpopular, 
and it is cenerally expected that the king 
will dissolve the chamber before the next 
session (beginning of 1830). 

Cbjjlles I, king of England and Scot- 
land, was bom in Scotland, in the year 
1600, and was the second son of James 
VI and Aiuie of Denmark. Soon after 
the birth o£ his son, James succeed- 
ed to the crown of Ilnffland, and, upon 
the death of prince Iienry, in 1612, 
Charks was created prince of Wales* 
His youth appears to have passed respect- 
ably, fittle being recorded of him previ- 
eusty to his romantic poumey into Spain 
in coDq>any with Buckmgham, in order to 
pay his court in person to the Spanish 
io&iK& Through the arrogance of Buck- 
MOfjbtm, this match was prevented, and 
the prince was soon alter contracted to 

VOL. III. 8 

Henrl^ta Maria, daua^rter of Henry IV 
of France. In 1625, he succeeded to the 
throne, on the death of his fiither, and re* 
ceived the kingdom embroiled in a Span* 
ish war, and full of suspicion and dislike 
to the minister Buckingham. The first 
parliament which he summoned, being 
much more disposed to state grievances 
than grant supplies^ was disso^ed; and, 
by loans and otner expedients, an expedi* 
tion was fitted out against Spain, which 
terminated in disgmce and disappointment. 
In the next year, a new parliament was 
summoned ; and the disgust and jealousy| 
which prevailed between the king and 
this assembly, laid the foundation of the 
misfortunes of ins reign. The house of 
commons impeached the minister, and 
the king supported him. They held &Bfe 
the public purse, and he intimated a de* 
sign of following new cmmstls, should 
they continue to resist his will, and sud- 
denly and angrily dissolved them, after a 
short session, while thev were preparing a 
remonstrance against the levying of ton- 
nage and poundage without consent of 
parliament. Charles then be^an to era- 
ploy his threatened inodeof raismg fimcbi, 
by loans, benevolences, and similar un- 
popular proceedings; which, however 
partiaUy sanctioned by precedent, were 
wholly opposed to the rising notions of 
civil liberty throughout the nation, and to 
the constitutional doctrine, which render- 
ed the commons the guardian ai^ dis- 
penser of the public treasure. His diffi- 
culties were fiirther increased by a pre- 
posterous war with France, intended to 
eratify the private enmity of Bucking- 
ham, who added to tlie odium against 
him by an ill-fated expedition in assist- 
ance of the Huguenots of Rochelle. In 
1628, the king was obliged to call a new 
parliament, which showed itself as much 
opposed to arbitraiy measures as its pre- 
decessor, and, after voting the supplies, 
prepared a bill, called ** A petition or right, 
recognising all the le^ privileges of the 
subject," which, notwithstanding the em- 
ployment of all marmer of arts and expe- 
dients to avoid it, Charles was constrained 
to pass into a law ; and, had the conces- 
sion been unequivocal and sincere, and 
the constitutional mode of govemm^it, 
which it implied, been really adopted by 
both sides, much that followed might 
have been prevented. Charles, however, 
by his open encouragement of the doc- 
trines of such divines as Sibthorpe and 
Mainwaring, who publicly inculcated the 
doctrine of passive obedience, and repre- 
sented all limitation of kingly power ai 

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fleditioiifl and raipiouB, too cleaily sanc- 
tioned the jealoiufy of the commons^ who 
would not, in consequence, rest in confi- 
dence or slacken their attacks upon Buck- 
ingham, on which account they were sud- 
denly prorogued. The assasonatlon of 
the favorite soon after, by the enthusiast 
Fehon, removed one source of discord, 
and Charies became more his own minis- 
ter ; and some diflferences with his queen, 
which had been fomented by Bucking- 
ham, being made up, he ever after con- 
tinued much under her influence. The 
purliament, which met in January, 1628, 
manifested so determined a spirit against 
the king's claim of levyins tonnage and 
poundage by his own authority, that it 
was suddenly dissolved, and Charles was 
determined to try to reign without one. 
For this purpose, having judiciously ter- 
minated the pending wars between France 
and Spdn, ne raised sir Thomas Went- 
. worth, afterwards so celebrated as lord 
Strafford, to the principal place in his 
councils. Thisable statesman had begun 
his political career in opposition to the 
eouit, but, having been gamed over, was, 
by his austerity, talent and firmness, an 
exceedingly fit instrument to curb the 
spirit of resistance to prerogative, which 
bad become so strong amon^ the com- 
mons. In ecclesiastical affairs, Charles, 
unhappily for himself and the church, 
was guided by the counsels of Laud, then 
bishop of London, a prelate whose learn- 
ing and piety were debased by supersti- 
tion and a zeal as indiscreet as intolerant 
Under these counsels, some years passed 
away in the execution of plans for raising 
money without the aid of parliament, with 
other dangerous expedients. The arbitra- 
ly courts of high commission and star 
chamber, in the hands of Laud, also ex- 
ercised, in many instances, the most griev- 
ous oppression ; of which the treatment 
of Williams, bishop of Linoohi, and oth- 
ers, afibrds memorable examples. In 
1634, ship-money began to be levied, 
which being strictly applied to naval 
purposes, the nation at aom acquiesced 
in It with less than usual repugnance ; 
and some writers, who courageously at- 
tacked the court against the principle, were 
treated with so much seventy, that others 
were deterred from following their exam- 
ple. So desperate did the cause of liberty 
at this time appear, that great numbers of 
tile Puritans emigrated to New England; 
and, bv order of the court, a ship was pre- 
vented fi^m sailing, in which were sir 
.Mthur Hazebi^, John Hampden and 
Oliver CromwelL It was in 1637, not 

long after this remarkable event, that 
Hampden commenced the career of re- 
sistance by refusing to pay ship-money; 
tiie right to levy which, without authority 
of pariiament, he was determined to faring 
before a court of law. His cause was 
argued for 12 davs in the court of ex- 
chequer; and, although he lost it by the 
decision of 8 of the judges out of 13, the 
discussion of the question was followed 
by the most important consequences in 
its operation upon public opmion. It waa 
in Scotland, however, that formal warlike 
opposition was destined to commence. 
From the beginning of his reign, Charies 
had endeavored to introduce into that 
country a liturgy copied from the English 
— an innovation which produced the most 
violent tumults, and ended in the forma- 
tion of the famous CoveTiant, in 1638, by 
which aU classes of people matually en- 
gaged to stand by each other. The Cove- 
nanters levied an army, which the king 
opposed by an ill-disciplined English 
force, so equivocally inclined, that, not 
able to trust to it, Charies agreed to a sort 
of pacification. The next year, he raised 
another army ; but, his finances being ex- 
hausted, after an intermission of 11 veara^ 
he again assembled a pariiament, who, as 
usual, began to state gnevances previously 
to granting supplies. Losing all patience, 
the king once more hastily dissolved it, 
and prosecuted several members who had 
distinguished themselves by their opposi- 
tion. Raising money in the best manner 
he could devise, an English army was 
again made to proceed towards the north j 
but, being defeated by the Scots, it became 
obvious that af&irs could no longer be 
managed without a parliament, and, in 
1640, that dreaded assembly was again 
summoned, which proved to be the fa- 
mous long parliament, whose career forms 
so memorable a portion of Englisb history. 
It is not within tiie limits of this work to 
give an account of the proceedings connect- 
ed with the prosecution, condemnation 
and execution of Strafford and Laud, or 
the various measures of reaction m regard 
to ship-money, tonnage and poundage^ 
and the abolition of the iniquitous courts 
of high commission and star chamber: 
Bufiice it to say, that Charies soon found 
himself reduced to a comparatively passive 
spectator of the ascendency of the demo- 
cratical portion of the constitution, and 
was obliged, both in Scotland and in 
England, to yield to the torrent which as- 
sailed bun. In the mean time, a fiame 
Imrst out in Ireland, which had no smaU 
efiect in kindling the ensmng confiagia* 

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don at borne. The oppressed Catholic 
population of that countiy, during the con- 
fusioD of the times, rose against the sov- 
emmeat for the purpose of regaining their 
rights. Very exaggerated accounts of the 
maasacre of the Protestants are to be found 
in sereral of the historians. Later writers 
have established the fact, that the number 
who perished in this insurrection was very 
limiled. The old Catholic settlers of the 
Knglifili pa]e joined the native Irish, and, 
to aoengthen their cause, pretended to 
have a nwal commission, and to act in 
defoice of the king's prerogative against 
a puritanical and republican parliament 
This pretended commission is now gen- 
erally deeined a forgery; but such was 
the supposed partiality of Charles to pope- 
ly, that this event added conF^derably to 
popuhur disaffection. The oarliament be- 
ing summoned, the kin^ len the conduct 
of the war entirely to it ; but it now be- 
came evident that the commons intended 
systematically to pursue their advantages, 
and to reduce the crown to a state of 
complete dependence. They framed a 
lemonfitzance, cx)ntaimng a recapitulation 
^all the errors of the reijgn ; renewed an 
attempt for excluding bishops from the 
bouse of k)rd6 ; passed ordinances against 
supeistitioua practices; and so in£med 
the popular odium against the Episcopal 
orda-A, as to intimidate its members from 
aftffnding to their duty in parliament. At 
lenfth, it being apparent that either the 
zealous adherents of prero^tive, or those 
who were anxious to estabhsh tiie ^vem- 
ment upon a more democj^tic basis, must 
give wav, Charles, instigated, it is suppos- 
ed, fay the injudicious advice of his queen 
and lord Di^y, caused his attorney-gen- 
eral to enter, m the house of peers, an accu- 
sation against five leading members of the 
commons, and sent a seigeant-at-arms to 
the house to demand them. Receiving an 
evasive answer, he, the next day, proceed- 
ed himself to the house, witli an anned 
retinue, to seize their persons. Aware of 
this intention, they had previously ^vith- 
drawn ; but the king's appearance with a 
guard caused the house to break up in 
great disorder and indigoation. The ac- 
cused members retir^ into the city, 
wliere a committee of the house was ap- 
pointed to sit, and the city militia was 
nmstered under a commander appointed 
\iy parliament, which also demanaed the 
control of the army. Here tlie king made 
his last stand, the matter having now ar- 
rived at a point which arms alone c^uld 
decide. The queen fied to Holland to 
procure ammunition, and Chariesi with 

the prince of Waks, proceeded ooith- 
wards, and, for a time, futed his lesidenca 
at York. The king was received in hia 
progress with great demonstradons of loy- 
alty firom the gentry ; and many eminent 
and virtuous cheiactens, who had been 
the conscientious opposers of his arbitra- 
ly measures in the n»t instance, now ioin- 
ed liis party. On the other hand, all the 
Puritans, the inhabitants of the great trad* 
ing towns, and those who had adopted 
republican notions of government, sided 
with the parliament; and in no public 
contest was more private and public vir- 
tue ranged on both sides, however alloy- 
ed, as m all such cases, with ambition, 
bigotry and the baser passions. The first 
action of consequence was d^e battle of 
Edge-hill, and, although indecisive, it en- 
abled the kiiiff to approach London, and 
produce considerable alanu. He then re- 
tired to Oxford, and negotiations were 
entered into which proved unavailing. 
Nothing decisive, however, happen^ 
against the royal side, until the battle of 
Maiston-moor, in 1644, which was gained 
chiefly by the skill and valor of CromwcdL 
The succeeding year completed the ruin 
of the king's aiaiis, by the loss of the cel- 
ebrated l^tde of Naseby. Thencefor- 
ward a series of disasters attended his ar- 
mies throughout the kingdom, and he 
took the resolution of throwing himself 
into the hands of the Scottish army, then 
lymg before Newaiit. He was receiv<- 
ed with respect, although placed under 
guard as a prisoner ; and, a series of abor- 
tive negotiations ensuing, an agreement 
was made with the parliunent to surren- 
der him to their commissioners, on the 
payment of a large sum, claimed as arrears 
by the Scottish army. The king was ac- 
cordingly surrendered to the commission- 
ers appoShted, and was carried, in the first 
place, to Holmby-house, in Northampton- 
sliire ; knibsequendy, to the head-quarters 
of tlie army at Reading, and, soon after, to 
Hampton-court, where he was treated 
with no small portion of the respect ex- 
acted by his station. In the mean time, 
however, the army and Independents be- 
comiii^ all-powernil, he was led into some 
fears for his personal safety, and, making 
his escape with a few attendants, proceed- 
ed to the southeni coast. Not meeting a 
vessel, as he expected, he crossed over to 
the Isle of Wight, and put himself into tlie 
hands of Hammond, the governor, a crea- 
ture of CromwiBll's, by whom he was lodg- 
ed in Carisbrook castle. While in this n»- 
mote situation, the Scots, ashamed of the 
manner in which they had delivered him 

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up, and indlgnaxvt at the proceediiigB of 
tbe English, marehed a considerabieamiy 
to his relief, under the duke of Hamihon. 
This force, although strengthened by a 
large body of En^sh royalists, was en« 
lireiy routed and dispersed by CromweU, 
88 were the insunents in Kent and Essex 
by Fairfax. During this employment of 
tiie army imd its l^ders, a new negotia- 
tion was opened with the king in the Isle 
ci Wight, who <ijp^eed to nearly every 
tiling demanded of him, except the aboli- 
tion of Episcopacy ; and so much had it 
now become the interest of the parliament 
itself to comply with him, that a vote was 
at length earned, that the kind's conces- 
sions were a sufficient ground tor a treaty. 
The triumphant army, however, on its re^ 
turn, deaied the house by force of all the 
members opposed to its views ; and, there- 
by procuring a reversal of this vote, the 
long's person was again seized, and, being 
brought from the Isle of Wight to Hurst 
castle, preparations were made for trying 
him on the capital charge of high treason 
against the people. As the house of lords 
paused to concur in a vote for this pur- 
pose, the commons declared its concur- 
rence unnecessary; and the king, being 
conducted to London, and stripped of aU 
ensigns of royalty, vras brought before the 
court of justice, specially erected for this 
unprecedented trial, on the 20th of Jan., 
1649. The behavior of Charles had been 
calm and dignified throughout his adver- 
ioxyj and in no respect was it more so tlian 
on this occasion. Three times he object- 
ed to the authority of the court, when 
brought before it, and supported his refu- 
nd by clear and cogent arguments. At 
lengtn, evidence being heard against hiui, 
on the proof that he had appeared in arms 
asainst the pariiamentary forces, sentence 
of death was pronounced against him. 
He requested a conference with both 
houses, which was rejected, and only 
three days were allowed him to prepare 
for his fate. As he left the tribunal, he 
was insulted by a portion of the soldiery, 
and other base and unj^ardonable indigni- 
ties were offered to mm, which he bore 
with dignified eqtianimity. The interpo- 
sition of forei^ powers, the devotion of 
fiiends and nunisters, who sought to save 
him by taking all the blame upon them- 
selves, were vain. After passing three days, 
between his condemnation and execu- 
tion, in religious exerdsee, and in tender 
iBlerviewB with his friends and fiunily, he 
was led to the scaffold. His execution 
took place before the banqueting-house, 
Wfaitieball, on the 30th of Jan^ 16^, 

where, after addressmg the people aitrand 
him with great firmness and composure, 
the ill-fated king submitted to the fatal 
stroka Thus died Charles I, in the 49th 
year of his age, than whom few kings 
hare been more distinguished for the vir- 
tues which ornament and dignify private 
life. He was, in an eminent degree, tem- 
perate, chaste and religious, and, althougli 
somewhat cold and reserved in demean- 
or, was, in fact, highly kind and aftecdon- 
ate, and secured me wannest attachment 
of those who had access to him. His 
talents were also considenLble ; but he 
shone more in suffering than in acting, 
and was deficient in the decision and self- 
reliance, which are necessary to superior 
executive ability. His mind was cultivat- 
ed by lettera, and a taste for the polite arts, 
particularly painting, the professors of 
which he munificently encouraged ; and 
the collections of works of art, wliich he 
made in his prosperity, show great judg- 
ment in the selection. He had also a feel- 
ing for poetry, and wrote in a good style 
in prose, without reference to the ftimous 
Eikon BasUike, his claim to which is now 
generally disputed. To all these persona] 
and private acquirements, he joined a 
graceful figure and pleasing countenance, 
and, imder happier circumstances, would 
doubtless have been regarded as a very 
accomplished sovereign. With respect 
to his political character, as exhibited in 
the great struggle between himself and 
the parliament, it is unpos»ble not to per- 
ceive that he strove to maintain a portion 
of prerogative that had become incompat- 
ible with any theory of civil and religious 
liberty; but it is e<}ually certain that he 
only sought to retain what his predeces- 
sors had possessed, and what power nev- 
er concedes willingly. There are periods, 
poB^bly, in the history of every people, in 
which old and new opinions conflict, and 
a concussion becomes unavoidable ; and 
it was the misfortune of Charies to occupy 
the throne at a time when the develope- 
ment of the representative system neces- 
sarily encountered the claims of preroga- 
tive. If the pariiament had acquiesced in 
the kingly pretensions, as usually explain- 
ed by Laud and the high-chiirchmeii-of 
the day, it vrould have dwindled into a 
mere re^stiy of royal edicts, like thoee of 
France. On the other hand, Charies act- 
ed a part which every monarch, in his sit- 
uation, may be expected to act ; for a phi- 
losophical appreciation of the true nature 
of a political crisis is scarcely to he ex- 
pected from one who sits upon a tLrone. 
The most forcible accusation against 

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diaiiee ib on the score of innnceiity. It 
is asseited that he never intended to fulfil 
the oondhionB iniDoeed upon tiim. This 
can flctfreely be oemed ; but it is eoually 
cotaiB tfast some of them might jusUy be 
denned questionablB, if not demanded 
with a direct view to produce that con* 
duct IB the king whica so naturally fol- 
kwed. On the whole, though many may 
demur to his title of maartfr^ f^w will he&- 
itote to regard him as a victim to a crisiB 
which the growing power of the com* 
mooi^ and the unsettled nature of the pre* 
rogatvre^ rendered sooner or later inevit- 
aUe. His fate, like that of the house of 
Stuart generally, exhibits the danger and 
afasuiditT of those high theoretical notions 
ofkingfy prerogative, which, while they 
add very little to the real power of those 
whoa they are intended to &vor, too fi«- 
^uentiy seduce them into encounters with 
currents of piineiple and action^ a resist- 
ance ID which is always futile^ and gen- 
enlljr destnictive. 

Chabubs it, king of England and Scot- 
land, aon of Charles I and Henrietta Ma- 
ria olTranoe, was bom in 1630. He was 
a refugee at the Hague on the death of 
his mbggy cm which he immediately as- 
sumed the royal title. He first intended 
to proceed to Ireland, but was prevented 
b>' the progress of CromwelL He there- 
lore Usiened to an invitation fiiom the 
Scots, who had modaimed him their 
king; and, being obliged to throw himself 
into the hands of the ri^d Presbyterians, 
they subjected him to many severities 
and mortifications, which caused him to re- 
gard that sect ever after with extreme 
areision. In 1651, he was crowned at 
Scone; but the approach of Cromwell, 
wish his conquering army, soon rendered 
his abode in Scotland unsafe. Hoping to 
beJMned by the EInglish royaUstB,he took 
die spirited resolution of passing Crom- 
well, and entering England. He was im- 
i&ediately pursued by that active com- 
Biander, who, with a superior army, gain- 
ed the battle of Worcester; and Charies, 
after a variety of imminent hazards, in 
one of which, he was sheltered for 24 
houn m the branches of a spreading oak, 
reached Shorefaam, in Sussex, and effect- 
ed a passage to France. He passed some 
years in Paris, little regarded by the court, 
vhidi was awed by the power of the 
^oglisfa commonwealth ; and this indigni- 
ty iiuhiced him to retbv to Cologne. It 
is dw province of history to state the 
<3rcanMances that produced the restora^ 
tion, which general Monk so conducted, 
*hat QttxkSi without a struggle, suoceed- 

ed at once to all those dangerous preroga- 
tives, which it had cost the iwtion so much 
Uood and treasure, first to abridge, and 
then to abotish. This unrestrictive re- 
turn was not more injurious to the nation 
than fatal to the ftmily of the Stuarts, 
whkh, had a more rational policy prevail- 
ed, might have occupied the throne at 
this moment On the 29th of May, 1660, 
Charies entered his capital amidst univer- 
sal and almost frantic acclamations ; and 
the different civil and religious parties 
vied with each other in loyalty and sub- 
mission. His first measures were prudent 
and conciliatory. Hyde^ lord Clarendon, 
was made chancellor and prime minister; 
and an act of indemnity was passed, fit>m 
which those alone were excepted who 
were immediately concerned in the late 
king's death. A settled revenue was ac- 
cepted in lieu of wardship and purvey- 
ance, and the army was reduced. In re- 
spect to religion, there was less indul- 
gence ; for not only were prelacy and the 
parliamentary rights of bishops restored, 
which was to be expected, but an act of 
uniformity was passed, by the conditicmfl 
of which neariy all the Pred>yterian cler* 

fy were driven to a resignation of their 
vings. In 1662, he married the infanta 
of Portugal, a prudent and vutuous prin- 
cess, but in no way calculated to acquire 
the affection of a man hke Charles. The 
mdolence of his temper, and the expenses 
of his licentious viray of life, soon inv<dved 
him in pecuniary duficuhies; and the un- 
popular sale of Dunkirk to the French 
was one of his most eariy expedients to 
relieve himself. In 1663, a rupture took 
place with Holland, which, as n proceed- 
ed fiom commercial rivalry, was willingly 
supported by parliament It was attend- 
ed, in the first instance, by various naval 
successes ; but, France and Denmark en- 
tering into the war, as allies of the Dutch, 
the English were overmatched, and a Dutch 
fleet entered the Thames, and, proceedmg 
up the Medway, burnt and desoroyed 
ships as hi^h as Chatham. Such was 
the naval disgrace of a reign, which, on 
many other accounts, is probably the 
most nationally discreditable one m the 
English annals. The domestic calamities 
of a dreadful plague, in 1665, and of the 
great fire of London, in 1666, added to 
ue disasters of die period. Soon after, 
Clarendon, who had become very unpop- 
ular, and was pereonally disagi-eeable to 
Charles, was dionissed, and sought shelter 
finom his enemies by a voluntary exile. A 
triple alliance between England, Holland 
and Sweden, fois the purpose of cheeking 

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the ambition of Louis XIV, followedL It 
did honor to the political talents of sir 
William Temple, and was one of the few 
public measures of the reign which de* 
serve approbation. The thoughden 

Eiion of Charles, faoweyer, soon 
ht him into a condition which ren* 
him the mero pensioner of Louis ; 
by whose secret aid he was supported in 
all his attempts to abridge the needom of 
his people. In 1670, he threw himself 
into the hands of the five uuprinci^ded 
ministers, ooUectively denominated the 
edbaly who suppcNPted him in eyery at« 
tempt to make himself independent of 
parhamenL A visit which Chanes received 
from his sister, the duchess of Orieans, 
was rendered subservient to French pol- 
icy, by means of one of her attendant 
ladies, a beautiful Frenchwoman. This 
female made, as was intended, a conquest . 
of Charles, who created her duchess of 
Portsmouth ; and, amidst all his other at- 
tachments, she retained an influence over 
him which kept him steadily attached to 
France. The party troubles oi this reign 
conunenced, about this time, by the open 
declaration of the duke of York, presump- 
tive heir to the crown, that he was a con* 
yert to the Roman Catholic religion. 
Soon after, the nunistry broke the triple 
alliance, and planned a rupture vrith the 
Dutch ; and, as the king did not choose to 

rly to pailiament for money to carry on 
projected war, he caused the exchequer 
to be shut up in Januaiy, 1672, and, by 
several other disgraceful and arbitrary 
proceedings, gave nreat disgust and ahum 
to the nation. The naval operations 
against the Dutch were by no means auc- 
cessfiil, and, a new parliament being called, 
which strongly expressed the di»H)ntent 
of the nation, the cabal was dissolved, and 
a separate peace made with Holland in 
1674. Divisions in the cabinet, fluctua- 
tions in the king's measures, and poriia- 
mentary contests, followed, and occupied 
the next three years, until, in 1677, 
Charles performed a popular act, by mar- 
lying his niece, the ^incess Maiy, to the 
prince of Orange. By taking some de- 
cided steps in fkvor of^the Dutch, he also 
forwarded the peace of Nimeguen, in 1678. 
The same year was distinguished by the 
pretended discoveiy of the celebrated 
popish plot, for the assassination of the 
king, and the introduction of the Catholic 
religion. Notwithstanding the in&mous 
ehanictere of Oates and Bedloe, and the 
improbable nature of their disclosures, 
their tale, supported l^ the general sus- 
picion of the secret influence of a Catholic 

fiustion, met with uniyenal belief; and, in 
relation thereto, the parliament exhiinf ed 
neariy as much credulity and heat as the 
vulgar. JAany Catholic lords were com- 
miltod; Coleman, the duke of Yoik^ 
secretary, and several priests, were hang- 
ed ; and a venerable nobleman, tbe eari of 
Staffind, was beheaded. The duke a€ 
York thouffht fit to retire to Brussels, and 
a bill for bis exclusion fixnn the throne 
passed the house of commons. Such 
was the state of the country, that Charles 
vras obliged to give way to some papuhir 
measures, and the great palladium or civil 
liberty, the habeas corpus bill, passed dur- 
ing this session. The temper of the par« 
liiunent was so much excited, that the 
king first prorogued and then diasolved k. 
The court now sought to establish a bal- 
ance of parties ; to distinguish which, the 
terms temg and fory were about this time 
invented. In 1680, a new parliament as- 
sembled, and the commor^s again passed 
the exclusion bill, which was rejected by 
the lords. This parliament was also dis- 
solved in the next year, and a new one 
called at Oxford, which proved so restifll! 
that a sudden dissolution of it enwied; 
and, like his father, Charies determined 
henceforward to govern vrithout one. By 
the aid of the tory gentry and the clergy, 
he obtained loyal addresses fiiom all parts 
of the kingdom, and attachment to nigh 
monarchiod principles came again into 
yogue. The charge of plots and conspira- 
cies was now brought against the Pr»by- 
terians. A person named ColUge was 
executed upon the same infamous evi- 
dence as had been previously turned 
affainst the Catholics ; and the fanuxis eari 
of Shaflesbuiy, who headed the popular 
party, was brought to trial, but acqmtted. 
The nonconformists, generally, were also 
treated with much rigor; and a step of 
great moment, in the progress to arbitrary 
power, was the instituting suits at law 
(quo wanranhs) against most of the corpo- 
rations in the kmgdom, by which the^ 
were intimidated to a resignation of their 
charters, in order to receive them bacdc so 
modelled as to render them much more 
dependent than before. These rapid 
strides towards the destruction of liberty 
at length produced the celebrated Rye- 
house plot, the parties to which certainly 
intendra renstance ; but that the assassina- 
tion of the king vnis ever formally pro- 
jected, seems very doubduL It certain^ 
formed no port of the intention of lord 
WiUiam Rtissel, whose execution, with 
that of Algernon Sidney, on account of 
the plot, finms one of the strikiii^ evenis 

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of liu8 difligraoeiy nicD. CSiaiies iras^ 
It this time, as abeonite aa any boy- 
eieign in Europe; and, had he been an 
active prince, the fetters of tyrannv 
might nave . been completely riyeted* 
Scotland, which, at different periods of 
his reign, bad been driven mto insur- 
recti<Hi by the aibitiaiy attempts to re- 
store Emscopacy, was at len^ com- 
pletely dragooned into submiasiQn; and 
me rdics of the CoTenanten were sup- 
presed with circumstances of great bar* 
parity. It is said, however, that Charles 
was becoming un^iay at this plan, which 
was chiefly supported by the oigoted aus- 
terity of the duke of Yoric ; and that he 
had made a resolution to rekiz, when he 
expired, fiom the consequences of an apo- 
plectic fit, in Feb., 1685, m the My-fifth 
year of his ace and twenty-fifth of his 
reign. At his death, he received the sacra- 
ment, according to the rites of the Roman 
church, and thus proved himself to have 
be^ during the whole of his life, as hyp- 
ocritical as profligate. The character of 
Charies II requhes little analysis. He 
Was a confirmed sensualist ana voluptu- 
ary; and, owin^ to the example of him 
and his court, his reign was the era of the 
most dissolute manneis that ever prevailed 
in England. The stage was an open 
school of licentiousness, and polite litera- 
ture was altogether infected by it. Charles 
was a man of wit, and a good judge of 
certain kinds of writing, but was too defi- 
cient in senrability to feel either the sublime 
or the beautiful, in composition ; neither 
was he generous even to the writers whom 
beapplauded. He possessed an easy {|;ood 
nature, but uniled with it a total indifier- 
ence to any thing but his own pleasure ; 
and no man could be more destitute of 
honor or generosi^. His ideas of the 
relation between hang and 8id>ject were 
evinced by bis observation on Lauderdale's 
cruelties in Scotland : — ** I perceive," said 
he, ^ that Lauderdale has been guilty of 
many bad things against the people of 
Scotland ; but I cannot find that he has 
acted in any thing contrary to my interest'' 
¥et, with aJl his selfishness and demerits as 
a king^ Charies always preserved a share 
of popularity with the multitude, fiom the 
easness c€ his manners. Pepy s' memoirs, 
and other private documents, however, 
clearly show the opinion of the more 
refledling portion of his subjects ; and it is 
BOW pretty cenerally admitted, that, as he 
'Was himara a most dishonorable and 
beaillesB monaroli and man, so his reign 
eJEhflued the En^^ish character in a more 
disjgncefid fi^dht than any other m Brit- 

ish history. It need not be added, that he 
kfl many illegitimate children, the de- 
scendants of some of whom are still 
among the leading peerage of the country. 
The fate of his most distinguished son, the 
iU-firted duke of Monmouth, is an affair of 

Chakles Edward Stuart. (See Ed- 

Charles XH, king of Sweden, bom at 
Stockholm, June 27, 1682, was well in- 
structed in the languages, histoiy, geogra- 
phy and mathematics. He understood 
G^inan, Latin and French. Curtius' 
histoiy of Alexander was his fiivorite 
book. On the death of his father, in 1697, 
when he was but 15 years old, he was 
declared of age l^ the estates. Mean- 
while, the young king showed but litde 
inclination tor business : he loved violent 
bodily exercises, and especially the chase 
of the bear. To his jealous neighbors, this 
seemed a fiivorable time to humble the 
pride of Sweden in the north. Frederic 
IV of Denmark, Augustus II of Pdand, 
and the czar Peter I of Russia, concluded 
an alliance which resulted in the norihem 
war, so called. The Danish troops first 
invaded the territory of the duke of Hol- 
stein-Gottorp. This prince, who had 
married the eldest sister of the king of 
Sweden, repaired to Stockholm, and asked 
for assistance. Charles had a particular 
attachment for him, and proposed, in the 
council of state, the most energetic meas- 
ures agunst Denmark. After making 
some arran^ments respecting the intamiu 
administnition, he embaiked at Cariscrona 
in May, 1700. Thirty ships of the fine^ 
and a great number of small transports, 
strenffthened by an Enelish and Dutch 
squaoron, appeared berore Copenhagen* 
Anransements were making for the dis- 
embenation, when Charies, full of impa- 
tience, plunged fix>m his boat into the 
water, and was the first who reached land. 
The Danes retired before the superior 
power of the enemy. Copenhagen was 
on the point of being besiefled, when the 
peace negotiated at Travendal was sisned 
(Aug. 8, 1700), by which the duke of Hol- 
stein was confirmed in all the rights of 
which it had been attempted to deprive him. 
Thus ended the first enteiprise of Charies 
XII, in which he exhibited as much intel- 
ligence and courage as disinterestedness. 
He adopted, at this time, that severe and 
temperate mode of life, to which he ever 
remained true, avoiding relaxation and 
useless amusements ; wine was banished 
firom his table ; at times coarse bread was 
h^ only food ; he often slept in his tkmk 

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on the ground ; a Uue cost) -with copper 
buttons, was his whole wardrobe; he 
wore laree boots, reaching above his 
knees, and gloves of buffido stun. With 
respect to the female sex, he manifested 
the greatest indifference, and no woman 
ever had any influence over him. After 
thus checking Denmark, the attacks of 
Augustus and Peter were to be repelled. 
The former was bestesing Riga, the latter 
menaced Narva and me countnr situated 
about the gulf of Finland. Without re- 
turning to his capital, which, in feet, he 
never revisited, Charles caused dO,000 
men to be transported to Livonia, and 
went to meet the Russians, whom he 
found, 80,000 strong, in a fortified camp, 
under the walls of Narva. On the 30th 
Nov., 1700, between eight and ten thou* 
sand Swedes placed themselves in order 
of battle, under the ^n of the Russians, 
and the engagement began. On the pre- 
vious evening, Peter had left his camp 
on pretence of bringing up reinforcements. 
In less than a quarter of an hour, the Rus- 
sian camp was taken by storm. Thirty 
thousand Russians perished on the field 
or threw themselves into the Narva; the 
test were taken prisoneni or dispmed. 
After this victoiy, Chuies crossed the 
Dwina, attacked the intrenchments of the 
Saxons, and gained a decisive victory. 
Charles miffht now have concluded a 
peace, whicn would have made him the 
arbiter of the North ; but, instead of so 
doing, he pursued Augustus to Poland, 
and determmed to take advantage of the 
discontent of a great part of the nation, for 
the purpose of dethrening him. Augustus 
attempted in vain to enter into neootia- 
tions; in vain did the countess Konigs- 
maik, mistress of Augustus, endeavor to 
obtain an interview with Charles, and 
disarm the Swedish hero by her beauty. 
Charles refused to negotiate with the 
king or to speak with the countess. The 
war continued; the Swedes gained a 
brilliant victory at Clissau; in 1703, all 
Poland was in the possession of the con- 
Guerors ; the cardinal primate declared the 
throne vacant ; and, oy the influence of 
Charles, the new choice fell on Stanislaus 
Xjcczinsky. Augustus hoped to be secure 
in Saxon^r, as Peter had meanwhile occu- 
pied Ingna, and feunded St Petersburg, at 
the mouth of the Neva. But the victor 
of Narva despised an enemy on whom he 
hoped, sooner or later, to take an easy 
revenge, and invaded Saxony. At Al- 
transtadt (q. v.), he dictated the conditions 
of peace, in 1706. The Livonian Patkul 
(q. v.)f wlio was the prime mover of the 

•Biauce against Sweden (at diat time Pe- 
ter's ambassador in Dresden), was deliv- 
ered up to him, on his demand, and was 
broken on the wheel It was, with jus- 
tice, a subject of astonishment, that a 
prince, till then so magnanimous, could 
stoop to such intemperate revenge. In 
other respects, Charles exhibited, during 
his tstay in Saxony, moderation and mag- 
nanimity. He subjected his troops to the 
strictest discipline. Several ambassadors 
and princes visited the camp of the 
at AJtraustAdt, among whom was Ma 
borough, who sought to discover Charles's 
plans, and convinced himself that the 
victorious hero would take no part in the 
great contests of the South. The king of 
Sweden, however, befere he left Germa- 
ny, required the emperor to ffrant to the 
Lutherans in Silesia perfect &eedom of 
conscience ; and the requisition was com- 

Elied with. In Sept, 1707, the Swedes 
$ft Saxony. They were 43,000 strong, 
well clothed, well disciplined, and en- 
riched by the contributions imposed on the 
conquered. Six thousand men remained 
for the protection of the king of Poland : 
with the rest of the army Chmies took the 
shortest route to Moscow. But, havinjp 
reached the region of Smolensk, he altered 
his plan, at the suggestion of the Cossack 
hetman Mazeppa, and proceeded to the 
Ukraine, in the hope tnat the Cossacks 
would join him. But Peter laid waste 
their country, and the proscribed Mazeppa 
could not procure the promised aid. The 
difficult marches, the want of provisions, 
the perpetual attacks of the enemy, and 
the severe cold, weakened Charies's army 
in an uncommon deme. General L6w- 
enhaupt, who was to oring reinforcements 
and pmvisions feom Livonia, arrived with 
onlv a few troops, exhausted b}^ the march, 
and by continual skirmishes with the Ru»- 
nans. Pultawa, abundanthr fiumished 
with stores, was about to be invested, 
when Peter appeared with 70,000 men. 
Charies, in reconnoitring, was danger- 
ously wounded in the thigh ; consequent- 
Iv, m the battle of June 27th, O. S. (July 
8th), 1709, which changed the fortunes of 
the Swedish hero and the ftite of the 
North, he was obliged te issue his com- 
mands finom a litter, without being able to 
encourage his soldiers by his presence. 
This, and still more the want of agreement 
between Renschild and L6wenhaupt, 
were the reasons why the Swedes did not 
display their usual skill in mancsuvring, 
which had so often given them the victo- 
ry. They were obl^;ed to yield to supe- 
rior force, and the enemy obtained a eom- 

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i4ete Tietoiy. Charles -sow his ^enenJs, 
CUB &TOjrite minister, eoiuit Piper, and 
die flower of his anny, fall into the power 
of those RussLans so eanly vonquistied at 
Narva. He himself^ together wim Mazep- 
pe, fled with a small guard, and was 
obliged, notwithstanding the ptdn of his 
wounds, to go several miles on foot. He 
finally found refuge and an honorable re- 
ception at Bender, in the Turidah territory. 
H& enemies were now in^ired with new 
hope. Augustus protested against the 
treaty of Akranst&dt ; Peter inraded Livo- 
nia ; Frederic of Demnark made a descent 
00 Scfaonen. The regency in Stockholm 
took measures for the ctefence of the 
Swedish territory. General Steinbeck 
aseemhled a body of militia and peasants, 
defeated the Duies at Helsingborg, and 
compelled diem to evacuate Schonen. 
Several divisions were sent to Finland to 
keep off the Russians, who, nevertheless, 
advanced, being superior in numbera. 
Chories, meanwhile, negotiated at Bender 
with the Porte; succeeded in removing 
tlie ministere who were opposed to him, 
and indueed the Turks to declare virar 
against Russia. The armies met on the 
bonks of the river Prutb, July 1, 1711. 
Peter seemed nearly ruined, when the 
courage and prudence of his wife (see 
Caiharme) produced a peace, in which the 
intoests of Charles were entirely neglect* 
ed. This monarch, however, projected 
at Bendo' new plans, and, through his 
agents, aoKcited of the Porte auxiliaries 
against bis oiemies. But the Russian 
ageots were no less active to prepossess 
the Porte against him, pretending that 
Cfaailes dengned to make himself in the 
penon of Stanislaus, the actual master of 
Poland, m order, fiom thence, in connex- 
ion widi the German emperor, to attack the 
IVuks. The seraakier of Bender was 
ordered to compel the king to depart, and, 
in case be reftised, to bring him, living or 
dead, to Adrianople. Litue used to obey 
the wfll of another, and apprehenave of 
bemg given up to his enemies, Charles 
resolved to defy the forces of the Port& 
with the two or three hundred men or 
wfaieh his retinue consisted, and, sword 
in hand, to await his fate. When his 
resideoce 9t Vamitza, near Bender, vras 
attacked by the Turks, he defended it 
against a whole aimy, and yielded only 
step by step. The house took fire, and 
he was about to abandon it, when, his 
npan becoming entan^ed, he fell, and was 
taken prisoner. His eye-kehes were 
nved by powder, and his clothes covered 
inui bkioa. Some days after this singu- 

lar contest, Stanislaus came to Bender to 
ask the king of Sweden to give his con- 
sent to the treaty which he saw himseHT 
obliged to conclude with Augustus; bat 
Charles refhsed. The Turks now re- 
moved their prisoner from Bender to De- 
motica, near Adrianople. Here he spent 
two months in bed, feigning sickness, and 
employed in reading and writing. Con- 
vinced, at last, that he could expect no 
assistance from the Porte, he sent a part- 
ing embassy to Constantinople, and set off 
in disguise with two oflficere. Accus- 
tomed to every deprivation, Charics pur- 
sued his journey on horseback, throuefa 
Hungary and Germany, day and night, 
with such haste, that only one of his at- 
tendants was able to keen up with liim. 
Exhausted and haggard, he arrived be- 
fore Stralsund about one o'clock on tlie 
night of the 11th Nov. O. S. (22d), 1714. 
Pret^iding to be a courier with important 
despatches from Turkey, he caused him- 
Beit to be immediately introduced to the 
commandant, count Dunker, who ques- 
tioned him concerning the king, without 
recognising him till he began to speak, 
when he sprang joyfiiUy from his bed, 
and embraced the knees of his master 
The report of Chai'les's arrival spread 
rapidly throughout tlie city. The houses 
were illuminated. A combined army of 
Danes, Saxons, Russians and Prussians 
inmiediately invested Stralsund. Charies 
performed, during the defence, miracles 
of bravery. But, being obliged to surren- 
der the fortress, on Dec. 15, 1715, he pro- 
ceeded to Lund, in Schonen, and took 
measures to secure the coast. He then 
attacked Norway. The baron of Gortz, 
whose bold but intelligent plans were 
adapted to the situation of the Swedish 
monarchv,WQ8, at that time, his confiden- 
tial friend. His advice was, that Charles 
should gain Peter the Great to the interest 
of Sweden by important concessions, 
make himself master of Norway, and from 
thence land in Scotland, in order to de- 
throne George I, who had declared him- 
self against Charles. G6ttz discovered 
resotu-ces for prosecuting the war, and 
entered into negotiations, at Aaland, vritb 
die plenipotentiaries of the czar. Petei 
was already gained, and a part of Nor- 
way conquered; tlie fortunes of Swe- 
den seemed to assume a favorable aspect ; 
Charles was besieging Fredericshall, when, 
on Nov. dO, 1718, as he was in tlie 
trenches, leaning«gainst the parapet, and 
examining the workmen, he was struck 
on the head by a cannon ball. He was 
found dead in the same position, bis hand 

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on his sword, in bis pocket the porlzait of 
Gustavus Adolphus and a pmyeivbook. 
It is more than probable, mat the ball 
which killed him was fired, not from the 
fortress, but from the Swedish side. His 
adjutant, Siguier, has been accused as an 
accompUce in his murder. A centuiy 
afrerwaids. Not. 30, 1818, Charles XIV 
caused a monument to be erected on the 
spot where he felL At Charles's death, 
Sweden sunk from the rank of a leadinff 
power. In his last years, he had formed 
great plans for the improvement of its 
nayy, trade and commerce. At Lund, he 
often conversed with the professoni of the 
univeniity, and attended public disputa- 
tions on geometry, mechanics and history. 
In Bender, the reading of useful books 
was one of his principal emplovments: 
he sent for Swedish scholars, and caused 
than to travel throuch Greece and Asia. 
Accounts of some of these travels have 
been printed; there are others in manu- 
script at Upsal. Firmness, valor and love 
of justice were the grand features of 
Chfloies's character, but were disfigured by 
an obstinate rashness. After his return, 
he showed himself more peaceable, gen- 
tle, moderate, and disposed to politic 
measures. Posterity, considering him in 
relation to his dmes, wiil say that he had 
great virtues and great fiiuits ; that he was 
seduced by prosperity, but not overcome 
by adversity. His history has been writ- 
ten by his chaplain, Nonjcfg. Adlerfeld 
has published his militaiy memoirs. Vol- 
taire's Hutoire de Ckouita XII, though not 
complete, nor free from errora in dates, 
names and geographical facts, is written 
with much cieamess and elegance. 

Charles XIII ; king of Sweden ; bom 
Oct. 7, 1748 ; second son of king Adol- 
phus Frederic and Louisa Ulrica, sister 
of Frederic the Great of Prussia. Having 
been appointed, at his birth, high admind 
of Sweden, his education was directed 
chiefly to the learning of naval tactics, for 
which purpose he accompanied several 
cruises m the Cattegat. In 1765, he be- 
came honorary president of the society of 
sciences at Upsal. In 1770, he com- 
menced the tour of Europe. The death 
of Adolphus Frederic readied him to 
Sweden, where he took an important part 
in the revolution of 1772. His brother, 
Gustavus III, appointed him governor^ 
general of Stockholm, and duke of Sfider- 
mannland. In 1774, he married Hedwig 
Elisabeth Chariotte, priacess of Holstein- 
Gottorp. In the war vrith Russia, in 
1788, he received the command of the 
fleet, defeated the Russians in the gulf 

of Finland, and, in the most dangerotis 
sea»»i of the year, brought back his fleet 
in safety to the haibor of Cariscronay 
after wmch he was appointed governor- 
ceneral of Finland. Alter the murder of* 
Gustavus in, in 1792, he was placed at 
the head of the regency, and, happily for 
Sweden, preserved the countiy at peace 
with all other nations, while he united 
with Denmaric for the protection of the 
navigation in the northern seas. He like* 
wise founded a museum, established a 
mihtary academy for 200 pupjs, and 
grained universal esteem. In 1796, he re- 
signed the government to Gustavus Adol- 
phus IV, who had become of age, and 
retired, as a private man, to his caisde of 
Rosersberg. He never appeared again in 
public life till a revolution hurled Gus- 
tavus Adolphus IV, in 1809, fit>m the 
throne, and placed Charles at the head of 
the state, as administrator of the reahn, 
and, some months afterwards, June 20. 
1809, as king of Sweden, at a very critical 
period. The peace vrith Russia, at Fred- 
ericksham. Sept 17, 1809, gave the coun- 
tiy the tranquillity necessaiy for repairing 
its heavy losses, and for completing th« 
constimtion. He had already adopted 
prince Christian of Holstein-Sonderburg- 
Augustenbuig as his successor, and, afier 
his death, marshal Bemadotte, who was 
elected by the estates, in August, 1810, to 
take the place of the prince. On him he 
bestowed his entire confidence. May 27, 
1811, he founded the order of Charies 
XIII, which is confened solely on fiiee«> 
masons of high degree. Jime 21, 1816^ 
he acceded to the holy alliance. His 
prudent conduct in the war between 
France and Russa, in 1812, procured 
Sweden an indemnification for Finland 
by the acquisiticm of Norway, Nov. 4^ 
1814. Although some disappointed no- 
bles may have given utterance to mur^ 
mure against ms ^venunent, Charles 
XIII nevertheless enjoyed the love of his 
people till his death, Feb. 5, 1818. 

Charles XIV, John, king of Sweden 
and N<Hrw^^(or Scandinavia), married, 
Aug. 16, 1798, Eugenie Bemaidine D6- 
«rte (bom Nov. 8, 1781), daughter of the 
merchant Clary, of Marseilles, sister of the 
wife of Joseph Bonaparte. Feb. 5, 1818, 
he succeeded Charies XIH, b^ whom he 
had been adopted. This pnnce, whose 
political station practically refiites the ne- 
cessity of tlie principle of legitimacy 
maintained by the potentates of JEurope, 
vras bom, Jan. 26, 1764, at Pau, at tiie 
foot of the Pyrenees, and was called Jean 
Be^pUsttJuUsBtmadfftte, Hisfatherwas 

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a b wyer. His unoommon inteflectual cul- 
tmtioo ahowB that he was educated with 
great care. In 1780, he voluntarily en- 
tered the militaiy profession, and, in 1789, 
at the afie of 26 yesis, was still a sergeant 
When the reTolution broke out, he entered 
with enthusiasm the ranks of the defend- 
ers of his country, and rose quickly 
throodi the steps of militaij promotion. 
In 1794, he was general of division in the 
faatde of Fleurus; in 1795, he contributed 
essenDally to the passage of the French 
Ofcr the Rhine, at I<f euwied ; in 1796^ he 
soTBd in Jourdan's armv. His services 
€0 the Lafan, the blockade of Mentz, the 
battle of Neuhofl^ the psssage over the 
pAilnity^ the taking of ^torf^ the capture 
of Neuinaik, and me advantages obtained 
ever Kray, whom he deprived of his 
msgaziaes on the Mame, established his 
mutation as a generaL He aflerwards 
fed reinfiircements to the army of Italy, 
and was intrusted, by Bonaparte, with the 
siege of the fortress of Gradisca. In the 
eootests which ensued before he could 
mske himself master of it, he afforded a 
model of coolness and intrepidity. Short- 
ly bdbre the 18th Fructidor, Bonaparte 
chose him to carry to the directory the ' 
famnefs taken in the battle of Rivoli, and, 
in his letter, caUed him one of the generals 
who had inost essentially contributed to 
the roiown of the Italian armv. After 
the treaty of Leoben, the disturbances in 
the southern provinces continuing in con- 
sequence of the 18th Fructidor, the direc- 
Kjiy appointed general Bernadotte com- 
mandant at Marwilles ; but he refused to 
trnn his sword against his fellow-citizens, 
sad returned to his division in Italy. 
Afier the treaty of Campo-Formio, he was 
appcMnied ambassador of the French re- 
public to the court of Yienna. A tumult, 
eansed by planting the tri-colored banner 
an ^ pamce of the embassy, induced 
him to leave Vieima. He repaired to 
Rastadt, and from thence to Paris. In 
the campaign of 1799, Bernadotte, as 

of the army of observation, 
onder Jourdan, was instructed to cross 
the Rhine and invest Philippeburg. But 
the approach of the areh-duke Uharles, 
the retreat of Jourdan over the Rhine, the 
disrolution of the congress of Rastadt, and 
the progress of the alhes in Italy, rendered 
eztraorainary measures necessary. Ber- 
nadotte, bdng placed in the ministry of 
war, urged i& accusation of the generals 
y^bo had so q>eedily surrendered die Ital- 
ian foftiesses, ^icouraged the zeal of the 
eooBcrmiB, exerted hiinself for the restora- 
tioQ or military discipline, and checked 

the abuses that had tiept mto the army. 
Three months after, he saw himself re- 
moved from the office which he had 
administered in the most difficult crisis, at 
the moment when he might have enjoyed 
the order he had product. He therefore 
retured from the public service, and had 
abready taken up his abode in the countiy, 
when the 18th nrumaire effected a change 
in his situation. Bonaparte called him to 
tho council of state. Here he opposed 
the establishment of the order of the le- 
gion of honor. The first consul, on the 
other hand, refused to place him at the 
head of the expedition destined for St. 
Domingo, and Bernadotte expressed him- 
self very explicidy respectiiiff the entire 
incompetency of general Leclerc for the 
duty. An anenation thus took place be- 
tween him and Bonaparte ; and his broth- 
er-in-law Joseph could onl^ bring about a 
kind of political reconciliation between 
them* He now received the command 
of the army of the West, and, by his hu- 
mane measures, suppressed, in its origin, 
the insurrection excited in the ha^y 

Quieted Vendue, by some chiefs of the 
!houans. (q. v.) After the peace of 
Lun^ville, he was appointed ambassador 
to the U. States ; but the revival of tlv 
war prevented his proceeding thither. Jr 
1804, the first consul sent him to Hanove>' 
in the place of Mortier, and his humanity 
and disinterestedness gained the love of 
the Hanoverians. In the same year, th4 
change of the consulate into a heredi- 
tary empire gave him the staff of a mar- 
shal of the French empire, and, soon after, 
the grand decoration of the le^on of 
honor. On the renewal of hostilities with 
Austria, Bernadotte led an army through 
Anspach, effected a junction with the &- 
varians at Wurtzburg, and, in this way 
surrounding the Austrians, contributed to 
the victory at Ulm. In the batde of Aus- 
terlitz, Bernadotte's coips constituted the 
centre, which withstood all the attacks of 
the Russian army. June 5, 1806, Napoleon 
created him prince of Ponte-Corvo. In the 
war afainst Prussia, he led the first corp§ 
d^ariMtj advanced fiom Bayreuth, through 
Hofi^ to the Saxcm Vogtlancf, and cut off the 
corps of count Tauenzien fi:om the Prus- 
sian main army. Oct. 14, he advanced 
fiom Domburg,in the rear of the Pnisaan 
army, pursued general Blficher to Lttbeck, 
and compelled him to capitulate. He 
was the only French leader who seriously 
endeavored to alleviate the melaneho^ 
fate of this unhappy city on the 6th Nov., 
1806. Towards the Swedes, also, taken 
prisoners on the Trave, 1500 in number 

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he mam^^flted so mudi kindiieBi^ that his 
name was luentiozied with respect in Swe- 
den. He next marched thitmgh Poland 
and Prusaia Proper, and fought, Jan. 25, 
1807, the bloody engagement of Mohrun- 
gen, by which me Kuasians were prevent- 
ed from BurprisiDgthe grand army, and. 
drivine it over the Vistula. He was pre- 
vented from pardcipating in the batde of 
Friedland by a wound received at Span- 
gen, June 5. From the close of 1807 to 
Sie spriug of 1809, he commanded the 
French army which remained in the noith 
of Gennany. War having broken out 
anew, in 1809, between Austria and 
France, he led the Saxon allies to the 
battle of Wagram, where, vnth the guard 
and corps of the viceroy of Italy, they 
formed the second line and the reserves, 
and, animated by his courage, fought wkh 
the greatest distinction. The Saxons took 
Waffram, and maintained possession c^ 
the DumiDg village for two horns ; but, as 
they had lost manv of their number, the 
prince commanded general Dupas, whose 
division belonged to the ninth corps, to 
support them. But Dupas refused, be- 
cause he was ordered, fix>m a higher 
c|uarter to remain in his position. A^n- 
ished at this, the prince immediately made 
preparations to save the remainder of the 
Saxon troops, and then hastened to head- 
quarters, to complain to the emperor of 
this violation of military rules. *< If his 
death," he said, " were desired, there were 
less odious means than one by which so 
many brave men must perish with him.'' 
The emperor tried to appease the prince 
by sa^g that such errors were unavoid- 
able in so extensive movements. But 
Bemadotte took his dismission, and went 
to Paris. Infbnnation being received of 
the landing of the English on Walche- 
ren, the council of mmisters intrusted 
to him the charge of repelling the inva- 
sion. He immediately called out the na- 
tional guards, deceived the enemy by 
marches and countermarches, and com- 
pelled them to evacuate the island. From 
that lime the prince lived in the bosom of 
his ftmily, sometimes in the country, some- 
times at Paris; and here the deputies of 
Sweden brought him, in September, 1810, 
information of his anpointment as succes- 
sor to the throne, and crown-prince of this 
kingdom. Kinff Charles XlII had pro- 
posed him for nis successor, on the l8th 
of August, to the estates, and the c<Hnmit- 
tee of the estates, selected for the purpose, 
chose him, August 21, almost unanimous- 
ly, on condition that he should embraee 
lbs evangelical Luthetau religion. Bema- 

dotte's aooeptaaoe of ins eleetioo Cbailas 
XUI announced to the diet at (Erebro, 
Sept 26, 1810, having previously, at a 
chapter of the order hoMen on the 2^lhf 
created the new crown-prince knight of 
the order of seraphim : he was likewise 
appointed generalissimo of the realm. 
Napoleon had no influence on this choice ; 
for, when he learned, in July, 1810, that 
the Swedish diet was assembling at CEre- 
bro, to choose a successor to the throne, 
be expressed a wish that the king of Den- 
mark might be dected ; and the semi-offi- 
cial Jmxnud de PEmpjrt contains an aiti- 
cie to this efrect, which D^saugiers, the 
French ehargi d^affains in Stockholm, 
communicated by a note to the Swedish 
ministry. Meanwhile three Swedish dex»- 
uties had ahieady arrived in Paris to 
ascertain the sentiments of the prince in 
case of his election. The prince referred 
them to the emperor, who assured the 
deputies that he should not oppose the 
free choice of the diet, thou^ it should 
foil on the prince of Ponte-Corvo. At the 
same time, he recalled his thargi d^af- 
faxns from Stockholm. After the prince 
was elected, Napoleon made him several 
promises in favor of Sweden, but their 
mutual personal relations were not, on 
that account, more friendly than they had 
been before. Oct 18, at noon, Ponte- 
Corvo reached tlie royal Danish castle of 
Fredericsborg, where he remained in the 
midst of the royal family till the next day, 
when he departed for Elsinore. Here 
doctor Lindblom, archbishop of Upsal, in 
the presence of seveial wimesses, Oct 19, 
1810, in the bouse of the Swedbh consul, 
received iiis profession of belief in the 
creed of the evangelical Lutheran church 
Amid the thunder of cannon, a Swedish 

galley conveyed him to Helsingborg, where 
e landed Oct 20^ and had his first meet- 
ing with king Charles XIIL On the Slst, 
he was presented to the diet By an act 
of Nov. 5, 1810, the king adopted him ; he 
assumed the name of Chmks Johsi, and 
took the oath as crown-prince and heir of 
die throne ; after which ceremony, he re- 
ceived the homage of the estates. To his 
son Oscarvras eranted the title of dukt of 
Sijdtrnumidand. His wife came to Stock- 
holm, Jan. 7, 1811, but retumed to Paris, 
where she lived, tiU some years since, un- 
der the title of wwnUsB of CfoUdaruL Tlie 
king being attacked with sickness in the 
following year, he committed to the crown- 
prince, March 17, 1811, though with some 
restrictions,* the government of the Swe^ 
dish monarchy, which he conducted till 
Jan. 7, 18I3y with wisdom and eneigy. 

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nb wMi modi to promote die ftgricnltim 
(ao agrieuItiVBl society was erected under 
iiis Miperintendence), commerce and mil- 
ilny power of SwedeiL Meanwhile, the 
erown-prince so fior yielded to the de- 
mands of the ^nperor Napoleon, that 
Sweden declared war against Great Brit- 
ain Nor. 17, 1810. But, after Napoleon 
had demanded, in Tain, 2000 Bwedish 
ailois lor his fleet at Brest, and Swedrai 
refiised to enforce the continental system 
in all its ricor, he OGcufHed Swedish Fom- 
ennia, without giving any explanation on 
the aubject ; and the French ambassador, 
Alquier, at Stockholm, used language 
which implied that the crown-prince was 
to have m view solely the interest of 
Fnnceu When Charies XIII resumed 
the goyemment, the crown-prince made a 
remariwUe report respecting his adminis- 
tntion and the situation of the kinffdom. 
In oonfi»iniar ^th his views, the decree 
of July 29, lol2, was issued, by which the 
SwedLdi p<ms were opened to all nations. 
This resolution, a consequence of the in- 
creasing difierences between Sweden and 
Franee, was justified by the crown-prince 
in a later to Napoleon. In the war be- 
tween France and Russia, in 1812, Swe- 
den refused the alliance of France, and, 
in eonsequenoe of the provocations which 
she had received fiom that country, con- 
cluded a secret league vrith Rusna, at St 
Petasburv, March 24, O. S. (April 8), 
1812; by me terms of which she promised 
to seud an aimy of 25—00,000 men to 
Gennai^ ; but Russia previouslv pledged 
itself to unite Norway with Sweden, ei&er 
by ngpotiations or by force of aims. (See 
Schdir8 3>at^<& Pair, z. 101, &c.) This 
treaty, however, was set aside at the meet- 
inj^ of Alexander and the crown-prince at 
Abo, Aug. 27, 1812; in order that Russia 
JBof^ employ, for im own defence, its 
anny in Finload, which had been design- 
ed to act a«ainst Norway, but was now 
needed on the Dwina. l!hat treaty is the 
foondation of the political system subse- 
quemly observed Dy Sweden, and pro- 
posed at that time by the crown-prince. 
Peace between Sv^eden and Great Britain 
was also effected at (Erebro, July 12, 
181QL Napoleon's head-quarters were 
then between Smolensk and Moscow. 
Sweden's policy required the greatest pos- 
fiiUe pfecaution : its formal declaration of 
war against France was not therefore 
made ^ Charles John had reached the 
head-qoarters of Alexander and Frederic 
Wilfiam, at Trachenberg, in Silesia, July 
9 — ^12^ 1813. The crown-prince evidenthr 
■bowed that he did not wish to attack 

TOJm UI. 9 

France, but only to guard tiie iute fe s te of 
Sweden, while he promised to codperate 
against Napoleon's }Hans of conquest: sev* 
end tunes, therefore, he urged the emperor 
to make peace. For the same purpose, he 
virrote to Ney, aAer the batde of Denne- 
witz, Sept. 6, 181a Certain it is, that he 
endeavored to prevent the passage of the 
Rhine by the allies, for the purpose of 
penetratinff into the interior of France 
May 18, 1813, the crovim-prince arrived at 
Stralsund, to place himself at the head of 
the Swedish army in Germany. His let- 
ter to the French emperor, March 20^ 
1813, had been vrithout eflect Sweden 
had now become more firmly allied vritl 
England and Russia. After the confer- 
ence at Trachenberg, Charles John pro- 
ceeded to Berlin, m visited, during ^e 
truce, the quarters of the troops committed 
to him, repaired again to Stralsund, where 
be received general Moreau, and, Aug. 11, 
readied the corps besieging Stettin. He 
had the command of the *^wuted army qf 
Aortii Germmn//* consisting of the Russian 
corps of Winzmgerode, VK»ronzow, Czer- 
nitschew, of the English under Walmo- 
den, the Prussian under B(ilow, and the 
Swedish under the field-marshal Stedin^ 
By the victory at Grossbeeren, Aug. 23^ 
over the French marslial Oudinot, he 
saved Berlin. By the still greater vic- 
tory at Deimewitz, the issue of which 
was decided by the Prussian general 
Billow, count of Dennewitz, over marshal 
Ney, Sept. 6, the capital of Prussia was 
a second lime saved. Oct. 4, the crown- 
prince crossed the Elbe at Rosdau. > His 
march, on the 17th, to Taucha, contributed 
much to the result of the ^loriotis 18th of 
October, at Leipsic, on which day Charies 
John acquired new reputation. On the 
foUovring dinr, he formed a junction with 
his allies at Leipsic While they pursued 
the enemy in a direct line to his frontierB, 
Charles John marched alonff the Elbe to 
Mecklenbui^, against marshal Davousi and 
the Danes. Lubeck was soon- conquered, 
and the Danish army separated fi»m the 
French, which threw itself into Hamburg. 
A corps was left to prosecute the sieoe of 
the city, while the crovm-prihce, wim the 
main army, turned towards Holstein. At 
the end of three months, his outposts ex- 
tended to Rissen and Fredericil^ and 
Frederic VI, king of Denmaric, .in the 
treaty of peace which the crown^prince 
concluded vrith him, Jan. 14, 1814, at Kiel, 
ceded Norway to Sweden. Hereupon 
Charles John, with the greater part of his 
army, proceeded through Hanover to the 
firontien of France. This march, how- 

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ever, was executed so slowly, that, before 
he airiyed at the theatre of war, Akxander 
and the lungof I^rasBia had already emerg- 
ed Paris. The crown-ptince of Sweden 
now came to Paris, and nad an interview 
with the king of France in Gonmiegne, 
but soon left France, tt> undertake the 
conquest of Norway, which had elected its 
former pernor hereditary king. After 
a campaign of 14 davs, he compelled the 
prince Christian Frederic to make a treaty 
at Moss, Au^. 14, 1814, by which Norway 
recosnised tne conqueror as crown-prinoe 
of Norway, Nov. 4, 1814. (See Ckriaticm 
Dredericy and AbriM^.) 

Since his aoces^on to die throne, Charies 
XIV has done every thing possible in his 
otuation to merit die oonndence of the 
nation, which called him to the throne by 
a free choice. When, on occamon of a 
conspiracy afpainst him, the citizens of 
Stockholm, m March, 1817, solemnly 
assured him of their fidelity, he thanked 
them with the following remeurkabie words : 
— '^I came amonff you with no other cre- 
dentials and pledffB than my sword and 
my actions. Coukl I have brought with 
me a series of ancestors, extending back 
to the times of Charles Martel, I should 
have desired it only on your account For 
my part, I am proud of the services which 
I have rendered, and of the fame which 
has occasioned my elevation. These 
claims have been augmented by the adop- 
tion of the king, and the unanimous choice 
of a free people. On this I found my 
t^ts; ana, as lon^ as honor and justice 
are not banished from the earth, these 
rights will be more legitimate and sacred 
than if I were descended from Odin. 
History teaches that no prince has acquired 
a throne, but by die choice of a nation, or 
by conquest 1 have not opened a way 
by arms to the Swedish throne : I have 
been called by the free choice of the na- 
tion, and on this ri^t I rely," &c In the 
same spirit has he reigned, and nothing 
has shekel the confidence of the nation 
in hinL He has manifested the greatest 
care for the promotion of justice and the 
prosperity of his subjects, and has founded 
several usefid institutions fix>m his own 
fbnds. He combines a prudent firmness 
in the removal of abuses, and a wise re- 
gard for the general relations of European 
policy. Commerce he has endeavored to 
encourage, bv treaties with the American 
repuUics and the Barbery states. The 
management of the public debt is improved, 
and the public creoit established at home. 
The attention which he has paid to the 
education of his son, the heir-appar- 

ent, prince Oscar ( Jossph FVuicts), both 
July 4, 1799, is pailioiilariy wotdnr of no- 
tice. This was seen at the confmnation 
of the prince, which took place April 15, 
1815, according to the usage of the Lu- 
iheran church. July 4, 1817, the prince 
was declared of age. He hassubsequent- 

}r had a seat in the council of state, and, 
une 20, 1818, the Swedish diet and the 
Norwegian storHang empowered him to 
exercise {denary regtl poweie, m case of 
the absence or sickness of the king. June 
19, 1823, prince Oscar married Jos^hine, 
daughter of the late duke Eugene, of 
Lei^tenberg, viceroy of Italy, step-son 
of Napoleon, who bore fahn a son in 1826, 
who received the tide of duke ofSdumen. 
Thus the new ^nasty seems to be fimdy 
established. Its principal support is the 
love of the people^ which Charies XIV 
has won by his conduct, equally prudent 
and noble. His motto, ^ The peoples love 
is my reward" (fbtteft Juaiek min bdo- 
mng), expresses the character of his ^v- 
emment (See the M^ p&vr servtr a 
riMsUnre dt Chmies XiV, par Qwp4 de 
SL Donatii B. de BoqurfaH; Paris, 1820, 
2 vols.). The principal dissatis&ction has 
arisen from the way in which he has sought 
to regulate the foreign debts of Sweden 
{for example, the loans of Mr. Frege), and 
It seems tnat, in diis case, he has acted on 
very untenable arounds ; for the credit of 
the crown of' Sweden has been almost 
annihilated in foreign countries, and loud 
complaints have been made respecting the 
violation of acknowledged obiigacions. 
He has done much for institutions of 
instruction and improvement ; in particu* 
lar, he has placed the army and fleet on a 
respectable footing, has established a laige 
fortified camp m the protection of the 
country, &c The memory of Charies 
XIII he has perpetuated by the erecJon 
of a statue. As the only sovereign who 
has retained a throne acquired during the 
late wars in Europe, he has a difficult pan 
-to play among the Ugitmaiea of that cour- 
tinent It is said that the kmff of PrusBta 
was negotiating, before the rrench werB 
driven from his territory, to give one of 
his daughters to prince Oscar, but that, 
when his ntuation improved, he broke 
•off the negotiations. 

Charles Emanuel I, duke of Savoy, 
sumamed the Qntd ; bom at the castie 
of Rivoli, in 1562. He proved his cour- 
age in the batdes of Mondirun, Vigo, Asti, 
Chatillon, Ostage, at the siege w Berue, 
and on the wmls of Suza. He fimned, 
1590, the plan of uniting Provenee to his 
dominions. Philip II of Spain, his fiidiei- 

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Mw, dbfiged the par&uneiit of Aix to 
idoiowledlge him as the protector of thiiB 
pra?iDce^ in order, by this eioaxnpiey to in* 
duce Fiance to acknowledge the lasag of 
&nn «8 pfolector of the whole realm. 
The duke of SaTOV, not less ambitious, 
&ewiBe aimed at thiB crown ; anj^ after 
ihe deaih of Matthias, desired also to be 
dnsea eouperor of Germany. He like* 
vise iBteodfld to conquer the kingdom of 
CypniSp and tp take poeeeasion of Mace<» 
dooAjthe inhahitants of which) oppresqiMl 
by tie Turks, offered him the sovereignty 
0T9 their ctHintry. The citizeBS of Ge- 
om were obliged to de&nd their ciity, ia 
16I&, against this ambitious prince, who 
M upon them hj night, in time of peace. 
(See Gtneca.) Henry IV, who had reason 
to complain of the duke, and whose gen-* 
eni, tbe duke of Lesdigui^re, had beeten 
ChnkB Kmanuel seveml times, enteied, 
itlaEt, iato a treaty of peace with him, not 
disadvantageous to the duke of Savoy j 
but he could not remain quiet, and b^pau 
<gim a war with France, Spain and &r^ 
moT. He died of chagrin, at SaviUon, 
16^ He is one of those princes who 
Roder the surname of Great suspicious. 
Bs heart was as hard as his nadve rocks. 
He built palace and churches, loved and 
ptnoiinl the sciences^ but thought little 
ofmakiiig them sources of h&ppiiiess. 
Chailes I, king qf Spain. (SeeCAar^ 

Chailes IV, king of Spain, bom at 
Vipfes, 13th Nov., 1740^ came to Madrid 
in 1759, when his fatber, Charles III, aAer 
the death of hjs brother, Ferdinand VI, 
tsceiidfid the Spanish throne, and suc- 
ceeded him Dee. }3, 1788. He was mar- 
lied to the princess of Parma) Louisa Ma- 
Di. Too imbecile to govern, he was al- 
nj9 niled by his wife and his ministers, 
UdODg whom the prince of peace, Godoy 
|<).T.), duke of Aicudia, from the year 
1792, had unbounded influence over him* 
The hatred which this ^vorite drew on 
bimeelf from the prinoe of Asturias, and 
<Kh€r grandees, brought on a revolution in 
1806, which eniabled Napoleon to dethrone 
the Bouibans. (See .^potn.) Charles abdi- 
died at Aianjuez, March 19, revoked this 
•bdication, and finally ceded, at Bayonne, 
his risk to the throne to Napoleon, who 
KCded on him for life the palace of Com- 
pie^K and a pension of 30 millions of rials, 
of iHuGh 2 millions were destined for the 
QiieeD^Bjomture. Charles after tliis lived at 
Compiegne with the queen and the prince 
of peace, but subsequentlv exchanged this 
icndence for Rome, where the climate 
vas more congenial to hin^ From 1815| 

hb occupied tb« palace Beiberini, in iAm 
city. Hunting he always made his pnno 
cipal emf^yment He died at Naples 
Jan. 19, 1819, of a rehipao of the gout) 
while on a visit to his brother, the king of 
^e Two Sicilies* His wife died a short 
liaie previous, in Dec, 1818. Charles 
was an inunense eater. 

Cium-ss Louis ; archduke of Austria; 
son of tiie emperor Leopold 11, and 
brother of the pre^nt emperor Francis; 
field-marshal-general; boni Sept. 6^ 1771. 
He commenoed his militaiy career in Bra^ 
haot, in tbe year 1793, commanded the 
ranguard of the prince of Coboui|^, and 
distinguished himself by his militaiy talf- 
ent and bravery. Shoitbf aflei^ he was 
made govenior of the Netheriands, and 
crand-cross of the order of Maria Theresa^ 
in 1796, he was made fiekl-raarBhal of the 
German empire, and took the chief com- 
mand of the Austrian army on the Rhine. 
He fought several successful battles against 
the French general Moreau, near Rastadt, 
routed geneml Jourdan, in Franconia, 
near Ambeig, Wurtzbur^, i^c^ threw the 
French anny into confusion, fi>rced Jour- 
dan and Moreau to retreat over the Rhine, 
and crowned this victorious campaign by 
gettmff possession of Kehl, afler a hard 
struggle, in the middle of the winter of 
1797. During these successes in Genua-* 
py, fortune favored general Bonaparte in 
Itidy. In the month of Febniaiy of the 
same year, the archduke Chailes repaired 
thither, and, in the month of April, articles 
of peace were signed at Leoben. AiUiv 
the unsuccessful congress at Rastadt, the 
archduke again took the command of the 
army in the year 1799, defeated general 
Jourdan in Suabia, as he had formerly 
done in Franconia, and distinguished him^ 
self paiticulariy at the battle of Stockach. 
Soon after this, he gave proofs of his great 
mihtary talent agamst je^neral Mass^na, in 
a most difficult situation, in SwitzerlaJnd. 
The impaired state of his health forced 
him to quit the field in 1800, when he was 
elected governor-general of Bohemia; bif 
he had hardly left the army, which had 
placed its whole confidence in him, ere 
the greatest consternation became evident. 
After the unfbrtmiate batde of Hohenlin- 
den, the French entered Austria. At this 
crisis, the archduke was again pkced at the 
head of the troops, into whom he instilled 
fiesh courage. At last, he acceded to the 
preliminaries of peace, which were con- 
firmed by the peace of Lun^viUe. Aftef 
this, he was appointed minister of war, in 
which capacity he displayed his talents in 
a new sphere. In 1803, he refusf^ th^ 

Digitized by 




monument, proposed b^ the king of Swe- 
den, at the diet of Ransbon, to be erected 
tohimasthehberatorof Gennany. In the 
campaign of 1805, Charles commanded an 
Austrian army, in Italy, against Mass^na. 
Whilst afiirB in Geimany were taking a 
most unfortunate mm, and Napoleon had 
entered the veiy heart of the Austrian 
provinces, the archduke gained a victoiy 
over marahal Maas^na, at Caldiero, wad 
led his army back to protect the yet un- 
conquered provinces. After the peace of 
Preaburg was concluded, he vras elected 
first chief of the council of war, and gen- 
eralissimo of the whole Austrian annr. 
In the war of 1809, in the month of April, 
he advanced into Bavaria, vrith the chief 
pait of the Austrian forces. Here he was 
qppoeed by the whole French army, com- 
manded by Napoleon himself) and a hard- 
fought and bloody batde, which lasted five 
days^ ensued ; after which, in spite of eve- 
ly exerticm, the Austrians were compelled 
to yield to a superior force. On the 21st 
and 22d of May of the same year, tiie arch- 
duke mned a victoiy at Aspem, oppo- 
site to Vienna, and compelled the French 
to retreat across the Danube with sreat 
loss. The battle of Wagram, one of the 
greatest in history, had an unfortunate re- 
sult, but no censure can be cast, either on 
the Austrian army, which distinguished 
itself by its braveiy, or on the archduke, 
who was wounded on this occasion, for 
being compelled to give way to a much 
superior force, after a battle of two days, 
during which they several times had the 
advantage. Their retreat was e^cted 
with the ^pneatest order, and amidst con- 
stant fightmg, till they reached Znaym, 
where an armistice put an end to the bat- 
tle. Soon after this, the archduke re- 
signed the command, and has not since 
appeared at the head of the array. He 
has enriched militaiy literature with two 
valuable works — (Urundsatze dor StraUgie 
eHaiitert durch die DanUUung des Fud- 
zurs von 1796, in DeuischUaid (Prin- 
dples of Stfti.tegy, illustrated by the Cam- 

rdgn of 1796, in Germany), Vienna, 1813, 
vols., with a map of tlie theatre of war 
and 11 plans, 2d ed. ; and, as a continua- 
tion of the same, Die Geackichie dee Feld- 
XW8 von 1799, in Deut$chiand und in der 
Smioeitz (History of the Campaign of 
1799, in Germany and Switzerland), Vien- 
na, 1819, 2 yo]s^ with an atlas in folia 
Both ^works have been translated into 
French. After the return of Napoleon, 
ne was made governor of Mentz, and af^ 
tenvards governor and captain-generali-^ 
Boliemui. In 1315, he married the prin- 

cess Henrietta of Nassau-Wailburv, faj 
whom he has had three sods and one 
daughter. The archduke lives, generally, 
quite retired in the country. 

Charles Auoustds of Weimar. (See 

. Charles River ; a river in Massachu- 
setts, which flows into Boston harbor, di- 
viding Boston from ChariestowiL The 
source of the principal branch is a pond 
bordering on llojddnton. It is navigable 
for hghters and large boats to Watertown, 
7 miles. 

Charleston; a city and seaport of 
South Carolina, in a district ci the same 
name; 120 miles S. S. £. Columbia, 118 
N. £. Savannah, 590 S. S. W. Baltimore ; 
Jon. 79° 54' W. ; lat33°47'N.: popula- 
tion in 1790, 16,359; in 1800, 18,711^; 
in 1810, 24,711 ; 11,668 whites, and 13^043 
blacks: in 1820, 24,780; 5323 free white 
males, 5330 free white females; 12,5^ 
slaves, 1475 free people of color. It is 
simated on a tongue ofiand fc»ined by the 
confluence of the rivers Cooper and Ash- 
ley, which unite just below the city, and 
form a spacious and c^mrenient hari)orf 
oonmiunicating with the ocean below Sul- 
Kvan's island, 7 miles finom Charieston. 
At the mouth of the harii)or, there extends, 
fit»n shore to shore, a sand-bank, danger- 
ous to vessels, but having two channels, 
the deepest of which has 16 feet of water 
at low tide. The harbor is defended by 
fort Pinkney and fort Johnson, which are 
on islands, the former 2 and the latter 4 
miles below the ci^ ; and by fort Moultrie 
on Sullivan's island. Charleston contains 
a city-hall, an exchange, a custom-house, 
a guard-house, a theatre, an oiphan-house. 
an hospital, an alms-house, 3 arsenals, i 
nuukets, a college, and 19 houses of pub- 
he worship, 4 for Episcopalians, 3 for 
Presbyterians, 3 for Methodists, 2 for Con- 
gregationalists, 1 for Lutherans, 2 for Ro- 
man Cathohcs, 1 for French Protestants, 
1 for Baptists, 1 for Friends, and a Jews' 
synagogue. The Charieston library con- 
tains about 13,000 volumes. The orphaQ 
asylum is a noble and vrell endowed in 
stitution, which supports and educates 
nearly 200 orphan cnildren. There are 
several other charitable societies richly 
endowed; particularly the South Car- 
olina socie^i the St. Andrew's society, 
and the Fellowship society, instituted 
for the relief of widows and orphans. 
The city is regularly laid out in parallel 
streets, which are mtersected by others 
nearly at ri^t anj^es. The tongue of 
land, on whjch it is built, was originally 
indented with creeks and nanow marshes. 

Digitized by 




wliich have been fiQed op; and it ia drier 
and more elevated than most parts of the 
]ow country of South Carolina. Many of 
the houses are elegant, and furnished with 
piazzas. It is much the laiigest t0¥^ in 
the state, and mtbs fbrmeiiy the seat of 
government. It has an extensive com- 
merce. The shipping owned here, in 
1816, amounted to 36,473 tons; in 1820, 
to 28,403 tona That dreadM distemper, 
the yellow fever, has made fi'equent rav- 
ages in Charleston; but its e^cts have 
been chiefly confined to persons from 
more northern situations ; and the climate 
of the city is accounted heahhy to die na^ 
tive inhabitants, more so than thatof moet 
other Atlantic towns in the Southern Statea 
Its superior salubrity attracts the planters 
fiom the surrounding country, and it is 
the &vorite resort of 3ie wealtliy from the 
West Indies. It afibrds much agreeable 
society, and is reckoned one of the gayest 
towns in the U. States. (See Cfrndtnoj 

CHAaL£STow5 ; a post-town in Middle- 
sex counQr, Massachusetts, one mile north 
of the centre of Boston ; population, in 
1820, 6591. The principal part of the 
town is Gnety situated on a peninsula, 
formed by Charles and Mystic rivers, 
which here flow into Boston harbor. 
Charieatown is connected with Boston by 
two bridges across Charles river; with 
Chelsea and Maiden by two others across 
Mystic river, and with Cambridge by a 
hmige across a bay of Charles river. It is 
a pleasant and flourishing town, the largest 
in the county of Middlesex, and advanta- 
geously situated fi>r trade and manufac- 
tures. The principal public buildings are 
the state prison, the Massachusetts hospi- 
tal for the insane, a market-house, alms- 
house, and five houses of public worship. 
One of the principal navy-yards in the U. 
States occupies about 60 acres of land, in 
the south-east part of this town. It is 
enclosed, on the land side, by a wall of 
solid masonry, and contains, besides other 
buildings, several arsenals, magazines of 
public storea, and three immense edifices, 
each Bufficiendy capacious to receive a 
ship of 100 guns, with all the apparatus 
£or its construction. Bunker hiU, on 
which was fouffht one of the most cele- 
brated battles of the American revoludon, 
is in this town. (For an account of the 
events which brought on the batde, see 
MoMioehusdU^ and United State*,) The 
British army in Boston had been increased 
to about 10,000 men, by the arrival of rein- 
fiMPcemeuts, towards die end of May, 1775, 
and was under the command of genenl 

Gaffe, eovenior of Moanachusetts bay, sen* 
ends Howe, Clinton, Burgoyne, &c Tlta 
American army of citizen-soldiers amount- 
ed to about 15,000 men, enlisted for a^few 
months, without organization or discipline. 
They were armed with fowling-pieces, bat 
few of them provided with bayonets. The 
whole was under the command of general 
Ward, of Massachusetts, whose head* 
quarters were at Cambridge. The right 
wing, und^ bricadier-general Thomas^ 
occupied the heights of Koxbuiy ; the leR^ 
under colonel Stark, was stationed at 
Medford. The city of Boston is buih on 
a small peninsula, having the town of 
Charlestown, also buih on a peninsubu 
and separated from it by a narrow aim of 
the sea, about 1500 feet wide, on the north. 
The heights of Chariestown, Breed's hill 
(62 feet high) and Bunker hill (110 feet 
hjgk, about 130 rods N. W. of the for- 
mer^ command the city. The Americana 
having received information of the inten- 
tion of the British to occupy these heights^ 
and advance into the country, ordera were 
issued to colonel Prescott (June 16) to take 
possession of Bunker hill in the evening, 
and erect the fortifications requimte to 
defend it. General Putnam (q. v.) had the 
superintendence of the esqpedition. Find- 
ing, on their arrival, that, thou^ Bunker 
hill was the most commanding position, it 
was too fer firom the enemy to annoy lua 
shipping and army, the provincials deter- 
mined to fortify breed's hill, and began 
their labor soon after midnight Every 
thing had been conducted with so much 
silence, that the British were not awaro of 
their presence till day-break, when the 
ships of war and floatioff battories, which 
lay in the harbor of Chariestown, together 
with a battery on Coop's hill, opeflid a 
heavy fire on the redoubt which had been 
completed during the night The Amer- 
icans, meanwhife, continued their labor, 
until they had thrown up a small breast- 
work, extending north, from the east side 
of the redoubt, to the bottom of the hilL 
About one p'clock,the British, under gen- 
eral Howe, landed at Morton's point, in 
Chariestown, without opposition. Hero 
the^ waited for reinfercements, which 
arrived soon after. The whole number 
amounted to about 5000 men, with 6 fi^- 
pieces and howitzers. The original de- 
tachment of provincials amounted to 1000 
men, with 2 field-pieces. They had been 
reinforced by about the same number, 
among whom wero the New Hampahiro 
troops, under colonel Stark. General 
Pomeroy, and ffeneral Warren, president 
of the provincim congress, joined the rank* 

Digitized by 




B^ Tolimteera, The troops oh the open 
ground formed h. cover from the musketry 
of the enemy, by pulling up the rail fences, 
^lacinrthem at small distances apart hi 
parand lines, and filling up the intervening 
flpaoe with new-mown grass. The Britifi£ 
bolumns now moved forward, under gen^ 
eral Howfe, to the attack of thte rail fence, 
and, under general Pigot, to attack the 
breastwork and redoubt. The Americans 
impatiently withheld their fire imtil, ac- 
cofdmg to the words of Putnam, "thej 
saw the white of their enemies' eyes.* 
The British were repulsed with great loss. 
Had they efaai^ged, they would probably 
have been more successful, as the Amen- 
ean tr(k>ps were almost entirely destitute of 
bayonets. A second attack, during which 
tiie village of Charlestown was burned to 
the ground, was attended with the same 
Tesuh. But the Americans had nearly ex- 
jpended their ammunition, and their com- 
munication with the main army was inter- 
rupted by the fire of the floating batteries, 
Which enfiladed Chariestown neck. The 
English now rallied for a third attack, de- 
tennined to concentrate their forces on the 
i^oubt and breastwork, and to charge : at 
the same time, their artillery turned the left 
of the breastworic, enfiladed the line, and 
sent their balls directly into the redoubt 
The Americans, after resisting with stones 
Itnd the bntis of their guns, retreated under 
a heavy fire. They were, however, not 
pursued venr warmly, and drew off with an 
mconsiderable loss. They had 115 killed, 
among whom was general Warren (q. v.), 
305 wounded, and 30 made prisoners. The 
British loss was 1054 killed and wounded. 
June 17th, 1825, the 50th anniversary of 
this battle was commemorated by a pubBc 
tjele'bration, and the comer-stone of Ae 
Bunker kSl monument was laid. 
■ Charlevoix, Peter Francis Xavier de, 
& French Jesuit, was bom at Sl Quentin, 
m 1682, and taught lan^ages and philos- 
ophy witli some reputanon. He was, for 
some yeai^ a missionary in America, and, 
bn his return, had a chief share in the 
Journal de Thiooux for 22 years. He died 
in 1761. gready esteemed for his high 
moral cnaracter and extensive learning. 
Of his worics, the Htstoire GMrtde de la 
M>wdle lYanee is the most valuable. Tliis 
describes his own experience, and the 
manners and customs of the native Amei^ 
leans, for which he is often quoted, as a wri- 
ter of good auUiority. His style is simple 
and unaftccted, but not perfectly correct 

Charlotte Augusta, daughter of 
ciueen Caroline (q. v.) and George IV, and 
*lhe wifb of prince Leopold of Coburg, was 

bora at Caritoii house, Jan. 7, 1796, onA 
passed the first years of her Hfe under the 
eyes of her mother, who watched over her 
with the fondest affection. She was after- 
wards placed under the care of lady CliP- 
fbrd, and the bishop of Exeter superin- 
tended her studies. These were calculat 
ed to prepare her to lx)come, ofte day, thr^ 
queen or a great nation, and she was 
obliged to attend to them &otn morning to 
evening. She is said to have been well 
accjuainted with the principal ancient 
writers, and with tlie history and statistics 
of the European states, especially with 
the constitution and laws of her native 
country. She spoke, with ease, French, 
German, Italian and Spanish, sung well, 
played on die harp, piano and guitar, and 
ricetched landscapes ftt>m nature with 
much taste. Her style of writing was 
pleaang, and she vras fond of poetry. In 
the unrortunate dissensions between her 
father and mother, die inclined to the nde 
of the latter. The prince of Orange waft 
fixed upon as her fiiture hufiftnmd, and the 
nation desired their union, because the. 
prince had been educated in England, and 
Nvas acquainted with the customs and in- 
terests of the people. After having com- 
pleted his studies at the univer^ of Ox- 
ford, he had served in the British army in 
Spain, and distinguished himself. The 
union, however, was prevented by the dis- 
inclination of the princess. In me mean 
time, she was introduced at court, in 1815^ 
on her 19th birth-day. The princess, who, 
in any situation, would have oeen an orna- 
ment to her sex, displayed an ardent but 
generous disposition, and independence 
and loftiness of sentiment She often said 
that queen Elizabeth must be the model 
of an English queen ; and some pereons 
even thought there was a resemblance 
between them. In 1814, prince Leopold 
of Cobui^ visited England, in tfie suite of 
the allied sovereigns, who went to Lcmdon 
after the peace of Paris. His cultivated 
mind and amiable manners having made 
an impression on the heart of the princess, 
he was permitted to sue for her hand. 
Their marriage, the result of personal in- 
clination, was solenmized May 2, 1816. 
The prince (whom Napoleon declared, at 
St Helena, one of the finest men be had 
ever seen) loved her with tenderness. 
They were always together, rode out in 
company, visited tlie cottages rfthe coun- 
tiy people, and exhibited a pleasing pictme 
of conjugal love. They seldom left Clar- 
enton, and only went to London when 
their presence at court was neeessaiy. 
Then* domestic life resembled that of a 

Digitized by 



»AeT diotier, Aey painted 

tfetfaeTyaod the eTeoings were devoced 

to music or reading. Meanwiiile, the na- 

lioD anxioiisly ezpeiBted ibe moment when 

tbe prinoeaa,* who was highly beloyed, 

dxNiU liccome a mother. The expeeta* 

iioM whkh had been entertained, how« 

^^tte diaappointed by a premature 

»m vy\ Engfand soon conceived new 

J^ \A ^NovAieir.ater three daysof 

^ he pnoeeaa was delivered of a 

A few houiB after her defiv* 

seized with canvuhnons, and 

' last The phyncian who 

her shot himselL 

ciTBURO ; a residence of the 

a, btiilt hj[ Sophia Charlotte, 

I of Prussia, <» the banks of 

>ut three miles fiom Berlin, 

kl garden. The town, which 

|wu up, contains 430 houses, 

ige number are public houses, 

Wtants. A beautiful walk 

I the park of Berlin to Char- 

faich is a fiivorite resort of the 

eifin. In the garden adjoin- 

is the tomb of the late queen 

e statuary Ranch. Chariot- 

hi0 one of the best academies 

hat, of Mesaeurs Cauer, who 

ht at Berlin. 

ESTiLijc; a post-town, and 
nnarle county, Virginia ; 40 
sAs £. ». £. Suumton, 86 W. N. W. 
Kichflwud; laL 38° 3' N.; ion. TS^SJy W. 
I Itis Toy pleasantly situated, one mile from 
I (Ik Rrramia, and is laid out in squares of 
ibree or four acres. The university of 
TiigiQia iras established here, by the legis- 
lttffB,iDl817. The buiklingscomprise 10 
ptfifioDa, for the accoDunodation of pro- 
inon; 109 dormitories and 6 hotels^ for 
die lodging and dieting of the students. 
Xbesiteis a little distance out of the vil- 
^ and occupies 200 acres. The insd- 
tBikn is to receive annually, from the 
VkfizuB liienury fimd, the sum of $15,000. 
Chaicmi, in mythology ; the son of £r- 
^aod Nox. It ¥^88 his office to fenr 
lb dead, in his crazy boat, over the daik 
^Jods of Acheron, over Coeytus, resound- 
Uf[ with the dolefiil lamentations of the 
(K>d,and, finally, over the Styx, dreaded 
c^ bf the immoitals. The shades were 
c«b obliged to pay him an obolus, which 
^ put, at the time of burial, into the 
^■■Muth of the deceased. Those who could 
Mt {ay the fere, or had been so unfortu- 
»te w to find no grave in the upper world, 
^ compelled to wander on the desolate 
°^of the Acheron, till Cliaron was pleas- 
ed to cany them over to their final resting- 

place. He was reprtsented as an old raan, 
with a gkwmy aqpect, matted beard, and 
tattered garments. (Respecting the Egyp- 
tian origin of this fable, see Cetndery^ and 

;HAao8T (Armand Joseph de B^thime)^ 
duke of, bom at Veraailles, in 1728, a wor< 
thy descendant of his great ancestor Sully, 
distinguished himself, on many occaaionB^ 
in the military service of his country. He 
was the friend and father of his soldiera, 
and rewarded the brave from his own 
resources. In 1758, he sent all his plate 
to the mint, to supp^ the necessities of the 
state. The peace concluded in 1763 re- 
stored him to a more quiet qihere of use- 
ftdness; yet he did not discontinue his 
favors towards the soldiers whom he had 
commanded. He was particularlv acdve 
in the promoti<ni of agriculmre and public 
instruction. Long befbre the ravolutioiii 
he aboUahed the fbudal services on hie 
estates, and wrote against feudal institu- 
tions. He established charitable instim- 
tions in sundry parishes, provided for die 
support and instruction of orphans, em- 
ploved phvsicians and midwivea, founded 
and liberally endowed an hoapitaL In a 
yeu of dearth, he imported inrain into 
Calais at his ovni expense. In the nrovia- 
cial assemblies, he spoke against tne cor* 
vits. In the assembly of the notables, he 
declared himself for an equal distributioa 
of the pubhc burdens. Tlie revolution 
broki out Before the decree relative to m 
patriotic contribution appeared, he made m 
voluntary present of 100,000 fianos to the 
state. liuring the reign of terra*, he retir- 
ed to Meillant, where he was arrested, and 
did not obtain his HberQr until after the 
9th Thermidor. In the testimonies given 
in his behalf by the revolutionary commit- 
tees, he was called the father and benefoc- 
tor of Bufiering humanity. He returned to 
Meillant, where he establiriied an agrioul- 
tund society. No sacrifice was too great 
for liim, and his vast fortune was scarcely 
sufiBcient for his enterprises. He died Oct 
27, 1600, of the small-pox, lamented by the 
people, whose benefactor he had been. 

Charpsntier, I. F. 6. ; a man who did 
much to improve the art of mining. He 
viras bom in 1738, and died in 1805. He 
was one of the professors in the mining 
academy at Freyburg, in Saxony. 

Chart. (See Map.) 

Charta Magna. (Ag& Magna Charta.) 

Charte Conbtitutionii ells (eonMnk' 
tional chaHer) is tiie fundamental law of 
the French realm, given by king Lonifl 
XVIIl (q. v.Wune 4, 1814, when he re- 
turned from England. It is one of thos& 

Digitized by 




instruments, wfaicb are called, in Frenchi 
0€troy^; that is, such as are granted by the 
sovereign power of the Idnf, and are not a 
compact between the people and the nder, 
nor a constitution finmed by the people 
themselves. The charter uses the words 
Abiu aootw cKcortU et accardmM, faii cof^ 
cession et octroi h nos nffets, ££e. The 
word ckarte was chosen as calling to 
mind the old charters granted in France, 
for instance, la chaiie omx JStormamds, 

The French charter consists of 76 aiti* 
cks, and some preliminary remarks, in 
which the king acknowledges the necessi* 
ty of a constitutional charter, as demanded 
by the spuit of the age and the state of 
France, and ddaxd au txeu des tt^'cfo, adds 
this instrument to the grants of the ancient 
kings of France, and declares that he gives 
it vo(Ettnfor%, and by the fifee exercise of 
his royal authority,^ for himself and his suc- 
cessors. Articles 1 to 12 inclusive contain 
the public right of the French (droit pMic 
des FVangms). This portion of the Chioie 
is something of the nature of a bill of rights. 
Those from 13 to 23 inclusive contain the 
formes du gouvememerU du rot, which de- 
termine the prerogatives of the king, and 
his relation to the other bianches of gov- 
eroment Those from 24 to 34 inclusive 
relate to the constitution of the chamber 
of peers ; 35--^ relate to the chamber of 
deputies of the depaitments ; 54 — 56, to the 
mmistiy ; 57—68, to the judiciary ; 69—74, 
contain particular rights guarantied by the 
state ; 75 and 76 contain transitory articles 
(artides transitoiresy The first article de- 
clares all Frenchmen equal in the eye of 
the law (Us Frcm^ais sont 4gttux detfant la 
2m, quds que soieni d^ailUurs leurs litres et 
leirs nmgsy All citizens are taxed in 
propoition to theur property (art 2]|, and 
are admissible to all civil and mUitaiy 
offices (art 3). All forms of religion are 
tolerated and protected ; but the Catholic 
is declared the reliffion of the state. Art 
8 recognises the hberty of the press, but 
reserves the right of making laws against 
the abuse of this privilege. Twelve such 
additional laws are refened to in an edi- 
tkxioftheCAoWe printed 1828. (See Fi2- 
Ule*) Alt 9 declares all property invictla- 
ble, not excepting the natiimol estateSj so 
called, that is, such as belonged to the 
king, cleigy and nobility before the revolu- 
tion, and were sold during its continuance. 
Art 11 declares a general anmesty, as re- 
gards votes and opinions previous to the 
restoration. (See Amnestj^.) A law of 
amnesty was also passed Jan. 11, 1816. 
The conscription is abolished (art 12). 
The person of the king is declared invio- 

lable and sacred. His mausten un vo* 
qx>nsible. To the king akne bek>i^ the 
executive power (art. ISy The kmg im 
supreme duef of the state and commaiKler 
of the sea and land forces; he dedaroB 
war, makes all appointment, and esCab- 
Mies reguladkMis and ordinances neoessaiy 
for the execution of the laws and the safety* 
of the state (art 14\. The legislative pow- 
er rests jointly in tne king, the chamber of 
peen, and the chamber of deputies (art. 
15)b The king proposes the laws (art. 16).* 
The chambere may petition him to pio- 
pose a law (art 19). If the petition is 
rejected, it cannot be taken up during the 
same session (art 21). The civil list ia 
fixed during the first session of the cham- 
bers, after me accession of a king, for the 
whole duration of his reign (art &\ The 
peers of France are nominated by the 
king. Their digni^ is either granted fyr 
life, or made hereditary, accoiding to his 
pleasure. Their number is unlimited 
(art 27). The poers cannot meet without 
the chamber of deputies is also in session 
(art 26). Peers enter the chamber at the 
age of 25 years, but have not the right to 
vote or speak until the age of 30 (art. 28). 
The chancellor of France presiaes over 
the peers; in his absence, a peer ncMni- 
nated by the king (art. 29). Members of 
the king's fiunil^, and princes of the blood, 
are peers by biith, but have no li^t to 
vote before the age of 25 years, and the 
king must pennit them to take their seats 
for each session bjr a particular message ; 
otherwise every thing done by the chun- 
ber in their presence is void (art. 30, 31*). 
The debates of. the peers are secret (art 
32). The chanfoer of peers takes co^- 
zance of high treason and attempts agamst 
the safety of the state (art. 33). Peers 
can be arrested and tned only by the 
chamber to which they belong (art 34). 
The chambw of dcpities is composed of 
the deputies elected by the electoral col- 
leges in the departments (art 35). By the 
terms of the charter, the deputies were to 
be elected for five years, but the period 
has since been extended to seven yearn. 
(See Septenmal Elections.) To become 
acquainted vrith the rules relating to elec- 
tions, it is neoessaiy to consult not merely 
the Chariej but also the laws of Feb. 5, 
1817, March 25, 1816, June 19, 182a In 
1824, the ministiy obtained the repeal of 

* Therefore the French laws begin tbua — 'Looia 
or Charies, &c., par ia gr6ct £ Duu, Roi dt 
Fukkck et de Nayarre, ^ tous whms et ^ 
veniTf Salut. Nbut avons propog^, Ua Cheanbru 
ofU adopUt Nous Atoks Oroorhk at Ordor- 
ROiis, cc fid amt. 

Digitized by 




■It 87, ivinch rtquiras a Mil put of the 
ehsmber to be annuaJDy elected — a change 
whkh much diminwhee the uidependenoe 
of the body. This is a subject of great 
eomplaint m the nation. The liberal part 
of the natioD are looking widi great anxi- 
ety for a return to the proviffions of the 
chaiter, and the security of one of the 
fimdamental rights of the citizens. (See 
JSIeefton.) The president of the chamber 
of depnties is ai^pointed by the king finnn 
among five deputiee, presented 1^ the 
chamber (ait. 43). The seesionB of the 
ehamber of deputies are public, but, on 
the reipiest ofme members, it must form 
Hself into a secret committee (ait. 44). 
The chamber divides itself into hwreavx^ 
which discuss the propositions made by 
the king. No amendment (q. v.) to a law 
ean be made, if it has not been proposed 
or sanctioned by the king, and oiscussed 
by the 6iireemx, i e., committees (art 45^ 
46). The deputies receive, first, all the 
propositions of the kin^ respecting taxes, 
andnottifl after discussMm in this body sre 
these bills sent to the peers (art 47). No 
tax can be imposed without the consent 
of both chambers and the king's sanction 

St. 48). Land taxes can be imposed only 
one year. Indirect taxes may be laid 
for several years (art 49). The king con- 
vokes both the chambers each year. He 
can dissolve that of the deputies, but 
must, in this case, convoke another within 
three months (art 50). No bodily con- 
atnunt can be imposed upon a deputy 
during the session, or for six weeks before 
or after, in consequence of any civil pro- 
ce0s(art51). Duniur the session, no mem- 
ber can be prosecuted or arrested on a crim- 
inal charge, except with the permission of 
die efaaimier, in consequence of his being 
guilty of a flagrant ofienoe (art 53). No 
petition to either of the chambers is per- 
mitted to be made verbally at their bar. It 
most be delivered in writing (art 53). (See 
Bar,) The ministeiB of state may be 
members of either chamber, and must be 
heard, if tfaey'demand it, by the peers as 
well as by the deputies (art 54). The 
diamber of deputies alone nas the right to 
impeach the ministers; the peers, to tiy 
tfa^ (art 55). Ministers can only be im- 
peached for treason and extortion (oonai#- 
Mni,art56). All justice emanaleH from the 
kmg(art5/). Tlie judges appointed by the 
king are not removable (art 58). The jus- 
tices <^ the peace, though appointed by the 
king, are removable (art 61 ). No <Mie can 
be tried except before the ordinary judges; 
therefore no extraordinary tribunals, nor 
»,so called^can be created (art 

eS2, 63). The debates m the courts are 
public in criminal cases, tmless puUicityi 
m a ffiven case, wonld be injurious to tfaa 
morals of the community (art 64). The 
jury is preserved (ait 65). Confiscation is 
foreverabolidfted(art66). Thekinghas 
the right of pardoning and of mitigatinff 
sentences (art 67). llie civil code, ana 
the laws existing at the time when the 
charter was granted, which are not con- 
traiy to the same, remain in force until 
they are le^ly changed (art 681 The 
public debt is guarantied. Every kind of 
engagement entered into by government 
with its creditors is inviolable (art 70). 
The old nobilidr resume their tities; the 
new preserve theirs. The king creates 
nobles according to his pleasure ; but he 
does not thus exempt nom anv duty or 
burthen (art 71). The legion of honor is 
maintained (ait 72). The cotonies are 
({ovemed by particular laws and regular 
tions fait 73). The king and his suoce»» 
sors shall swear to observe the present 
constitutional charter (ait 74). 

However unsatisfiea a pneat portion of 
the people may have been, m the beginning , 
with this constitution^ granted by im kingpi 
sovereign autfamity, it has now become 
dear to the nation ; for it is evident, that 
the party of the old nolnlity does not intend 
to preserve even these imperfect founda- 
tions of a constitutional monarchy, bat 
conadeis them merely as the means of 
quieting public opinion for the present, 
and as, in reality, the first step in the return 
to the old state of things. Ftve la eharU ! 
is the watch-word of one party, while 
Viot It Boii is that of the other ; and the 
wish of the former is, perhaps, more sin- 
cere than that of the latter ; for, the more 
attentively we consider l^e measiues of 
the vUra'TiwUuts, as they are called, the 
more dear^ we perceive that their ulti-* 
mate object is not the establishment of the 
royal power, but that their present poliey 
is to extend it merely as a necessary pre- 
liminary to the recovery of those privil^es^ 
the abuse of which was the principal cause, 
and their annihilation the first consequence, 
of the revolution. The restoration of the 
confiscated estates of the emij^nrnts, tiie re- 
establishment of the seisneunal rights, feu- 
dal taxes, tithes, and, above all, the exchi- 
sive right to the higher ofiices in state and 
churefc^ are so openly demanded, that the 
tram nigneur has afready been heard in 
the chamber of deputies. The contest on 
the following question is, therefore, of 
vital importance : — whether the kuig grant- 
ed the Charte of his own authority, as an 
edict resting solely on the royal wil^ and 

Digitized by 




bindiiig neither the tnomudi himself nor 
Ins flucoeason (which ia the asKition of 
the royalists) ; or whether, by it, the hinff 
concluded an ineFeraible compact with 
the natimif declaiing die common wiU^ as. 
the chief representative of the French 
people. Many detideraU atifl exist, ^ioh 
are either exprsssly promised by the 
Charle to be suppued (as, for instance} 
more definite provisions with respect to 
the responsibility of public officers), o^ 
tacitly, as necessary to complete it (anion(^ 
iNrhich must be reckoned, particularly, a 
better form of administration in the sep« 
arate miinicinalities). Those abuses with 
which Napoleon's goyemment has been 
principally reproached, the albitrarv ad- 
ministration under constitutional fotm% 
the preteotures, and the hureauaraey 
(see Bureau), from the minister to the 
motre, are still the «ame. The com- 
nunities and departments have not re- 
gained the free and ind^[)endent adminis- 
tration of their domestic concerns, which 
had been secured to titiem by the first 
hiws of the revolution^ and vdiich, indeed, 
constitutes one of the principal conditions 
on which the welfare of the nation de- 
pends. But the determination of this 
point by law is one of the most difficult 
questions diat can arise, and deserves the 
most mature oonsideralion, because it op^ 
erates directly upon the people, and con- 
cerns interests which are dear alike to the 
rich and the poor. The law proposed to 
the deputies m the session of 18S1 bore 
the stamp of the mmistiy of that time, at 
the head of which was Pasquier, who, 
thinking that the aristocrats might be 
made the instruments of the government, 
offiared them those half concesaons which 
imbittered one party without reconciling 
the other. The richest members of every 
muBicipality were to be permitted to choose 
their magistrates, and were themselves to 
foim a pajt of them without the necessity 
of being chosen ; vet the powers of these 
magistrates, as weU as those of the depu- 
tations of the canums and departments, 
'ivere very limited. (For further informa- 
tion re^>ecting the F^nch government, 
see L9tiie XVIH Ckadea X, &c.) 
. Charter. Every written document in 
the middle ages was called cartOy charta 
or chariula. There were several kinds, 
distinguished by difierent names, accord- 
ing to the nature of the subjects, or the 
materials on which they were written, or 
llieir internal or external foroL Tliusa 
kind of documents, common in England, 
are called indentures {duarUt indeniattt or 
partiUB), because originally written on one 

piece of mnjiment, whieh W8S aflervvttMii 
cut asunder in an indented foitn, so diat 
the fitting of the several parts to eacll 
other was considered neoessaiy to prove 
their genuineness. (It was also customa-* 
ry to write a w<nd, commonly the word 
€Mhleprapft«ll^ lengthwise between the tv^ 
mstruments, and cut it in two^ whence 
such an instrument was called chxrogn^ 
phm.) This mediod has also been re* 
softed to as a means of securing certifi-^ 
cates of modk. ftam heme counterfeited t 
they are bound up, and thai cut out^ 
so that each number must fit the put 
belonging to it remaining in the book. 
CharUB per crucan or per punchm i^gni* 
fied, m the middle ages, chaitem signed 
only by a cross or point, f&t want of the 
knowledse of writing in the signer. The 
signification v^ch is now usiully affixed 
to the word ehartery meaning a document 
relating to puMic law, the constitudon of 
a state, or some parts of it, likewise origin- 
ated in England, where the royal granm 
of certain privileges to towns or other cor- 
porations are styled charUB Ubertatumy or 
^kmier$. No European nation has set so 
high a value on documents of diis natun^ 
none has maintained its ancient rijghts and 
liberties with so much care and jealousy^ 
as the English ; for which reason the lit- 
erature of this department is richer among 
tibem than in any other nation. Since 
1783, when the Domeadau-Book, that cel- 
ebrated account of landed property, or 
register and description of all feudal estates, 
in the time of William I (commenced in 
1080, and finished in 1085), was printed at 
the expense of pariiamrat, and puticulariy 
since 1800, when a committee of parihi- 
ment was appointed for the purpose of 
making searcn after the ancient doci»- 
ments that misht be sdll extant, and caus- 
ing them to be printed, much has been 
done b^ the English for promoting the 
publication of these monuments of their 
histoiy and constitution. Rymer's coUeo* 
tion (jRecfero, ConveniioneB, lAUrtB H c»- 
juscunque Generis Jida pMica inter Ae- 

S» ^ngK«, &c., 1704—35, 20 vols., fW. ; 
ague, 1745, 10 to1&, foho) was, ev^ m 
the first edition, veiy complete for a pri- 
vate collection, and a model in its kind t 
the 3d and fMut of the dd edition have 
appeared under the direction and at the 
expense of parliament, and are far superi- 
or to the former. The firet volume of this 
woik appeared in 1816. According to 
the report of the committee, in 1821, 45 
vols., fol., of ancient documents, had dien 
been printed since 1801, comprising a pe- 
riod of more than 700 yean, which shed 

Digitized by 




«rM ^ on iiiMotJr and poIiti6b The 
aty of London is adH in po flroaai on of tw« 
tngina} cfaarlen, gnated by Williun I im 
die year 1066^ one of which eonfunui the 
urmeglBfl which the cily hid recehred fkovk 
Kdtntd the Confessor, «um1 the other b^ 
slows on it ifae fief of Gyiicieisdauiv 
Tbqr ue fasndsomdir wiiHen, in the Am 
gli>-ooxon language, on two pieces of 
parcfamem, each ax inches m Jenfjth, by 
one in bresddiy the foraier eonsisnng of 
tiine lines, the latter of three. The seals, 
though broken in pieces, are sdll attached 
to than, enclosed in silk bags. In France, 
the fimdamental law of constitutional lib* 
erty, giren by Lanis XVIII, is called 
Charit emstiMionnaU (q. v.> In 1893^ 
there was estabttshed in Fiance a school 
flf chaiteiB (^coie dei t^arUi), to insaruct 
young men in deciphering and explaining 
the dislten of the middle ages, which aie 
Id be found in the French an^bives. 
There k, even since the revolution has 
destroyed so many documentB, an im<^ 
menae mass of giants, chaiteia, fee, writ* 
ten on pnchmeat, many of great antiquity, 
in France. Mr. IsanJbert has collected, 
in the pi^iace to vol. 1 of his usefiil Reeu- 
tSL deg Jhneiennes Lois du Hoyaumey accu- 
tate and exteinve infimtiation reepeciing 
the catalognesy descriptions, pieces of de« 
posit, &c of iteAers. 

CttAnrfelt-PAafrr is a contract under 
band and S6i§^ executed by the freighter 
and the master or owner of a ship, con- 
laining the terms upon which the ship is 
hired to frei^t The masters and own* 
en usoally bind themselves, the i9iip, 
tackle and fttmiture, then the goods 
ficighlBd shaH be delivered (dangers of 
the sea eicoeptedj well-conditioned at the 
place of the dischai^; and they olso cov- 
enant to provide marineia, tackle, &c., 
and to emiip the ship complete and ade* 
quale lb ttie TOfige. The freighter stipu- 
lates to pay the consideration money for 
die (reight ; and penalties are annexed to 
enforce the reciprocal oovenants. 

CHAaTSfes (anciently .^uirteiiTn and Car^ 
iMtficja); acityofFrance,intbe£ure-and* 
Loire, 11 posts S. W. Paris, 18} N. N. E. 
Tows; Ion. I* 19 E.; lat. 48^ 27' N. 
The population amounts to 15,000. It is 
the see of a bishop. It is one of die most 
ancient towns of the countiy, and contains 
a cathedral, 8 churches, an hospital, a pub- 
lic ttxary of 25,000 volumes, and a cabi- 
net of natnnd hSstoiy. The streets are 
narrow, but some of the houses are un- 
commonly neat, and die cathedral is es- 
teemed one of the most beautifiil churches 
ia the kmgdom. It is ntimted on the 

Sure, over which iii a bridge, the worfc oC 
the celebrated Yauban. The principal 
Hade is in cc^rn, wine and manu&ctuied 
^oods. Regnier, the poet, Nicole, Brissot 
and Desportes were natives of this places 

CHAaTREusB, or Great CHARTHEtrsK $ 
a iiHnous Carthusian monasteiy in France^ 
a little N. E. of Grenoble, situaied at the 
foot offaigh mountains. It was founded iat 
108a (See Cmikuiimw.) 

CnAETBDis; a daughter of Neptune 
and Tem, whom Jujnter, on account of 
her insatiable rapacity, hurled into the 
sea, whera she became a whirlpool, and 
swallowed up every ship that approached 
her. This mythological fiction was occa'> 
ricttied by the whirlpool in die Sicilian 
sea, whidi vras the more dangerous to in-^ 
exp^enced navigators, because, in en- 
deavoring to escape it, they ran the risk 
of being wrecked upon Scylla, a rock op* 
posite to it. Charybdis is no longer dread* 
nil to navigators, who, in a quiet sea, and 
particularly if die south vrind is not blow- 
ing, cross it without danger. Its present 
names are CAlofwro and Xxi Rtma. The 
eerdiquake of 1783 is said to have much 
dhninifiAied its violence. 

Chase, damuel, a celebrated judge, and 
one of the signere of the declaration of in* 
dependence, was bom April 17, 1741, in 
Somerset coimty, Maiyland. His father, 
a leamed clergyman, instructed him in 
the ancient dasncs, and subsequent^ 
placed him at Annapolis as a student of 
law. He vras admitted to the bar at the 
age of 20. His talents, industry, intrepid- 
ity, imposing stature, sonorous voice, flu** 
ent and energetic elocution, raised him to 
eminence in a very few years. Havin|j 
become a member of tbe colonial legisla* 
ture, he distingui^ed himself by his bold 
oppomtion to the royal governor and the 
court party. He took the lead in do» 
nouncing and resisting the fhmous stamp 
act His revolutionary spirit, his oratory 
and reputation, placed him at the head 
<^ the active adversaries of the British 
government in his state. The Mary- 
land convention of the 22d of June, 1774, 
appointed him to attend the meeting 
of tlie general congress, at Philadelphia^ 
hi September of that year. He was abo 
present and conspicuous at the session of 
l>ecember followmg, and m the subse- 
quent congresses, during the most critical 
periods of the levolution. That of 1776 
deputed him on a mission to Canada, 
along with doctor Franklin, Charles Car 
roll of Carrollton, and the reierend John 
Carroll, afterwards Catholic archbishop of 
Baltimore. It was Mr. Chase who da* 

Digitized by 




noanoed tocongrees the reverend doctor 
Zubly, a delegate from GeorgiB, as a trai- 
tor to the American caiue, and forced faim 
to a precipitate and ignominious flight 
He signed the declan^on of indepen* 
dence with promptitude, and was an ac- 
tive and able member of cmigress ahnoat 
throughout the war; at the end of which 
he returned to the practice of his profes- 
sion. In June, 17o3, the legislature of 
Maryland sent him to London, as a com- 
missioner, to recover stock of the bank of 
England, and large sums of money which 
belonged to the state. He remained in 
Engluid nearly a year, during which 
time he put the claim in a train of adjust- 
ment There he passed much of his 
time in the socie^ of the most eminent 
statesmen and lawyers. In the vear 1791, 
he accepted the appointment of chief jus- 
tice of the general court of Maiyland. 
Five years iSlerwards, presid^it Wash- 
ington made him an associate judge of 
the supreme court of the U. States. Po- 
litical cases of deep interest having been 
tried when he presided in the circuit 
courts, and his conduct having given 
much displeasure to the democratic paiv 
tyy he was impeached by the house of 
representatives at Washington. The trial 
of the judge before the senate is memora- 
ble on account of the excitement which it 
produced, the ability with which he was 
defended, and the nature of his aoquittaL 
A ^U report of it has been published. 
He continued to exercise his judicial func- 
tions, with the highest reputation, until the 
Siar 1811, in which his health fiiiled. 
e expired June 19 of that year. Mr. 
Chase Jed an eventful and important life, 
and established the character of a satfa- 
eious, erudite and feariess judge, andf a 
patriot little inferior in merit to any of his 

Chasing^ in sculpture ; the art of em- 
bossing on metals. This is the art of rep- 
resenting figures, &c. in a kind of bauo 
rtUevOf punched out firom behind, and 
sculptured on the fit>nt vnth small chisels 
and gravers. 

«Chas8eki ; the first sultana, or that wife 
of the Turidsh emperor who mesents him 
with the first prince. (See Turkey^ near 
the close of the ardde.) 

Chasteler (John Gabriel) marquis o^ 
grandee of Spain of the first rank, Austri- 
an master of ordnance or general of artil- 
lery, mihtary governor in Venice, descend- 
ed in a collateral line from the dukes of 
Lorraine, was bom in 1763, and received 
his first education at Metz, in the coUege 
de Fort In 1776, he entered the Austri- 

an service. After having served againnt 
die Turks (when he was severely ivound- 
ed), he displayed his zeal for the house of 
Austria in the distuiimnces in the Nether- 
lands. In 1796—97, he was employed in 
the negotiations of his court in P<dnnd 
and Russia ; was afterwards with Suwa* 
roflfin Italy, where he distinguished him- 
sdf in several engupements with the 
French armies. In 1808, with Hormayr, 
he vms the soul of thefiunoiis iflsarrecdoii 
in the Tyrol, and all the political as well 
as militaiy events which were coimected 
viith it Meanwhile, thedisasier at Ratiis- 
bon (q. V.) had taken place. Ghasteler 
was obUsed to retreat into the northon 
part of l^roL Napoleon, enraged at the 
surrender of 8000 French and Bavaiians 
at Innspruck, issued a proclamation at 
Enns, in which *^ a certain Ghasteler, who 
calls himself a gmeral in the Austrian 
service, but who is the leader of a band 
of robfcNars, and the authcM' of the murders 
committed upon the French and Bavarian 
TOisonerB, as well as the instigator of the 
Tyrolese insurrection,'' is declared an out- 
law, and ordered to be brought before a 
court-martial, and diot vrithin 34 hours. 
The emperor Frauds commanded, that 
an <»der which violated all international 
laws, and which was the mote eensorable 
as Ghasteler had taken particular care of 
the prisoners and the wounded, should be 
met by retaliation. The Bavarian army, 
under the command of the marshal duke 
of Dantzick, entered l^nrol: Ghasteler fear- 
lessly encountered it ; but his army waa 
routed on the 13th of May. Afier the dose 
of the war, he received several appoint- 
ments, and, in December, 1814, was made 
governor of Venice, where he died, May 
7. 1825. This general was of a chivalrous 
character and a cultivated mind ; he i^Mke 
12 languages, was as brave as he was sen- 
erouB, and was one of the noblest Wal- 
loons in the armies of Austria. 

GHA8TSI.ET (Gahridle Emilie de Br»- 
teuil) marquise du ; of an ancient family in 
Picardv *, bom in 1706. She was tal^^ 
Latin by her ftither, baron Breteuil, mi 
waa as well acquainted v^ith that languaj^ 
as madame Dacier (q. v.); but h«r fiivonte 
study was mathematics. She had a sound 
jud^ent and much taste; loved society 
and the amusements of her age and sex ; 
but abandoned all these pleasures, and, in 
1733, retired to the dilapidated castie of 
Girey, situated in a dreary recioD on the 
bordera of Ghampagne and Lomdue, 
She embellished tins residence, formed a 
library, collected instruments, &c Girey 
vras often visited by the learned ; fiv in- 

Digitized by 




tiaaee, by Maupertuis, John BemoiuIH, 
6lc Here the marchioness learned Eng- 
lish of Voltaire in the space of three 
months^ and read with him Newtcm, 
Locke and Pope. She learned Italian 
with equal ra|Hdity. She also wrote an 
analysis of the system of Leibnitz, and 
translated Newton's iVmctpta, widi an 
algebraic commentaiy. Voltaire lived 
six yeaiB with her at Cirey. She then 
went to Brussels, to prosecute a lawsuit, 
which was tenninated by an advanta^ 
geooB compromise, brought about by Vol- 
taire. She also carried on a correspond- 
ence with the German philosopher Wolf 
until her death. Her TrmU de la JVaiure 
du Feu obtained the prize of the Parisian 
academy of sciences, and is published in 
their collections. Her husband, the mar- 
quis du Chastelet Lomont, was high stew- 
ard of kmg Stanislaus Leczinsky, at Lune- 
▼ille. The marchioness died at Luneville, 
in 1749. 

CbIteadbriaitd, Fran^cns Auguste, 
▼icomte de ; peer of France, nephew of 
die generous Maleaherbes; one of the 
most distinguiBhed living French writers. 
He was bom at Combourg, in Brittany, in 
1769, and, in 1786, joined the regiment of 
inftntry called the regimefU of JVawirre, 
During the bloody proscriptions of the 
reroKition, he repaired to North America. 
A residence of two years among the sav- 
age tribes of Kentucky, whence, in 1790 
and the following year, he penetrated as 
far as cape Memlocino, on the Pacific, 
had a decimve influence upon his charac- 
ter as a politico-religious poet While in 
America, he wrote a worii of a poetical 
character, although not in verse, called 
The Mttekei^ in which he describes the 
maimerB of die Indian tribes. This an- 
peaxed, for the fiist time, in 1826, in the 
coUecdon of his works. In 1792, he re- 
turned to Europe, to fight under the ban- 
neiB of the emiflirants, and was wounded 
at the siege of Thionville. This circum- 
stance, together with some others, induc- 
ed him to go to f^dand. There his 
nanow circumstances M>liged him to turn 
author, and he formed an intimacy widi 
comit de Fontanes. At diat time, he 
wrote his JEmoi hisloriquej polUique d 
moral mar lu^ lUvoluHona andennes d 
'modamea^ considirhs dana lewr Rapport 
woec la lUvolution Franpaise (Historical, 
poetical and moral Essay on ancient and 
modem Revolutions, considered in Rela- 
tion to the French Revolution), London, 
1797, and Leipsic There are sundry 
oimiions in this work, which the most en- 
ligfatened men would not disavow, ex- 
▼oIm III. 10 

eepting, indeed, M. de Ch&teaubriand 
himself He has since publicly acknowl- 
edged his former eiron ($ea erreiars\ and 
wntten '^a new work, with an old fiuth.** 
{*^J^ieri»^ says he, '*t*n ofuxragt nevfaoto 
wnefoi aniique/*y^ For so it happened, 
that when Napoleon placed himself at die 
head of afiiurs, the author of the Esaai 
hUterique immediately announced his ab- 
juration of liberal ideas. ''Under a gov- 
ernment which proscribes no peacm)le 
opinions," says he, in the preftce to the 
third edition of his Mila, 1801, ''it may 
be permitted to undertake the defence of 
Chnstianity as a literaiy subject" At 
that time, he -called Bonaparte "one of 
those men whom Providence, when weary 
of punishing, sends into the worid as a 
I)ledge of reconciliation." The first edi- 
tion of Chliteaubriand's G^ie du Chria^ 
tianiame (Genius of Chrisdanity) appeared 
in England in 1803. It was afterwards 
published in France also. The tale of 
Mda composed the 18di book of it. This 
work made a great impression ; and, in- 
deed, every thing in it is calculated mere- 
ly for effect. The time in which it ap- 
peared was happily chosen, as Bonaparte 
entertained the wish of restoring the au- 
thority of the church. Twenty-five years 
earlier, it would have found as litde fovor 
in the ejres of the Sorbonne as wi& the 
advenanes of that society ; but the prel- 
ates did not think proper to express their 
discontent at the somewhat wondlv views 
of the author, since they appeared to be 
best adapted to excite rehgious feelings 
among such a people as the French of 
that time. After the 18th Brumaire, Cha- 
teaubriand returned to France, entered 
into a connexion with Fontanes, La 
Harpe, and other distinguished scholars, 
and became joint editor of the Mercurt, 
In 1803, he was, for a short time, secreta- 
ry to- the legation in Rome, under cardinal 
Fesch. This rendence insinred his ima- 
gination with the idea or the Martyra, 
which is a religious poem, though not ia 
metre. In Ae same year, he was ap- 
pointed French minister in die Valais, but 
sent in his resignation immediatelv aftei^ 
the death of the duke d'Engfaten (March, 
1804). In 1806^ he travelled through 
Greece and Rhodes to Jerusalem, fit>m 
whence he went to Alexandria, Cairo 
and Carthage, and returned by way of 

• Chftteaubriand, m lfll4. published a new edi- 
tion of fab Esaai, in which all Xhoae ptsaajgea which 
a certain dasa of people are diapfeasedwith are 
changed. But in :1834, a reprint of the old editioD 
of the Essai, of the year 1797, which had becooM 
very rare, appeared at Paris, with notes, and att 
the metamorphoses of the editioo of 1814. 

Digitized by 




Spain to France^ in May, 1807. Aoooidp 
ing to his oivn words, he brought back, as 
tesdmoDJals of his pilgrimage and his 
feith, a dozen pebbles mm Sparta, Argos 
and Corinth, a phial of water firom th^ 
Jordan, together with a rosaiy, a flasl^ 
filled with water of the Dead sea, and 
a bunch of sedge from the banks of the 
Nile. Soon aft^, he lost his property in 
the Mtrcure dt Franct^ on account of 
some remarks on M. de la Borders Travels 
m Spain, in whidi the emperor thought 
he discovered some ofiensive allusions. 
About this time, Ch4teaubriand's Mwrbfra 
i^peared. It Mras to be expected that it 
would not be universally approved. When 
Chateaubriand succeeded Joseph Ch^nier 
as a member of the institute, m 1611, in^ 
stead of pronouncing a eulogy on his 
predecessor, as is customary in the inau- 
ffural discourse of a member, he treated 
him vrith very little forbearance. His 
conduct on tliis occasion can only be at- 
tributed to his personal resentments, or to 
a design of fbmendng party dissensions. 
In this oration, however, and still mora 
£:equendy in the Uinhairt dt Paris a Ji^ 
ruscdem^ are passages devoted to the praise 
of Napoleon ; pamy, indeed, because the 
author was an admirer of Ids military 
gloty, and partly because (according to liis 
own confession) he could not neglect the 
interests of his publisher by disregarding 
a hint received &om the minister of 
police. At length, the disasters of 1812 
encouraged his nope of the resUnution of 
the Bourix>ns, aim, in April, 1814, he 
published his famous pammilet De Bona- 
parte et deg Bourbons, wnich has been 
translated into almost aU the European 
languages. It is impoeable to write more 
boldly against a povtrer which has ceased 
to exist The man sent by Providence 
(envoyi par la Providence) is painted as 
strongly as before, but with entirely new 
feamres. In this publication, the vi<* 
comte declared himself decidedly for 
the ultrarro^aUsts, to whom he has been, 
for a long tune, a fiuthfid adherent, He 
endeavored, at the same time, to exercise 
some influence on public opinion, and, by 
his R^lexions politumes sur quelques Bro^ 
ckurea da Jovr (Political Reflections on 
some Pamphlets of the Da^]t, he recom- 
tnended Inmself to the muustry of that 
period. On Nqx>Ieon's return firom Elba, 
be followed Louis XVIII to Ghent, and 
thence back to Paris. While at Ghent, in 
May, 1815, he presented a report to the kmg 
on the condition of France, in which cer- 
tain interests were so imprudendy menaced 
that Napoleon caused it to be printed and 

distributed in Faqs. August 19, 1815^ he 
was made minister of state and peer. . As 
such, he voted for the rigorous measures 
a^iainst pohtieal intrigues (vtdrigxiM poU^ 
kqueti), declared hini^lf in ftvor of the 
restitudon of the old judicial Ibrms, and 
against the partial renovation of the 
chamber of deputies, ^. March 21, 
1816, he became a member of the acade^ 
my. Six months afterwards i^ipeared 
hi^ work. La Monarehie seUm la Ckarte 
(The Monarehy according to the Charter)^ 
in which some good ideas are aitfully 
blended vrith doctrines, which, if carried 
into practice, would be equally prejudicial 
to the royal authority and the rights of the 
people. Having permitted himself^ in 
this work, to express some doubts of tha 
ancerity of the king^ puiposes, as ex-» 
pressed in the ordiiiunce of Sept 5, hia 
name was struck from the list of the nun<» 
isters of state — a step which was veiy un* 
favorably viewed by the fliuboui^ of St. 
Germain. From that time Chiteaufariand 
often assailed the measures of Decazea^ 
declaring that France would be rained if 
the character of the administration were 
not changed. The Mwiteio- of Aug. 31, 
1818, attacked, in strong terms, his J2e*- 
VMwques sur Us ^Affaires du Moment (Re* 
marks on the present State of Aflairs). 
At a kter period (1820), Chliteaubriand 
voted ft)r the lois dPexeepHfm, (See Ex*. 
ceptiorif Laitos of) When the duke of 
Bordeaux was fclaptized, he presented die 
duchess of Berri with a phial of water 
from the Jordan; and, on this occasioii, 
the question was started, why he did not^ 
In 1811, sprinkle with tfaos romantic water 
*^1he crame which contained the destmiiB 
of the ^ture." In 1830, Ghilteauhriand 
went as minister plenipotendary and en-* 
vov extraordinary to milin, but, in the 
following year, returned to Paris, where, 
April 30, 1821, he vras appointed minister 
of state and member of the privy counciL 
In August of the same year, he resasned 
thepoet of minister of state. In 182S, be 
was appointed extraordinary ambassador 
to London, in the pkee of Decaaes—^i 
post with which an income of 300,000 
francs, and an outfit of 150,000 fiwics, 
are coimected* But he soon returned te 
Paris, accompanied the duke of Montmo* 
renci to the congress of Verona, and, a^ 
ter his return, became the duke's suceessov 
in the department of foreign afliun (Dec* 
28, 1822), because his opinions coincided 
with the views of Yillde on the Spanish 
affiiirs, being more moderate dian those 
of many of the royalists. The instruc-* 
tions to the count de 1a Qarde, French 

Digitized by 




ambfiflsador at Madrid, werp dm-wn up In 
the same spirit, on the breaking out or tha 
war. But a coldness soon arose between 
Villele and Chateaubriand, the former not 
approving the latter^s romantic notions in 
the cause ofi^e Spanish royalists. Ch^ 
teauhriand^roB consoled on this occasion 
by receiving the Russian order of Sl An- 
(h«w, and Uie Prussian order of the black 
eade. As, however, he did not 6up|M>it 
ViU^le's project relative to the reduction 
of the 'five per cents.,' when discussed in 
the chamber of peers, expecting, perhaps^ 
that, if Vill^le's proposal did not pass, me 
&U of this minister would be the conse- 
i^uence, he himself received his dismia- 
Bion, June 5, 1824. He then declared 
himself against Villele. After the death 
of Louis A Vlllr Chiiiteaubriand publish- 
ed, Sept. 17, a pamphlet, under tha 
title Le Roi est mort: vive U Roi! (The 
King is dead: long Uve the King!)* 
which obtained him the &vor of the court 
and the king. He did not, however, re- 
ceive a place in tlia ministry, lie there- 
fore joined the opposition, taking advan- 
tage of tlie hbeity of the press to make 
severe attacks on the measures of the 
muiistiy, in ably written articles, which 
appeared in the Journal des D4bats ; and 
there is no doubt that he contributed 
much to Villele's final overthrow. A veiy 
well written account of tliis overthrow is 
contained in the N<Hth American Review, 
July, 1828, article Politics qf Europe, 
His pamphlet De rAhdiiion de la Cen- 
sure (On the Abolition of the Censor- 
ship], in which he advanced the proposi- 
tion that a representative government, 
without the liberty of the press, is worth- 
less, met with great approbation. In 1825 
appealed his eloquent Note sur la Grkct 
(Note on Greece), advocating the cause 
of the Greeks, in &vor of whom he also 
spoke with great energy in the chamber 
of peers. He has been lately en^^Lged in 
the puMication of his Qktvres completes 
(Complete Collection of his Works), m 25 
vols., fi>r which the bookseller Ladvocat 
has paid him 550,000 firanca Amonff his 
woiks are MimoireSf Lettres et IH^as 
authentiques tauchani la Fie et la Mort du 
Due de Bern. M. Chateaubriand was, 
for a time, the chief editor of the Conser^ 
tateur. This journal was continued by 
Fi^vde, but ceased when the law estab- 
lishing the censorship appeared. Chk- 
teaubriand's wiitingB breathe a poetic 
quit. They are composed with warmth, 
replete with images, i^irited, and not 

* The ancieBi cry by which ibe death of the 
kiof^ fif France is always aaoounced. 

without power ; maoy of his descriptioDfl, 
in particular, mav be called excellent 
yet his ideas are destitute of solidity and 
connexion. However distinpiiahed, there- 
fore, may be the rank which his talents 
for description have procured him among 
popular writers, yet none of his worits can 
De called classic, if we reserve this name 
for the works of a lofty and independent 
mind, which combine richness of ideas 
with profoundness and solidity, which 
never distort the truth by sophisms, the 
illusions of the imaj^ation, or inflated 
expression. Many ofhis woiks are trans- 
lated into English ; but they are less val- 
ued in England than in France, and stiM 
less in America than in England. Lady 
Morgan calls him the sotitary and inimita- 
ble successor of the Coucys, Neales, Cha- 
tillons and Montforts, the last of the cru- 
saders and noble palmers of Europe. 

ChIteauroux, Marie Anne, duchess 
of, of the illustrious house of Nesle, was 
married to the marquis de la Toumelle in 
1734. Being left a widow at the age of 
23, she was received by her aunt, the 
duchess Mazarin, but soon lost this support 
Her two sisters (mesdames de VintuniUa 
and Mailly) had sucoesavely been in the 
possession of the heart of Louis XY^ 
when the king conceived an ard^it paa» 
sion for her. She was made lady of hon- 
or to the queen, and afterwards duchess 
of Chateauroux, with a penaon of 80,000 
livres. By her persuasion, Louis XV put 
himself at the head of the armies in 
Flanders and Alsace. He fell sick at 
Metz, his lifo was despaired of, and ha 
was obliged to consent to the dismi6Bio& 
of the duchess. She was received in 
Paris by Ridielieu, who, after the king's 
recovery, effected her recaU. Her triumph 
was complete, and she was promised me 
important post of superintendent of the 
dauphiness, when she died, in 1744. A 
collection of her letters appeared in Paris, 
1806, in two small volumea 

Chatelet was anciendy a small cfafr- 
teau or fortress, and the omoer who comr 
manded it was called ehdtelain. The 
word is a diminutive of chdteauj formed 
from castiUum^ a diminudve of castrum-; 
or from castellakmj a diminutive of eoa- 
ieUum, casde. The term, in later tiines, 
has been applied to certain courts of jus- 
tice, established in several cities in France. 
The grand chdteUt^ in Pari&s was the ptece 
where the presidial or ordinaxy court of 
jusdce of tne prevCi of Paris was kept, 
consisting of a presidial, a civil chamber, 
a criminal chamk>er, and a chamber of 
police. Tho term signified the same at 

Digitized by 




Montpeliier, Orleans, &e. When Paris 
was confined to the linuts of the old city 

ieiU)f it could be entered only by two 
mdgea (U petit poni and U wnU au 
dumge), each of which was fortified with 
two towers, — a smaller one in the wall, 
&cing the city, and a larger one before 
the bridge, towards the country. These 
two exterior turrets are the grand and 
petit chatelet. The tradition that the 
grand chdtelet was built by Julius Ciesar, 
uiough adopted by some uterati (e. g. La 
Marre, in his Traiti de Police^ vol. i, p. 
87), is not well supported ; but it is cer- 
tain that the freat tower was standing as 
eariy as the siege of the city by the Nor- 
mans (885). The grand ekateUt was the 
casde of the counts of Paris, and, there- 
fore, the seat of aU the royal courts of 
justice within the city and county, and 
also of the feudal court. The citv had no 
proper jurisdiction whatever; its bailiff or 
provost (m-Mt) was appointed by the 
king, and was president of the court 
(though only nominally, because he had 
no voice in the judgments), and, by virtue 
of his office, leader of the nobility. The 
office of provost of the merchants {prMt 
dt$ marchands; in other cities, motre), 
established before the former, and after- 
wards united with it for a time, was final- 
ly separated from it in 1388. The busi- 
ness of the chatelet was transacted by 
the deputies of tlie baihff (lieutenanU)^ of 
whom there were five, three for civil 
causes, one chief judge of criminal cases, 
and a lieutenant-general of police {Ueuten- 
ant'ehUral de la pidiee). The latter, in- 
deed, was minister of poUce for the whole 
kingdom, and the extent of his functions 
and power, particularly after the new ar- 
rangement, made by the celebrated d'Ar- 
genson, under Louis XIV, rendered him 
one of the most important officers of the 
state. In the cKdtdet, however, he held 
onl^ the fourth place. The whole court 
of justice was composed of 56 counsel- 
lors, with 13 state attorneys, and a multi- 
tude of subalterns, as 63 secretaries or 
gre^Eerv, 113 notaries, 236 attorneys, &c 
AlTthese offices were sold. The place of 
the first officer of the civil chamber was 
rated at 500,000 livres ; that of a notary 
at 40,000 livres. The chdtelet was first in 
rank after the supreme courts (cours sou- 

Chatelet, the nuuchionesi of. (See 

Chatham; a town in Kent, England, 
cm the Medway, united to the city of Roch- 
ester, of which it is considered a suburb; 
30 miles £. London ; population 15^08. 

It is celebrated for its dock. An immeoflB 
quantity of naval stores of aU kinds are 
kept rnid^, in magazines and warehouses^ 
anran^ m such regular order that what- 
ever is wanted maybe procured without 
the least confiisicm. Alx>ve 90 fbiges ara 
constantly at work. Anchors are made, 
some of which wei^h five tons. In the 
rope-house, which is 700 foet in length, 
cables have been made 120 fathoms lon^ 
and 22 inches round. The dock-yard is 
about a mile long, the sail-lofl 209 feet in 
length, and there are large store-rooms, 
one of which is 658 feet long. Here is an 
hospital for decayed seamen and their 
widows. The town is defended by fort 
Pitt, and very extensive fortifications call- 
ed the lines ; and, with the exception of 
Portsmouth, Chatham is considered the 
most re{[ular and complete fortress in 
Great Britain. 

Many towns and counties in America 
are called Chaihamj after the great minis- 
ter (q. v.); also straits, island, &c.; for 
instance, Chatham fray, or Punjo bay, on 
the S. W. coast of £^ Flori<k^ Ion. SV 
W W., lat USPQffJ^.—Chaiham idand, 
in the South Pacific ocean ; Ion. 183^ lO' 
E., lat. 44° Q.—Chaiham sound, between 
the islands of Dundas and Stephais, on 
the W. coast of North America^ — ChaAam 
strait, a channel of the North Pacific 
ocean, on the coast of North America, 
between King George the Third's archi- 
pelago and Admiralty island, rather mora 
than 100 miles in length from N. to S. 

Chatham (William Pitt), eari of; one 
of the illustrious statesmen of Endand, 
who ruled his native countiy solely by the 
superiority of his genius. Integrity, dis- 
interestedness and patriotism were united 
in him with indefatigable industiy, promp- 
titude and sagaci^. In eloquence he was 
never surpassed by any of^ his country- 
men. His speeches were bold and sub- 
lime, and his influence over the minds of 
his audience was iiresistible. His ease 
and dignity, fine voice and masteriv ges- 
ticulation (in which even Garrick allowed 
him to be his superior), prepossessed his 
hearers in his favor, while the perspicuity 
and power of his arguments carried con- 
viction. He was the son of Robert Pitt 
of Boconnoc, in Cornwall, bom in 1706, 
and educated at Eton and Oxford. On 
quitting the univernty, he became a cor- 
net in the blues, and, in 173S, represented 
the l)orougli of Old Sarum in tne house 
of commons, where he attracted universal 
notice. He was a poweifiii opponent of 
sir Robert Walpole, who revenged him- 
self by taking away his commission. In 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1714, he receii^ on account of his patii- 
06aaa^ a Icncy of £10,000 from the ducb- 
em of Marlborough, and, at a later period, 
a considerable estate was bequeatlied him 
by sir W. Pynsent He had been ap- 
pointed gentleman of the bed-chamber to 
the prince of Wales, but resigned this 
pl^ce in 1745; became, in 1746, vice- 
ueasurer of Ireland, paymaster-^nend of 
the army, and member of the privy-coun- 
csL In 1755 Mr. Pitt was turned out of of- 
fice. In 1756, he was appointed secretary 
of state, but was dismissed in the same 
year, on account of his opposition to tlie 
banoT^an policy of George II. TJie 
nation, however, was enthusiasdcally at- 
tached to him, and the public discontent 
was so loudly manifesteo, that he was ap- 
Dointed secretary of state again in 1757. 
His great mind now revealed its full force. 
His ascendency was complete over the 
paiiiament no less than in the ministry ; he 
annised the English nation to new activity, 
and, in the space of a few years, recovered 
the superiority over France, annihilating 
her nav>', and stripping her of her colonies. 
France vras beaten in the four quartero of 
the world. In 1760, he advised the dec* 
kmtion of war against Spain, while she 
was unprepared for resistance, as he fore- 
saw that she would assist France. The 
elevation of England on the nuns of the 
house of Bourbon was the great object of 
his policy. But his plans were suddenly 
inierrupted by the death of Oeone 11. 
Geoive HI was prejudiced against rittby 
his aaveisary, the earl of Bute, a statesman 
of limited views. Pitt, therefore, resigned 
his post in 176}, only retaining his seat in 
iite house of commons. On his retire- 
ment, his wife was created baroness Chat- 
ham. The thanks of the city of London 
were presented to him in a public address, 
an inscription in his honor was ordered to 
be placed on Black£iar's brid^, and he 
WIS declared the palladium of^England's 
ISbeity. In 176!2, when Spain formally 
aQied herself with France. Pitt mged the 
eontinuance of the war, by which both 
stetes would^ perhaps, have been totally 
exhausted ; but peace was concluded by 
the opposite party in 1763. Pittuniformfy 
siippc^d the cause of the people. Fore- 
seeing the separation of the American col- 
onies fitmi the mother country, if the arbi- 
trary measures then adopted should be 
eootiiiued, he advocateo, especially in 
1766, a conciliatory policy, and the repeal 
of the stamp act In the same year, he 
was invited to aarist in Ibrming a new 
mhuBtry, in which he took the office of 
privy seaL and was created viscount Biv- 

ton, baron Pynsent and eeri of Cbathain» 
In 1768, he resigned, as he found himself 
inadequately seconded by bis coUeaguea. 
In the house of lords, he continued to 
recommend the abandonment of the co- 
ercive measures eroploved against Amer- 
ica, particularly in 1/74 ; but his warning 
was rejected, and, in 1776, the colonies 
declared themselves independent In vain 
did he renew his motion for reconciliation 
in 1777 ; in vain did he declare the con- 
quest of America impossible. April 7, 
1778, though laboring under a severe ill- 
ness, he repaired to the house, to attack 
the unjust and impolitic proceedings of 
the ministera towards the colonies. At 
the close of his speech, he fainted and fell 
backwards ; he was conveyed out of the 
house, and afterwards removed to liis 
country-seat at Hayes, in Kent, where he 
died. May 11. The parliament annexed 
an annuity of £4000 to th^ earldom of 
Chatham ; hja debts were naid^ and he 
was honored vrith a public funeral, and a 
magnificent monument in Westminster 
abbey. Another was erected, in 1782; in 
GuikihalL The sentiments of brd Chat- 
ham were liberal and elevated, but he 
was haughty, and im^tient of contradic- 
tion, and perhaps exhibited too marked a 
consciousness of his own superiority. His 
private was as estimable as his public 
character. To use the lanffuage of Ipr^ 
Chesterfield, "it viras stiuned bv i^o vjce» 
nor sullied by any meanness." No liter^ 
production of lord Chatham, ej^cept one 
or two short poems, had appeared, until 
the publication bv lord Grenville, in 1804, 
of his "Letters" to his nephew, aflei> 
wards the first lord Camelfora, which con- 
tain much excellent advice to a youi^g 
man, clothed in easy and fiuniliar lai^- 
guafie, and reflect equal honor on the au- 
thors head and heart— In the U. .^tatef, 
where lord Chatham was very pNopular, 
several places are called after his tide. 
PiUahurgvras so called from his family 

CHATrLLON, ConoRESS Off from the M 
0fJM.tothel9ihof Marchj J814, ivith 


The negotiations of the allied po werp with 
Napoleon, begun at Frankfort, Oct.lO and 
Nov. 527, 1813, but broken off; when, in 
consequence of their declaration of Dec, 1, 
tibe theatre of war was trausfepned to the 
heart of France, Jan. 8, 1814, were re- 
newed in the small town of Ch4tillon^ur- 
8eine (chief place of an arrondisfemen^ in 
the department C^e (POr^ with 3967 ii^- 
habitant^), which had been declared neu- 
tniL Caulaincouzt(dukeof Vicenza]^who 

Digitized by 




had succeedecl Matet (duke of Bassano^ 
aa minister of foreign aflaifa, waa waiting, 
in that place, the answer of prince Metter- 
nich to his last letter. Lord Caetlereagh 
eonducted the negotiations in the name 
of Great Britain : hendea hini, there were 
three other British ministers present — 
lords Cathcart, Aberdeen and Stewart. 
Count Razumofiediy waa the minister of 
Rusna, count 8tadion of Austria, and 
baron William von Humboldt of Prussia. 
The history of this congress is closely 
connected with the course of the war, and 
the transactiona of this period had so great 
an influence upon the whole war, as well 
aa upon the subsequent policy of Eiurope, 
that we diall treat them somewhat at 
leneth. After the battle of Briome, or La 
Rothi^re (see Brienne), Napoleon retreated 
through Troyes, Feb. 8, to NcMrent on the 
Beine, about 20 leagues irom Paris. The 
allies, on the other nand, had resolved, in 
a council of war held at Brienne, Feb. 2, 
not to pursue the French army wi^ united 
forces, oecause the country would not af- 
ford sufficient supplies for the two armies 
on one road. Schwarzenbeig and Blficher 
SMianited, therefore, for the purpose of 
taking different routes to Paris: the former 
went through Tropes, and, afler driving 
back the corps of Napoleon, occupied both 
banka of the Seine, Feb. 7; the latter 
passed through Areis snd Chalons, for 
the purpose of uniting with the corps of 
Yorck, Kleist and I^geron, along the 
banks of the Aube and Mame, towards 
Meaux. But BlAcher, instead of awaiting 
the northern army, which was advancinp^ 
fiom Belgium, pushed forward in pursuit 
of Macdonald, and advanced too hastily 
into Champagne. Between him and the 
main army there was a distance of three 
or four d^ys' march, of which Napoleon 
took advantage, in spite of the badness of 
the roads, and, by tne rapidity and bold- 
ness of his movements, was enabled to do 
much injury to the allies. Meanwhile the 
congress had been opened, Feb. 5, Napo- 
leon having offered to surrender immedi- 
ately all &e fbrtresses in those countries 
which were to be ceded by FraiMse, if the 
allies would grant him an armistice. But 
the latter were dedrous of signinff the 
mefiminaiiea of a peace, by which her 
ronner limits shoiud be guarantied to 
France, on condition that Napoleon would 
deliver up six of the most important fioa- 
t&erfbrtreasea. Sbch waa the stata of the 
Begodations, when Napoleon — threatened 
on his right, east of Troyes, by Schwar- 
zenberg, and on his left out-flanked and 
suiTOunded by BlOcher, whose advanced 

corps, under Ybrck, had poshed ftrwaid, 
Feb. 9, as fiur as Ija-Fert^HBOua^ouam^ 
three days' march fiom Pari»— by a and* 
den movement, traveraed the centre of the 
line formed by the diviaions of the Silesiaa 
army, which were separated from each 
other by considerable mtervals, and thus 
pressed forward on the rear and left flank 
of the enem]^. Leaving 96,000 men undei 
Victor, Oucfinot and Milhaud, to prevent 
the passage of the Seine and Yonne bv 
Schwarzenberg, he advanced, Feb. 9, vrith 
the diviaions ^ N^ and Marmont, and 
the guards under Mortier, compofluig a 
body of 30g000 inen, from Nogent-sur 
Seine over the Seine to Sezanne, and, on 
the 10th, at Champ-Aubert, attacked, with 
6000 horae, the Rusrian diviaion of AIbq- 
sieff, which consisted of 5000 men with 
24 cannon. The Russian general, afler a 
gallant resistaBce, was obliged to surren- 
der with 2000 men ; 9000 escaped through 
die woodsy and 15 cannon fell into the 
hands of the enemy. Napoleon was now 
in the rear of the advanced guard under 
Sacken and the division of YordE. The 
former, therefore, with 20,000 men, hastily 
foil back from La-Fert6 to Montmirail, 
where he was received, Feb. 11, by Na- 
poleon, who had aheady occupi^ Mont- 
mirail, was defeated m a blooay action at 
the villages of L'Epine and Marchais, and, 
afler a loss of 2400 men killed, and 1000 
men and 9 cannon taken, was compelled 
(b retreat by niffht Covered by the anri* 
val of a part of Yorck's division, he con* 
tinued his retreat to Ch&teau-Thieiry, 
which he reached m full flight, but not 
before his rear had suffered a second de- 
feat on the heights of Neste, Feb. 1^ with 
a loss of 2000 men. At Chdteau-Thierry, 
the passage to the ri^ht bank of the Mame 
being covered by prmce William of Prus- 
aia, with 2000 men, Sacken and Yorck, 
the latter of whom had, in the mean time, 
retreated from Meaux, pursued by Mac- 
donakl, fell back towaid Rheims. Mean- 
while BKicher, on the 12th, upon the first 
notice of Napoleou's divenaon, had con- 
centrated the division under lieutenant- 
general von Kleist, and that commanded 
by general Kapzewitsch, at Bergeres, and, 
supposing that Napoleon had been re- 
pulsed bv generate Yorck and Sacken, 
advanced, with 20,000 men, to Etdgea, 
where, on the 19th, he attacked Marmont, 
who had been sen^ bv Napoleon, to meet 
him, and fbroed him Mck towards Mont- 
mirail, as for as Vanchamp, in order to 
effoct a union with Yorck and Sack^^n. 
But, on the 14th, Napoleon overtook the 
Prussian vanguard at that place and J<xfal 

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^^l&enL BIMber sooii fetmd himself at- 
tacked en erery side, and, having at length 
beoome aware of his aittiation, detemunMi 
ao retreat. He ibniaed the huftntiy into 
solid bodies^ and placed the cannon be» 
tween them, and the eavaliy upon the 
wingB. On this day, at Vauchainp and 
Etogei^ the arm iffSiUna (ao called) waa 
aavM by the EalJantiy of the Pruaaan aol^ 
diera, and by the heroieni of their leadeiB— 
BUkcher, GBeiaenau, KJeiat, and prinoa 
Augustus of Prussia. The French, noU 
withstanding their superiority in caTaliy, 
were not able to bfeak throogh the Pius* 
aian squares. Grouchy occupied Champ* 
Aubeit and the road to Etoges with 6000 
hone, ior the paipose of cutting off B16- 
eher's retreat ; but it was in vain. Though 
encircled by the enemy, the Prussians and 
RiMBJans repellod repeated attacks on their 
flanks, and retired in solid columns, fight- 
uw at every step, till they reached the wood 
Of Eioges. Here, also, they were obliged 
10 fi>rce their way through masses of the 
eneoQiy's in&ntry, which had arrived be- 
fore uiem; and then: rear, being attacked 
at the same time by Grouchy's cavahy on 
the flank and by the infantiy of Marmont 
in fixmt, was princtpally dispersed and 
made priaonera. Blhcher did not reach 
the position at Bergeres until night, after 
a k«B of 4000 men and 9 cannon. On 
the 16th, he retired, though not pursued, 
to Chalons on the Mame, where he joined 
the divisions of Yorck and Saoken, and 
the ooiumns of Langeron, that were has- 
tening to his relief. The Silesian aimy 
had uxt a fourth of its number--nearly 
15,000 men — during the last six days, but 
now again amounted to 60,000 men. 
Meanwhile Witgenstein and Wrede had 
crossed the Seine, and were now in Na- 
poteon's rear, while prince Schwarzenbeiv 
Lad fi>rced back the French corps posted 
alonff the Seine, on the 11th from Sens, 
on the 12th from Nogent, on the 15th 
from Montereau, Provins and other places, 
so that, on the 16th, the head-quartera of 
the alfied monarchs were advanced to 
Bmy. This induced Napoleon to give up 
the pursuit of Blticher, at Etoges, on the 
15th, and to advance, on the 1^, ^th 
his array, now increased to 100,000 men, 
fav forced marches, firom Montmirail to 
Meaux, in order to fall upon the separato 
divisk>D8 of the enemy's main army. 
Sefawaizenbei^, however, recommended 
• the three divisions that were advancing 
oi eAdon on the rig^t bank of the Seine, 
to cease from offensive movementa. Wit- 
genatein, nevertheless, proceeded on his 
march, and his vanguard, under Pohlen, 

was attacked by general Gerard, on the 
17th, at Mormant and Nangis, and suffered 
a loss of several thoussad men and 10 
cannon. An action also took place on the 
16th, at Montereau, on the left bank of 
the Seine, at the confluence of the Ymme^ 
m which the allies were defeated, and 
wouki have sufSsred still more injury than 
they did, if it had not been for the gal- 
lantly of the crown-prince of Wfirtem- 
berg. At the head of^ the fourth divisifm, 
consisting of about 10,000 men and 39 
field-pieces, he disputed the passaae over 
the Seme against general Wraro, vHio 
had succeeded Victor, and against the 
emperor himself who attacked him with 
a force of 30,000 men and 60 cannon, un- 
til the evening of the 18th. The prince 
then passed the bridge at Montereau, un- 
der the fire of die enemy, and retreated 
unmolested to the main body, with a k)ss 
of 2800 men, beskle prisoners, and cannon 
which had become useless. Schwarzen- 
befg was thus enabled to concentrato all 
his forces at Troyes on the 19th. Napo- 
leon now fiattored himaelf with the hope 
of being able to force him to a general 
batde at that place, where every thing 
promised the most decisive results. Re 
also received ^e news of the victory of ' 
the viceroy of Italy over Bellegarde, on 
the Mincio, between the 8th ana 10th of 
February,* and his confidence waa so 
much increased, that he resumed the fidl 
powers which he had given to Caulain- 
court to conclude a peace, and assumed 
a prouder tone at ChkiUon, on the ISth^ 
than he had hitherto dime. Schwarzen- 
berg, however, crossed the Seine at Troyes 
the same night, and, on the 21st, bemg 
again unified with Blftcher, took his posi- 
tion along the right bank of that river as 
for as MoiT. This much-censured retreat 
on the 19th, which was succeeded, on the 
25th, by that over the Aube to Colomb^i 
in the direction of Chaumont, because 
Augereau, itom his position at Lyons, 
threatened the coimnunication between 
the main army and Switzerland, saved 
the two armies of the allies, who, at that 
moment, saw ahnoet every thing that had 
been gained sbMse the battie at Brienne 
asain lost. Schwaiaenberg ordered Bian- 
chi, with 30,000 men^ to advance along 
the Sadne a^^iinst Augereau ; at the aame 
time, an annistice was offered to Napoleon 

* The aide-de-eamp of the vieeroy airived with 
the report of that victory at the moment of Napo* 
leon's success at Mootereau. Napoleao immedi 
ately seat him back with the words, " Rdcamet 

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on tbe 19tli, while hb head-quartexs were 
yet at Montereau ; and a courier from 
Chidllon delivered to him the draught of 
preliminaries of peace, signed by cdl the 
plenipotentiaries of the fwied powezs at 
Chlitillon, Feb. 17, 1814. From the cir- 
cumstance that this convention was to be 
concluded between the powers of Austria, 
England, Russia and Frussia, and <*hi8 
maiesty the emperor of France, his heiis 
and successors,'^ it appears that the £nff* 
lish ministers at the congress did not think 
a particular article necessaiy, relative to 
the acknowledgment of Napoleon's title 
as emperor, but that they conffldered it as 
already acknowledged. The council of 
regency that had been established in Paris, 
to whom the draught was communicated 
by the emperor, mought the conditions 
proposed therein admissible ; but a clause, 
demanding the occupation of Paris by the 
allies untfl the fmal conclusion of the 
peace, offended Napoleon, who rejected 
the offer, exclaiming, '^ I am nearer Vienna 
than the allies are to Paris ;" yet, at the 
same time, he endeavored to enter into 
separate neffotiations vrith Austria. Nei* 
ther would he accept the renewed offer 
of an armistice, Feb. 2dd, but, after the 
propositions delivered on the 25th by the 
prince of Liechtenstein, consented that the 
negotiations which had been opened in 
the village of Lusigny, between Flahaut 
and the Austrian- general Duca, count 
Schuwaloff and the Prussian general 
Raueh, should be continued. But his at- 
tempt to separate Austria from the allies 
proved abortive. The emperor Francis, 
mdeed, seemed not averse to a reconcilia- 
tion with Napoleon ^ but the baron Lan- 
i|;enau, who was commissioned to cany 
his propositions, was accidentally detained 
on the way, and thus the favorable mo- 
ment for Napoleon was lost > The four 
Kwers, by the convention -of Chaumont 
v.), concluded March 1, for the term 
of 20 years, soon after entered into an alli- 
ance against France, for the purpose of 
restoring and maintaining peace. Accord- 
ing to this convention, they were deter- 
mined to continue the war, if Napoleon 
would not accept the conditions offered 
him, and, if he accepted them, to enforce 
the terms with upited forces. Thus the 
ofiensive and defensive alliance concluded 
at Chaumont became the diplomatic 
foundation of th^Are^ent European poli- 
cy,— Meanwhile, Napoleon followed the 
main army, constantly -fiffhting, and, Feb. 
25, occupied Tropes. J^cher, who had 
again separated lumself from Schwarzen- 
berg, crossed the Aube at Vaudemont, on 

the 24th, in order to pass the left flank of 
the enemy, where Marmont and Moitier 
retired before him, direct his couise to- 
wards the Lower Mame, and thus ap- 
proach the northern army, which wbH 
rapidly advancing from Flanders. The 
main army under Schwarzenber^, how- 
ever, fell back upon the corps stationed at 
Lancree^ so that the Austrian army of 
50,050 men, in the south of France, under 
the command of the prince of Hess^ 
Hombur^, and the Silesian in the north, 
united vnth the divisions of Winzingerode 
and Woronzoff, that composed the ad- 
vanced guard of the northern army under 
Bfilow, formed the two vrings of the main 
army. Napoleon could now throw him- 
self^ vnth his whole foree, either upon 
Schwarzenberg, and oblige him to give 
battle, or upon Blficher. But how was 
the cautious, circumspect Schwarzenbei^ 
to be forced to fight ? He therefore has- 
tened after iHiidier. But Tettenbom, 
whose light troops, belonging to the army 
that was advancing from Flanders, trav- 
ersed the countiy on the left side of the 
Maine, discovered, Feb. 27, Napoleon^ 
march from Arcis-sur-Aube through F^ro- 
Champenoise and Suzanne, towuds Joa- 
arre. He communicated this news to 
Schwarzenberg and Bl&cher ; the for- 
mer of whom immediately stopped his 
retreat, repelled the divisions of^ die ene- 
my under Macdonald, Oudinot and G^ 
rard, forced his passage over the Aubeu 
Feb. 27, while he assaulted Bar, but did 
not occupy Troyes, which is only 30 miles 
distant fix>m Bar-sur-Aube, until March 4, 
the day after the ergagement at Laubres- 
sel, when he resumed his fonner poedtion 
on the Sdjie. Meanwhile Blficher, after 
having forced marshal Marmont back to 
within a fow miles from Paris, endeavored 
to approach tlie northern army by nassing 
over the Aisne, for the purpose of^ giving 
tlie main army more liberty of action. 
His movements, and his umon with the 
northern army under Winzingerode and 
Bulow, were fovored bv the surrender of 
Soissons,* March 3. B(i]ow had entered 
France from Flanders, by Avesnes, caused 
La F^re, where there were lai^ quantities 

* At Soittoiis, which has a bridge of stone, and is 
the key to Paris, for an anny entering France 
from tlie Netherlands, and is eon9e<)uentfy a place 
of military importance, though fortified only by a 
wall and ditch, six causeys meet. Winzing«- 
rode had taken this city by assault, Feb. 14} but, * 
after the action at Montmirail, it bad been occa 

2'ed anin by Mortier, F^. 19. General Aloreni 
ot the marshal), who surrendered Soissona 
arch 3, was brought before a court-martial * \M 
his iifo was saved by the events of the 31st of Itfatrk 

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fif mifituy 0lDre9 and 100 eaniKm, to be 
taken hv general Thtimen, Feb. 26, then 
joined the division of Winzingerode, and 
advanced, March 2, fiom Laon townids 
SoisBona. Blticher, with his ann^, now 
nearly 100,000 strong, took a position at 
Craonne, March 4th, and occupied Sois- 
0onB, where general Rudczewitz,vnth 5000 
Riusianfi, repelled Mortier, who attempt- 
ed to cany it by assault, March 5. Napo- 
leon, therefore^ .was obliged to pass the 
Aisne above Soissons, which he did 
March 6, after having taken Rheims on 
the 5th, and made himself master of the 
bridge over the Aisne at Beir-au-Bac, 
On the 7th, he attacked generafe Sacken 
and Woronzoft^ on the heights of Craonne, 
and compelled the Ru^ians, although 
not vanqnished, to retreat into the position 
of Laon, with a loss of 4800 killed and 
wounded. The garrison of Soissons was 
aleo obliged to retire thither. The loss of 
the French amounted to 8000 killed and 
wounded. The battle at Laon, on the 9th 
of March, was more decisive. That city, 
which contains a population of 7000, 
was occupied by the allies, on account 
of its advantageous situation, as a dep6t 
Bulow had taken possession of the heights 
before Laon, Kleist and Yorck were post- 
ed on the left, and Winzingerode on the 
right wing. The left wing, which was 
most exposed, could be assisted by the 
corps of Sacken and Langeron. The ap- 
pitMudi beinff rendered difficult by moraas- 
ee and defiles, Napoleon could not make 
a vigorous attack uix>n the left wing (a 
task which was assigned to Marmont) 
until afternoon, while his left win£ was 
engaged with the enemy*s right, from 8 
o'ciodt in the morning, in a constant, 
yet indecisive action. The portion of 
iNucher'a centre defied every attack. 
Marmont, after a bkx>dy struggle, sue- 
eeeded, at length, m forcing the Prus- 
sian left wing Dack towards Laon, and, 
at the approach of night, made himself 
xnasler or the village of Athies, where 
he remained, expecting^ the batde to be 
decided on the foUowmg day. But at 
peven o'clock in the evening, general 
Yorck, with Kleist, prince William of 
Prussia, and the cavalry under general 
Zietheii, surprised the village of Athies. 
While Ziethen, with the cavury, fell upon 
the enemy's flank, he was so vigorously 
seconded by an attack with the oayonet 
in finnt, that the French, assaulted at the 
•ame time in the rear and on both wiiiga, 
were driven out of the village after a short 
lesastanoe, and totally rout^ They lost 
46 cannon and more than 2500 prisoners. 

The corps of Maimoint, and the cavaby 
under Airighi, were almost entirely dis- 
persed or annihilated. In spite of this 
misfortune. Napoleon, instead of immedi- 
ately making his retreat, with inconceivA* 
ble obstinacy fell upon Blucher's right 
wing and cend!e, early on the morning <^ ^ 
the 10th, but, in the evening, after having 
sufiered a great loss, was compelled to 
meditate a retreat, which he enected on 
the 11th, through Chavignon and Soissons. 
Had Bldcher taken inmiediate advantage 
of the victory obtained in the night of the 
9th, Nflupoleon would have been totally 
defeated. But he followed him slowly, and 
remained upon the right bank of the Aisne 
until the 18th of March. Meanwhile, 
Bbeims, which had but a feeble eahison, 
was taken by assault, on the 12tli of March^ 
by a Russian corps of 15,000 men under 

Sineral count St Priest, united with the 
vision of the Prussian general Jagow, 
who had advanced fiiom the Ardennes 
through Vitry. Napoleon, however, im- 
mediately retook that city, and thus secur- 
ed his route toward the Aube, for on in- 
tended attack upon Schwarzenberg, who, 
as soon as he had received the news of 
Bliicher's victory at Laon, had set his 
colunuis in motion on the 14th, along the 
right banks of the Seine and Aube, in the 
duection of Arcis. (See the third section 
of the ESMory of the Campaign qf 1814, 
under the article Parisy OcctipaHfm of in 
the year 1814,V--While Napoleon indulged 
the hope of being able to annihilate the 
Silesian arm^ on the Aisne, the negotia- 
tions at Lusigny were broken ofiT, March 
5, without having produced any result; 
and those at Ch&llon were entirely at a 
stand, because Napoleon thought the de- 
mands of the allies too great The allies 
finally fixed upon the 10th of March as 
the Ultimate term, within which Napoleon 
should either accept of their propositions, 
or should submit to them his own. He 
presented, however, through Caulaincourt, 
only some detached articles^ which could 
have had no eftect but to prolong the ne- 
gotiations. A ftirther term of me days 
was therefore granted, at the expiration 
of which, on the 15th of March, and, con- 
sequently, after the battle at Laon, Cau 
laineourt ofi^ered his preliminaries, in 
which Napoleon demanded, 1. Itafy, 
with Venice, as a kingdom for prince 
Eugene Beauhamais and his heirs; % 
the Netherlands, with the Scheldt and the 
city of Nimeguen. Holland he would re- 
sign. The left bank of the Rhine should 
continue in the hands of France. Joseph 
should receive a proper indemnification 

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ftxr Spain, as well as Jerome for Westpha- 
lia, Eugene for Frankfort, and NapoleonVi 
n^hew Louis for the grand-<hichy of 
Berg. Even Eliaa, TaUe^rrand and Bep- 
thier were to reoeire proper indemnifica- 
tions. But even these demands were not 
tdncerely proposed by the emperor. He 
-still entertained the hope that success 
' would enable him to retract. The duke 
of Bassano wrote to Caulaincourt, March 
19, immediately before the action at Arci»- 
8ur-Aube (see Paria, Occupation of), stat- 
ing that the emperor intended, even vRer 
the ratification of the treaty, to be guided 
by the nulitaiy situation of afiairs, even to 
the last moment (See Sch611's TVaitii 
de Pmxj &c. — ^Treaties of Peace — ^vol. 10, 
p. 413.) — ^Bassano's letter had not fallen 
mto the hands of the allies, when, in com- 
pliance with the trea^ of Chaumont,they 
iiroke off the negotiations at Chltti]lon, 
with the eighth conference, held March 
18 and 19, and, in a declaration, issued at 
Vitry, March i^, consequently while they 
were marching upon Paris, proclaimed 
the reasons for that measure, and for the 
continuation of the war.* The subse- 
quent course of the war is related in the 
article Paris, OccwpaUon of, in the year 
1814. See, also, Memoin of ike OperaUons 
of Vie Mied Armies in 1813 and 1814, 
London, Murray, 18S22, an excellent and 
scientific woik; Prokesch's Deniktiritrdur- 
keiten aus dem Leben des Fddnuxrsckaus 
Sdiwarzanherg (Memoirs of the Life of 
the Field-Marshal Schwarzenbei^), Vien- 
na, 1823; Koch'b Mhnoirts pour servtr 
h rSRstoire de la Campapu de 1814 (Me- 
moin intended to contnbute to the His- 
tonr of the Campaign of 1814), Paris, 
1819, 3 vols. ; and tiie BeiMge tut Ges- 
chiekte des Fddzxuts in FVanmieh m den 
Jahren 1814 una 1815, wnJUr dem Com- 
mando des Krwiprvnxen v. Wikriend>trg, 
&;c. (Contributions to the Uistoiy of the 

* Pons de l'H6rault, in his pamphlet Congr^M de 
ChAtiUcn (Paris, 1825), asieits, tliat Napoleon bad 
been desirous, fixnn the beginning of the congress, 
to obtain peace at any price, but that Canlaincourt, 
from too great anxietj^, had protracted the negoti- 
ations contrary to his instructions : while the affea, 
on the other hand^ had dooe the same, becai»e 
they were secretly mibrmed of a conspiracy exist- 
ing in Paris against Napoleon. According to this 
writer, Napoleon had authorized Caulaincourt, on 
the nth and 19th of March, to enint everj thing 
necessary fix* a peace j but the bearer of these in- 
ttnictioos^ having been detained by the Austrian 
and Russian troops, did not reach Caulaincourt till 
the 21 SI, 10 miles from Chfttillon. Caulaincourt, 
by the command €i Napoleon, wrote to prince 
Hettemichj as late as the 25th of March, that he 
was authonzed, by the emperor, to conclude the 
peace 3 but the emperor of Austria had gone to Di- 
|oii, and the march upon Paris was alraady began. 

in Ffance, in tiie Tean 18M 
and ISlS, under the Commuid of the 
Crown-Prince of Wfirlemberg, puMiriied 
by the W&rtemberg offioen of the quap- 
ter-fnaster-general's staff) Stuttgaid ; and 
the many memoirs of the Frenchmen at 
that time in the emperor's service. A 
valuable article, showing the anxioits wieii 
for peace entertained 1^ all the French, 
jMurticularly those who knew the dinpofli- 
tion of the people, and siurounded the 
regent-empress and king Joseirfi, appear- 
ed in the Courier des ±katS'Ums of Jan. 
31, 1829 (published in New York), consist- 
ing of a number of letters written by IsinM 
Joseph to Napoleon, and the answers of 
the latter. There is no doubt of the au- 
thenticity of these letteis. 

Chatterton, Thomas, a youth whose 
ffenius, eccentricity and melancholy fate 
nave ff6ned him much celel»ity, was bom 
at Bristol, in 1753, of poor parents. He 
had not yet learned to read, when an old 
French musical work happened to M 
into his hands, the characters of which 
excited his curiosity. His mother now 
taught him to read from an old black-let- 
ter Bible. When 8 years old, he en- 
tered a charity school at Colston, where 
the workings of his genius lay concealed 
under the appearance of melancholy and 
incapacity. At about 10 years of ace, he 
acquired a taste for reading, which be- 
came, from that period, a kmd of nding 
passion. His first woric, a satire on a 
Methodist, who had abandoned his sect 
from interested motives, vras written at 
the age of 1 U yean. From tliis time his 
taste was decided. His melancholy gave 
way to vivacity and vanity, and axeBinm 
of glory, fortune and immortality. He 
became particularty fond of antiquities 
and antique expressions. At the age of 
14, he left school, and was articled as ap- 
prentice to a scrivener, at Bristol. Hub 
lather, who died before his birth, had ac- 
ddentally obtained possession of a num- 
ber of old parchments of the 15th century. 
Many of these were consumed in the fam- 
ily ; but several fell into the hands of Chat- 
terton, who, after a few days, declared 
that he had discovered a tieesiure. He 
then procured glossaries of the old dialects 
of the country, and, in 1768, when die 
new bridge at Bristol was completed, he 
inserted a paper in the Bristol Journal, en* 
titled A ikscripHon of ike IViars* Ani 
Passing offer the Old Bridge, taken Jhm 
an ancweni Mannseript, He was then but 
16 years old. Upon being questioned as 
to the manner in which he had obtained 
it, he finally asserted, that he was in tlia 

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t of Mvwal vakiftble old inaziu* 
•cnptB, taken (as thoae above-mentioDed 
reaUy were) mm an old cheat in the 
ehurch. He had been engaged for a 
year in the oompointion of several poems, 
which he attributed to different ancient 
writers, particubriv to one Rowley. In 
1769, he ventured to write to Horace 
Walpole, giving him an account of his 
Jiteraiy di»coverieSy and enclosing a speci- 
men. Having received a polite answer, 
be wrote a second letter, informing Wal- 
pole of his situation, and requesting assist^ 
ance to enable him to follow his inclina- 
tion for poetry. Walpole, however, who 
in the meantime had discovered the po- 
ems to be siMuious, returned them to 
Chatterton without taking any further 
notice of him. Discontented with his 
aituadon, he obtained a release fiom his 
apprenticesbip by threatening to put an 
end to his life, and went to Lcmdon. The 
&vorable reception, with which he there 
met from the booksellers, inspired him 
with new hopes. He wrote for several 
jounuds, on the side of the opposition. 
He indulged the hope of effecting a revo* 
lution, and used to boast that he was des- 
tined to restore the rights of the nation. 
Failing to procure the rewards which he 
bad expected for his exertin^is in fiivor of 
this party, he observed, that " he must be a 
{loor aumor who could not write on both 
sideSb" On this principle he acted; but 
prosperity did not attend his dereliction 
fiom principle. His situation daily be- 
came worse. Although extremely tem- 
perate, and often voluntarily confining 
himself to bread and water, he was fre- 
(juentJy destitute even of tliese necessa- 
ries. What he gained by his labors he 
spent, partly in presents for his mother 
and aistem, to whom he always held out 
the most splendid expectations, pardy in 
public places of amusement, which he 
continued to visit under* the appearance 
of easy circumstances. At last, ailer hav- 
ing been several days without food, he 
poisoned himself in 1770, when not yet 
18 jenn old. His woite were more ex- 
tensively read as the public became ac- 
quainted with the history of his misfor- 
tunes. The most remaricable are the po- 
ems published under the name of Rowley^ 
whicn he composed at the affeof 15 years. 
They display a vigorous and brilliant im- 
a^ation, fertility of invention, and often 
a deep sensibility. Amon^ the poems 
which he published under his own name, 
his satires deserve the prefer^ice. His 

Krose writings are spirited. His works 
^ve be«ai several times published. The 

bestedidoii is thil of 1803, in duee vol- 

Chaucer, Qeoffiey, hom in London, ia 
13S^, was the son of a merchant, or^ ao« 
oordmff to some writers, of noble extrac- 
tion. He studied at Cambridge and Ox- 
ford. At the fcMfmer place, he distinguiah* 
ed himself^ at the age of 18, by lus Ckxut 
of Love, the oldest poem in English now 
extant Having improved himsdf bgr 
travelling, he studied law for some time ; 
but, becoming disgusted with this stu<^, 
he repaired to court, where he became 
yeoman to Edward III. He was in high 
fovor with the king, and particularly with 
his son, John of Gaunt, the oeldbirated 
duke of Lancaster. He was the confidant 
of the prince's love to his cousin, the 
duchess Blanche, and made their k>v& 
their marriage, the charms and virtues or 
the duchess, the themes of his songs. 
The duchess, however, soon found a riral 
in lady Catharine Swynfoid, whose sister 
Chaucer married. This alliance establish- 
ed him more firmfy in the favor of the 
duke, by whose influence he was ap- 

g>inted to the most honoroble offices, 
e was sent ambassador to Genoa; on 
which occasion he visited Petrarch. He 
was also sent as envoy to Charies V of 
France, to negotiate the renewal of the 
truce, and a marriaae between Richard, 
prince of Wales, and the kino's daughter, 
m which mission, however, he was un* 
successflQ. As an adherent of the duke 
of Lancaster, he embraced the opinions 
of Wickliffe, and formed a close coimex- 
ion with him ; but neither business, nor 
the intrigues of the court, nor the theo- 
logical controversies of the time, interrupt- 
ed his poetical labofs. His first poem 
was soon followed by Troalus and Cressi- 
da, the House of Fame, end other woi^es, 
which were imitations of Boccaccio and 
other less cdebarated authors. He seems 
particularlv to have borrowed from the 
worics of the Troubadours. These works 
bear the stamp of the corrupt taste, which, 
at that time, prevailed throughout Europe ; 
buptbey are remarkable r for correct deline- 
vaon of character. He 's considered as 
the inventor of English heroic verse. In 
1382, the Wickliffites attempted, in spite 
of the opposition of the der^, to elect a 
lord mayor of London of their own party. 
The disturbances, to which this diisipute 
gave rise, occasioned a severe persecution 
of that sect on the part of the court, and 
Chauter, who was hated bjr tbepeople as 
the personal friend of WickMe, fled to 
Hainault, where he continued to receive 
his salaiy. The faithleasness of hi« 

Digitized by 




agents, who discontinued tbeir remit- 
tancea, having obliged him to make a 
•ecTBt journey to Enffiand, he was dis- 
eoTeied, arrested, and depriTed of his 
post of comptroller of the customs, the 
duties of which had been dischaiecd, in 
his name, by his deputy. He finidly ob- 
tained his liberty by disclonng the designs 
of the party with which he had been con- 
nected. This conduct drew upon him a 
kmd of oUoquy, while, at the same time, 
he was suffering from poverty. During 
his distresses, he wrote nis Testament of 
Love, a sort of imitation of Bo^thius's De 
ConiMtiim/t, which he had translated in 
his youth. Chaucer's situation was once 
more changed with that of the duke of 
Lancaster, who, in the hope of ascending 
the Soanish throne, had entered into a 
second marriaffe with the daughter of 
Peter the Cruel ; and though he had re- 
turned from Spain, in 1389, without hav- 
ing ipained this object, yet he brought back 
considerable sums, which he employed in 
reviving his party at court Four yeani 
later, on the death of his second wife, the 
duke married Catharine Swynfbrd. Chau- 
cer, now nearly connected with the royal 
fiuuily, regained the favor of the court, 
and was restored to his office. After fhe 
duke's death, he seems to have lived in 
retirement at Donnington castle, where 
the oak, in the shade of which it was said 
he loved to muse, long bore his name. 
There he wrote his most celebrated work, 
the Canterbury Tales, in verse. They are 
distinguished for variety of character and 
liveliness of descripdon. Chaucer is the 
first writer who introduced the spirit and 
fictions of chivah^ into poetry. His Sir 
Topaz, however, is written in ridicule of 
th^ fictions. He died in the year 1400. 
His works have been ofteriprinted. 

CflAUcr; an ancient Teutonic tribe, 
dwelling east of the Frisians, between the 
Ems and Elbe, on the shore of the Ger- 
man ocean. They are also called, by 
different authors, Cauchi, Cauci, Cc^cty 
ChacL They are first mentioned in the 
vrars of Drusus, who subjected them (JK» 
Cobs, iv), Tadtus mentions them often. 

Chaudet, Antoine Denis, deserves, 
perhaps, the first place amonr the French 
statuaries of modem times. Bom at Paris, 
March 31, 1763, when the most corrupt 
taste in sculpture prevailed, he finished 
his career b^ works which display a de- 
cree of Grecian simplicity and truth which 
WW modem ardsts have attamed. In the 
91st year of his age, he obtained the first 
raize of the academy. He then went to 
Home, where be met the celebrated Drou- 

ais. (q. V.) They were soon united by the 
ties of the most intimate firiendship, and 
an equal enthusiasm for art. After his 
return to Paris, he became a member of 
the academy. His first work was a bass- 
relief under the peristyle of the Pantheon, 
representing the love of glory. The bad 
taste of the period could npt jusdy esti- 
mate the grand and (rimple ciiaracter of 
this work : it was reserved for later times 
to appreciate the masteriy and sublime 
performance. Travellers may f^ld in the 
museums of Luxembourg and Trianon 
several of Chaudet's finest works ; among 
them. La SentibtUU, a young girl, astonish- 
ed at the modon of the sensitive plant, 
which riirinks from her touch ; the oeau- 
titul statue of Cyparissa, &c. Chaudet 
died at Paris, April 19, 1810. 

Craudibre ; a river of Lower Canada, 
which rises on the bordera of Maine, near 
the sources of the Kennebec, and, afler 
a northeriy course of about 120 miles, 
Hows into the St Lawrence, 6 miles above 
Quebec. The banks of the river are gen- 
erally high, steep and rocky, and dodied 
with wood of indifferent growth. Three 
or four miles above its entrance into the 
St Lawrence, the river has a remarkable 
cataract, of about 190 feet perpendicular 
These falls are considered not inferior to 
those of Montmorenci ; the perpendicular 
height is only about half as great, but the 
quantity of water is vasdy greater, the 
width of the river at the cataract being 
360 feet In some puts, sheets of water 
roll over the precipice, and fall, scarcefy^ 
broken, to the bottom ; while, in other 
places, the falling water dashes fit>m one 
fragment of tool to another, with the 
wildest impetuosity, and forms a great 
mass of foam of a snowy whiteness. 
. Chaudon, Louis Maleul, a learned Ben- 
edictine of the monastery of Cluny, which 
was secularized in 1787, bom at Valen- 
solles. May 10th, 1737, wrote several 
works in defence of the Catholics, for 
which he received the thanks of die 
popes Clement XIII and Pius VI, in two 
Dne& directed to him. Among his works 
mtist be mentioned the J^ouveau Diction- 
noire historimu (Avignon, 1766, in 4 vols.), 
of which 10 editions have appeared, the 
dth of which, in 1890, is less correct than 
the former ones. The 10th appeared at 
Paris in 1822, in 25 vols. Besides this, he 
wrote several other valuable works. He 
must not be confounded with his brother 
Maieul Chaudon, like himself a member of 
the academy of Arcadians in Rome, but 
belonging to the order of the Capticbins. 
The latter is the author of La Fie dm 

Digitized by 




Uenkeurtux Laurent de» Brinde» (last edi- 
tion, Paris, 1787). 

Chauffetti^ Jacques Qeorge de, aCal- 
ViniBtic preacher, bom at Lewarden, in 
Fnednnd, in 1702, preached at Fhish- 
ing, D^lft, and, iu 1743, at Amsterdam, 
vraere he died in 1786. Besides several 
theologica] works, and translations fit>m 
die En^hsh, he wrote a Mtcceau DicHofi- 
mdre histonque et criHque, jxmr sertnr de 
SuppUment ou de Continuation au Die- 
Homuare kistorique et critique de Sayle 
(Amsterdam and Hague, 1750 — 56, 4 vols. 
k>L)l This work is jfounded on an Eng- 
fiflh translation of Bayle, m 10 vols^ m 
which many additions had been made to 
die original. Of 1400 articles, which it 
eontains, 600 are translated fix)m the Eng- 
Hat without additions, about 280 are cor- 
rected and augmented, and the rest added 
by Cfaauffepi^. He displays much learn- 
ing, but,iu genius and style, fklls fiif below 
Bayle. Chaufiepi^ also wrote the life of 

CHAULTEtr, Guillaume Amirye de, the 
FVench Anacreon, bom at Fontenai in 
1689, eariy distinguished himself by his 
cenius, and ^sin^ the esteem of the 
inikes of Venddme, through whose influ- 
ence he was fmpointed abbot of Aumale, 
and received, besides, several other bene- . 
fioes, so that his yearly income amounted 
to 90,000 livresL Pleasure was now the 
sole occupation of Cliaulieu. He lived 
ID the Temple, where many persons were 
aflsembled, who, like himsell^ united the 
lofve of pleasure with a taste for letters. 
In tins society of Epicureans, though it 
was fiequently visitea by the grand prior 
of Venddme himself decoram and moral- 
iiy were not very rigorously observed; 
but the pleasures of the table were height- 
ened by poetical sallies. Chaulieu, a dis- 
ciple of uhapeDe and Bachaumont, distin- 
guished himself among the rest by the 
dtorms of his wit and the gayety of his 
disposition, and received the surname of 
the Anacreon of ihe Tenmle, Like Anac- 
reon, he devoted himselr to love and po- 
eo^ to the last In a letter to the mar- 
quis de Lafare, he describes himself as 
vain, impatient and impetuous, by turns 
active and indolent, fond of projects, and 
not less fond of repose. He cued in his 
house in the Temple, in 1720, aged 81. 
La Harpe justly remarks, that his verses 
di^lay the negligence of an indolent 
mind, but, at the same time, good taste, 
and are free from all affectation. 

CHAUMeiiT (department of the Oise), 
Tke ATY OF, concluded March 1 , 1814. The 
fbnner coalitions of Rusria, Prussia, Great 


Britain, Sweden, Austria, and most of the 
German princes, against Napoleon, in 
1813, were principally directed to the de- 
liverance of Germany, and the dissolution 
of the confederation of the Rhine. The 
principal object of the quadruple alliance 
concluded at Chaumont between Austria, 
Rusna, Great Britain and Prusna, was 
declared to be to destroy the preponder- 
ance of France, and to restore permanent 
peace to Europe, founded on the balance 
of power, and national independence. In 
case this end should not be attained by 
the negotiations already opened with Na- 
poleon at Chatillon (q. v.), the mutual ob^ 
ligations already exisdng between the id- 
lies to prosecute the war were to be con- 
firmed. The four pardes to the treaty of 
Chaumont agreed on their respective con- 
tributions for the accomplishment of dieir 
object, which, beinff punctually fuliilled, 
led to the peace of Paris, in 1814. This 
treaty was signed by prince Mettemich, 
count Nesselrode, lord Casdereagh, and 
the Prussian chancellor of state von Har- 
denberg. The trea^ of Chauipont forms 
an epoch in the history of Europe. It 
contains the diplomatic key to all the 
events which occupied the eyes of Eu- 
rope in 1815. As it was, however, direct- 
ed personally against Napoleon, and as 
France joined the allies at the congress of 
Aix-la-ChapeUe, in 1818, four the purpose 
of maintaining the neace of Europe, it 
has not been renewed. 

Chauncy, Charles, D. D., minister in 
Boston, was the descendant of president 
Chauncy of Harvard university, a distin- 
guished scholar and divine, who came to 
America on account of his religious opin- 
ions, in 1638. Doctor Chauncy was bom 
in Boston, January 1, 1705, and, after be- 
ing graduated at Harvard, in 1721, studied 
divinity, and was ordained pastor of the 
first church in Boston, in 1/27. Doctor 
Chauncy was eminent for learning, inde- 
pendence, and attachment to the civil and 
religious liberty of his country. He was 
easuy excited, and was plain and pointed 
in his invectives, but was greatly esteemed 
for his honesty, nncerity and piety. He 
died February 10, 1787, in the 83d year 
of his age. His productions are numer- 
ous, consisting of^an extensive collection 
of sermons, a work entitled A Complete 
View of Episcopacy^ of which he was a 
decided enemy, and several polemical 
publications. x 

Chauss^e. Pierre Claude Nivelle de la , 
a dramatic writer, bom at Paris in 1693, 
His first work T^-as a critimie on the fables 
of La Motte. When La Idotte advanc^ 

Digitized by 




the paradox diat verae is uselen in tfae 
tragedy and ode, he ytub answered b^ 
ChausB^e, in his Epiire h CUo^ which is 
still esteemed. His first dxamatical worici 
La Foauae ^ntipathU^ written after he 
had passed the age of 40» was received 
with approbation. The following circum- 
stance gave rise to the new species of 
drama which he introduced. The actress 
Quinault, perceiving a good subject for 
an affecting drama in a iarce, proposed it 
to Voltaire, who declined the attempt. 
She then applied to Chauss^e^ who, at 
her suggestion, wrote La Prhugi h la 
Mode, Thus the sentimental comedy 
{comidie karm&yanie) originated from the 
iarce. Chaussee then atten^pted tragedy, 
and wrote the unsuccessful piece Maxun* 
ten, a subject which had already been 
treated of by Th. Comeille. His ±coU 
des Mkresj and his Gtmvenumte^ which 
followed, are still acted. He died in 1754. 
Vokbire says he is one of the first writena^ 
after those of genius. 

CHAUVEAU-LAeARDE ; onc of the most 
celebrated orators of the French bar, at 
the time of the revolution ; bom at Char* 
tre» in 1767. He defended, at the peril 
of his life, and with a rare eloquence, 
the victims of the revolutionaiy tribunal 
With Deseze, the bold and eloquent de- 
fender of Louis XVI, and Tron^on-Du- 
coudray, who, with him, conducted the 
defence of Marie Antoinette, he will be 
remembered as one of those who con- 
tinue fiiithfiil to honor and their duty, un- 
der all circumstances. Among the most 
celebrated of his unfortunate clients, be- 
sides the queen, were Charlotte Ccoday 
and Briasot. His defimce of Mirandia 
saved the latter fi:om the scaffold. In 
1814, he received letters of nobility fix»n 
the king, and the cross of die legion of 
honor. In 1816, he published an account 
of the trial of the aueen, and of that of 
theprincess ElizabeuL 

Chauvelin, FranQois. marquis de; a 
distinguished member of the constitution- 
al or feft side in the chamber of deputies; 
descended from a celebrated Frencn fam- 
ily, son of the marquis de Chauvelin, 
who was lieutenant-general, minister to 
Genoa and Parma, French ambassador to 
Turin, and equaJty distinguished among 
ins contemporaries for his amiable char- 
acter, and his higlily-cultivated mind. 
Ills uncle, also, the abb^ Chauvelin, was 
equally eminent for his patriotism, his 
counge and intelfigence, which were re- 
warded hy ldtre$ de eachdj and several 
years of ari)itrary imprisonment The 
fbb^ took an important part in the eiqpul- 

sbn of the Jesuits fiom Fnnoe, Fraii* 

^ois Chauvelin, bom about 177<]^ and edu* 
cated m the mititajy academy at Fans^ 
bad been in the service but two jeais at 
the commencement of the revolution. He 
embraced its principles with aU the ardor 
of eariy youth, and, in 1791, became first 
aide-de-camp of general, afterwards mar- 
shal, Rochambeau, who vras sent to or- 
ganize the army of the north. Chauvelin 
displayed such eoEtraordinaiy talents, that 
he was appointed, in 1792; on the propo* 
sal of Dumouries, ambassador to England, 
at that time a poet of the veiy highest ina- 
portance. After the executi<Ni of Louis 
XVI, England broke off all diplomatio 
intercourse with France, and Chauvelin 
was sent to Florence, but was compelled 
to leave this city by the threat of lord 
Hervey, the Engliirii ambassador, who de- 
clared to the duke, that, if Chauvelin did 
not depart within 34 hours, he would 
forthwith have Leghorn bombarded. Dur- 
ing the reign of terror, Chauvelin wa^ 
throvm into prison, fifom wluch he was 
released by the 9th of Thermidor. Undef 
the directory, he devoted himself entirely 
to the sciences. After the 18th of Bn»* 
maire, he was appointed, by the senate, a 
member of the tribunate. With Beuja« 
min Constant and several others, he dis- 
tinguished himself by a firm but circmn- 
ri reastance to the encroachments of 
consular povror. Thus he of^iosed 
the establishment of the legion of honor. 
He was, therefore, removed fix>m the 
tribunate. His character and patriotisni 
were, however, aj^reciated hj Napoleon, 
who amiointed hiuiprefeot of the d^Nurt* 
ment or the Lys. Ijiis post he held with 
honor during a space or eight years, afW 
die lapse of which, in 1811, he was called 
into the council of state, and afterwards 
sent uito Catalonia as int^idant-generaL 
After the restoration, he was elected a 
member of the chamber of deputies by the 
department of the CdUnPOr. From that 
period, he has continued to rise m the 
esteem of the nation, and has been repeat* 
edly reelected. Chauvelin is not surpass- 
ed by any orator in the chamber in bril* 
liancy, ingenuity, rapidity of conception^ 

rience of mind and hveliness or wit« 
the sedan he speaks like a Beaumaiw 
chais ; fix>m the tribune, like a Bamave or 
a VergniaiuL In examining the transact 
tions of the chamber of deputies, we find 
him, in every debate, in tne first ranks : 
and even his feeble state of health coukl 
not prevent his attendance during the im- 
portant session of 1820. 
Chaux j>b FoHns, la $ the name of a 

Digitized by 




vMbge la the district of VafieiuKO, in the 
SwisB canton of Neu&hateL The vaUey 
that bea» this name is unfit for a^;ncuf« 
tuie, but jcich in cattku and camee on 
much trade in cheeae. It is remarkable, 
aa is ako the neighboring village of Lode^ 
for its manu&ctures of watches and lace. 
La Chauz de Fonds has about 5800 in- 
habitantB^ among whom are upwards of 
400 watch-makeiB, and 600 females that 
ffBin their living m making lace. About 
40,000 gold and olver watdies are annu* 
al^ made here, beside docks. The vil- 
kjge of Locle Ims about 5000 inhabitants* 
'The village of Fleurier is the chief place 
for the trade in lace. 

Check; a draft or bill on a banking 
bouse, to be paid, at sif^t, to the bearer. 
(See BiU qfExchtmgt, vol 2, page 104.) 

Ch£X£, mr John; an eminent Enclish 
statesman and cultivator of classical Eter- 
ature in the 10th century. He was bom 
at Cambridge in 1514, and received his 
education at St. John's college, in th^ uni- 
veisity of that place. After having trav« 
eUed on the continent, he returned to 
Cambridge, and was made regius profess- 
or of Greek, in which office he distin- 
guished himself by introducing improve* 
menta in the pronunciation <n ihtX bm- 
suage. Bishop Gardiner, chancellor of 
me university, opposed these innovations, 
and a literazy correspondence took place 
between the professor and the chancellor, 
which was^ some time after, published at 
Basil, 8vo. In 1544, Cheke was appoint- 
ed tutor to the prince of Wales, after- 
wards Eldward VI, and he appears, like- 
wise, to have assisted in the education of 
the princess Elizabeth. On the accession 
of Edward, he received a pension of 100 
marics, was made provost of King's col- 
lege, Cambridge, and obtaioed nants of 
^luindenble landed property. He soon 
after married, and, in 1547, retired fiom 
court to the universi^, in consequence oi 
some disappointment^ but was soon re- 
called, and remained a freaX ftvorite with 
the king to the end of his reign. In 1550, 
he was made gentleman of the king's 
bedchamber, the next year he was knight- 
ed, and, in 1553; he obtained the post of 
secretaiy of state. He was also a privy 
counsellor. The death of his royal patron 
occasioned a revolution in his fortunes. 
Cheke was a sincere Protestant, and was 
deeply involved in the measures adopted 
lor the reformation of the church of Eng- 
land ; and, having had the imprudence to 
ttigage in the scheme ft>r raising lady 
Jaoe Grrey to the crown, he was, on its 
iuhire, cpqunitted to the Tower* After 

a lew mo|]EdM^ lio^re^er, be was set ai| 
liberty, and, havmg obtained firom queen 
Mary permission to travel, he went into 
Italy, and thence to Strasbuig, in Genna- 
ny. His conduct while afaroid gave of- 
WDce to the Catholic zealots in England, 
who procured the confiscation of his 
estates, on the pretext of his having ex- 
ceeded the leave of absence which had 
been granted him. He was then obliged 
to supjport himsdf • by giving lectures on 
the Greek langua^ In 1556, having 
been induced to visit Bnissels (2nx>bablT 
through the contrivance of his enemies), 
he was there arrested, by order of Philip 
II, then sovereign of the Netheriands. 
and sent prisoner to England. Powerftii 
means were ad<^pted to convert him to 
popeiy. The fear of death prevailed over 
Lis constancy, and he was induced to 
make a public aljjuration of his former 
fiuth. His estates were not restored, but 
he received an equivalent for th^n firom 
the queen, and he was much caressed by 
the heads of the Catholic party, who^ 
however, with cruel policy, obliged him 
to sit on the bench at the trials of the un- 
ft»tunate Protestants. It is a circun^ 
stance honorable to his character, that he 
appears to have keenly feh his degraded 
atuadon. He died of grief not long after, 
in September, 1557. Sir John Cheke 
published several small treatises, original 
and transkted, chiefly relating to theology. 
He was also the author of many woiks 
peserved in manuscript Among these 
18 an English translation of the gMoel of 
St. Matthew, intended to exemplify his 
for the reformation of the English 
_ lage, by banishing firom it all words 
but^sudi as are of Saxon origin. 
Chelska Hospitai*. (See HonnkiL) 
CHELTEJNHAif ; a tovm of England, in 
Gloucester, on the Cheh; 94 miles N. W» 
London; Ion. 9» 4^ W.; lat5P54^N.; 
population, 13,396. It is celebrated for its 
medicinal waters, and, within a few yeais^ 
has become a place of public resort, and 
was honored with the rendence of the 
royal fionily in the year 1788. About 
4000 persons, during the summer, visit 
the waters, which are used as a laxative 
and restorative to invalids. It has a 
weekly maritet on Thursday. The water 
of these sprinss has no bridmess or pun- 
gency, but is nrackish, rather bitter, and 
chalybeate. Its temperature is uniformly 
finom52°to53?Fahr. The first efiTects of 
drinkingftiese vmten are some drowBUlesi^ 
and sometimes headache, which ceases^ 
however, even previously to the bowela 
being op^ied. A raoderste dose mam 

Digitized by 




prompt^ and dedavely on the prinuB via^ 
without, however, produdng any grifnng, 
or leaving languor or faintness aAer its 
Chemicai. Affinitt. (See Chemiutiy,) 
Chemistrt. By this name, the etymol- 
ogy of which is uncertain, we understand 
tlie science which teaches the nature of 
bodies, or rather the mutual agencies of the 
elements of which they are composed, with 
a view to determine the nature, proportions 
and mode of combination of th^ elements 
in all bodies.' Natural pkUosophy, orpkya~ 
icsy examines the reciprocal mfluence of 
matter in masses. Chsmistry treats of the 
mutual action of the integrant parts. In 
the former, the phenomena are produced 
by the general attraction or repulsion of 
bodies ; in the latter, by minute combina- 
tion or decomposition. Witb our present 
knowledge of matter and its laws, we can* 
not separate physics entirely from chem- 
istry : one science cannot be smdied vnth- 
out the other. Those* artisans who first 
discovered the means of meltinff, combin- 
ing and moulding the metals ; £ose phv- 
neians who first extract^ vegetable sub- 
stances from plants, and ob^rved their 
properties, were the first chemists. In- 
stead, however, of observing a philosoph- 
ical method in their examinations; instead 
of passing firom what was known to what 
was imknown, early inquirers suffered 
themselves to be led astray by astroloffical 
dreams, the &bles of the philosopher's 
stone, and a hundred other absurdities. 

gae Miktmy.) Until the year 1650, we 
d tittle worthy of notice in the histoiy 
of chemistry. Rhazis, Ro^r Bacon, Ar- 
naud do ViUeneuve, Basilius Valentin, 
Paracebus^ A|;ricola, &C., observed some 
of the properties of iron, quicksilver, anti- 
mony, ammoniac, saltpetre. They dis- 
covered sulphuric, nitric and other acids ; 
the mode of rectifying spirits, preparing 
opium, jalap, &c, and of purifying the 
alkalies. Glauber was distrnguic^ed for 
the accuracy of his observations. He en- 
deavored to improve certain instruments ; 
advised operators not to throw away any 
lesidutmi, in performing experiments, as 
useless; discovered the salt which is called, 
fipom him, Glauber's saU, &c. Such iso- 
lated discoveries, however, could not form 
a complete science. Stahl a|)peared, and, 
although his theory was unsadsiactory and 
. jitirely gratuitous, and, as later ohierva- 
Uons have proved, erroneous, yet he laid 
flhci finmdationfl of a regular science. He 
was himself much inctebted to the cele- 
iNated Becher, whose views he conected 
•tid extended. He was sensible that the 

crealer part of chemical phenomena miglit 
depend on a general catise, or, at least, on 
a tew general principles, to which all com- 
binations must necesBarily be referred* 
He supposed that bodies contained a com* 
bustible element, which inflsmmaWe bod- 
ies lost by being burned, and which they 
could regain fix>m other more injQammahle 
bodies. Tins element he called pUogpulon. 
The estabhahing of a hypotheGos, which 
connected almost all phenomena with 
each other, was an important step. Boer- 
haave adopted Stahl's system, and contrib- 
uted much to its general diffusion. He is 
the founder of philosophical chemistry, 
which he enrich^ with numerous exper* 
iments, in regard to fire, the caloric of 
light, &C. Although the principles on 
which those philosophers proceeded were* 
false, yet the science was much advanced 
by their labors. It was reserved for Black, 
raestl^, Cavendish and Lavoisier to over- 
turn Staiil's system, and substitute tho 
pneimiatic or antiphlogistic chemistry, the 
best history of wnich is to be found in 
Foureroy's PkUoaopMe Chmifity and his 
SytUmt (Ua Connmsiomces Chtmiques. As 
soon as the composition of the atmospher- 
ic ah* was known, it was observed that 
combustible bodies, burning in contact 
virith it, instead of losing one of their ele- 
ments, absorbed one of the component 
parts of the air, and were thus increased 
m weight. Thu component part has re- 
ceived the name of ozwen, becanse many 
of the combustible bodies are changed by 
lis absorption into adds. Oxygen now 
took the place of phlogiston, and esmlained 
the difilculties wnich beset the phlogistic 
theory. Light and unity were introduced 
into chemistry by the new technical nom- 
enclature adopted in 1787, by the aid of 
which all the individual fiicts are easily 
retained in the memory, since the name 
of each body is expressive either of its 
oompositiDn or of its characteristic prop- 
ertv. 12 or 15 terms have been found 
sufficient for creating a methodical lan- 
guage, in which there is no inexpressive 
term, and which, by changing the final 
svllables of certain names, indicates the 
change which takes place in the compo- 
sition of the bodiea Lavoisier, Fourcroy, 
Guyton de Morveau and Berthollet were 
the authors of this felicitous innovation. 
The chemical terminology admits of 
nothing arbilraiy, and is adapted not only 
to express known phenomena, but also 
any which may be hereafter tUseovered. 
It IS the first example of a systematic bimI 
an^rtic language. 
Tiie cooimencemeDt of tiie Idth oeo' 

Digitized by 




ftny fbnni a briDiftnt ere in die progiMB 
of cbemistiy. The galvamc apparatus 
of Yolta presented to the experunenter 
an agent unequalled in the variety, ex- 
tent and eneny of its action upon com- 
mon matter. With tfakapparatUBy air Hum- 
pbnj DavY commenced a series of re- 
searohesy which resuhed in a sreater modi- 
fication ^the science than knad ever ba- 
fi>re experienced. He proved that the fixed 
alkalies were compocmds of oxygen widi 
nietallic basest and thus led the way to the 
discoveiy of an analogous constitution in 
the alkaline earths. To the same individual 
the science is principally indebted for the 
estabiiflhment of l£e simple nature of 
chlorine, and for the investigation of iodine. 
His researches concerning the nature of 
flame, resulting as they did in the inven* 
tion of the miner's safiMy-lampj afibrded to 
mankind a new demonstration of the utO- 
ity of philosophy in contributing to the 
improvement of the arts of hfe.---But that 
department of chemistrjr, which has of 
late been most successhiUy investigated, 
refaues to the definite proportions in which 
bodies unite to form the various chemical 
compounds. To establish the conclusions 
which have been airived at, a multitude of 
exact analyses were requisite. These were 
aecompliafied principally through the la- 
bors of Vauquelin, Gay-Luasac, Th^nard, 
Berzelius aiHi Thompson ; and have ter^ 
minated in the establishment of die gen- 
«gra] truth, that, when bodies combine 
chemically and intimately with each other, 
thev combine in determinate quantities; 
and that, when one body unites with an- 
other in more than one proportitm, the 
ratio of the increase may be expressed 
by some simple multiple of the first pro- 
Dortion. Upon this general fact, doctor 
WoUaston constructed the logametric scale 
of chemical eqiuvalents— an invention 
which has contributed, in an eminent de- 
gree, to render our knowledge of the con- 
stitution of compounds precise, by intro- 
ducing the sure basis of arithmedcal rela- 
tions, whichf when fixed with accuracy, 
are not susceptible of change. The doc- 
trine of definite proportions may, therefore^ 
be regarded as having communicated to 
the principles of chemistry that ceitaintv 
which has long been considered as pecul- 
iar to the madiematical sciences; and it 
IS in the devek>pement of these unponant 
relations that the advancement of the sci- 
ence has been most cons|Meuous^— Among 
the still more recent unprovements in 
chemistiy may be cited the discoveiy of 
Dobereiner, relating to the power of pbu- 
I in efEecting the combinadoii of ox* 
11 ♦ 

ygen and hydrogen; ^e researchre of 
Faraday, in which many of the gases have 
been reduced to the liquid fbrtn ; the dis- 
coveiy of new compounds of carbon end 
hydrogen, and the singular fiiet, which 
they exhibit, of different combinations be- 
ing established in the same proportions ; 
the elucidation of the new compounds of 
chlorine with caH)on ; of the peroxide of 
chlorine ; the hydriodide of carbon ; the 
peichloric, iodous, flihninic, and other 
acids ; the discoveiy of the real bases of 
silex and zircon, and that of the new 
principle, l»ome : add to these, that our 
knowledge of light and electricity has been 
gready emerged, and that the phenomena of 
electro-magnetism are altogether new, and 
it becomes strikingly obvious that chemi^ 
try is still a progressive science. ** Nor can 
any limits be placed to the extent of its in- 
vestigations. Its analysis is indefinite ; its 
termination will have been attained ovilj 
when the real elements of bodies shall have 
been detected, and all their modifications 
tmced : but how remote diis may be from 
its present state we cannot judge. Nor can 
we, fi^m our present knowledge, fbim any 
just conception of the stages of discovery 
through which it has yet to pass.*' 

Chemistry has two ways of becomin||^ 
acauainted with the internal stiTicture of * 
bodies, analyaii and sjfnthesis (decompo- 
sition and combination). By the former, 
it separates the component pfuls of a com- 
pound body ; by the latter, it combines the 
separated elements, so as to form anew the 
decomposed body, and to prove the cor- 
recmess of the fbnner process. These 
methods depend on a complete knowled^ 
of the two powers, by which aU bodies m 
nature are set in motion, viz., attreuiion 
and repulnbn. Attempts have been made 
to distinguish the attraction of elementary 
particles from planetary attraction; the 
fbnner being designated as dumieal qffini^ 
iy .* but nature has only one kind of attract 
tion. The ahemate play of attraction and 
repulsion produces a great number of sen- 
sible phenomena, and a mukimde of com« 
binauons, which change the nature and 
the properties of bodies. The study of 
these phenomena, and the knowledge of 
these combinations, appertain to the de- 
partment of chemntry. The histoiy of 
a body must always precede its analysis. 
The mere examination tyf its tbrm, its 
cok>r, its weight, and the place where it 
was found, &c., is often sufiScient, by a 
comparison, to lead to a knowledge of its 
chemical properties. There is no sdoioe 
more extensive than chemistiy, nor is it 
possible for one person to embrace it ji ini 

Digitized by 




wbde extent To fiusifiiale the study, k 
'm oQDsidered in dLSereot points of view, 
and thrown into divisions and subdivisions, 
80 that a person may devote himself to 
one department of it, although the method 
of observing^ analyzing and combining is 
the same in aD, and although all the phe- 
nomena must be explained by the seneral 
theory, and r^fer to certain laws, of which 
a previous knowledge is requisite. These 
laws constitute what is eaXLadpkUoaophkal 
chemistiy, which explains what is meant 
by the affinity of ag^gation or cohesion, 
and by the affinity of composition, or 
chemical affinity. It treats of the phe- 
nomena of solution, saturatiQn, crystalli- 
zation, ebullition, fumon, neutralization. 
Chemical processes^ by changing or mod- 
ifying the properties of bodies, suggest to 
the ooserver unportant considierauons on 
the changes of form, density and temper- 
ature. Philosophical chemistry weighs 
these considerations. It shows, fiut^n', 
that affinity may be exerted, 1. between 
two simple bodies ; 2. between a simple 
and a compound one; 3. between com- 
pound bodies; and, estaUishing the princi- 
ple, that the same body has not the same 
affinity for all others, but attracts them 
unequally ; it shows us the laws which 
determine this preference, and the circum- 
stances which modii\' it; such as cohesion, 
mass, insolubility, elasticity and teinpera- 
ture. It measures the degree of affinity, 
whether of simple or compound bodies. 
It observes the circumstances which aid 
or obstruct the play of attraction, and 
shows that two bodies will not act upon 
each other, unless one of them, at leas^ 
is in a fluid state ; that bodies, even in a 
state of solution, act upon each other only 
at imperceptiUe distances ; that two bodies, 
which have no perceptible affinity, may 
be made to combine by the interposition 
of a third ; and, finally, that the peculiar 
properties of bodies are destroyed by their 
combination, and the conmound possesses 
entirely new properties. Proceeding from 
these principles to the examination of 
bodies themselves^ philosophical chemistry 
considers the efiects of lis^t, heat and 
electricity ; the nature of me simple and 
compound inflammable bodies; of air and 
water; the compoaiticMi and decomposition 
of acids; the nature and properties of 
the salts; their relations to the acids; the 
calcination, solution and alloying of metals; 
the composition and nature of pbnts ; the 
diarscteristics of the immediate elements 
of vegetable substances; the phenomena 
fif animalization; the properties of animal 
aompounds^ and the decay of organic 

substances. This is die sphere of pikibf- 
sophical chemistry, while it confines itself 
to general views.— According to the ap- 
plication of these general views, chemistry 
» divided into seven or esght branches, 
which we have yet briefly to survey. The 
study of the mat phenomena which are 
observed in me atmoq^ie, and whi^k 
are called mdevrs^ constimtes meteorvhgt^ 
etd chemisoy. This explains the forma- 
tion of the Clouds, nun, mist, snow, watei^ 
spouts ; the state of the atmosphere in rela- 
tion to the hysrometer, barometer and 
thermometer; the nature of die aurora 
boreahs, meteoric stones ; m short, sll the 
chemical processes goii^ on above the 
surftoe Gt the earth. Gtdogieal chem- 
istry treats principally of the great combi- 
nations of nature, which prmiuce volca- 
noes, veins of metals, beds of mineral coal, 
basalt, mineral waten, the enormous 
masses of salt and lime, die saltpetre m 
the bed of the Indus, the natron of die 
lakes of Egypt, the borax of the lakes of 
Thibet 'fb» geological chemist endeav- 
ors to discover and explain the causes of 
deluges, earthquakes, die decrease of the 
waters on the globe, the mfluence of 
climate on die color of animals and 
phmtB, on the smell of flowers, and the 
taste of fiuits. In these general views^ 
he needs the aid of natural philosophy 
and physics. Chemistry, in its application 
to natural history, is divided intnesame 
manner. There is a chemistiy of the 
mineral kingdom, which comprises metaK 
lurgy and assaying, and the examination 
of bU iuOTganic substances, as stones, salts^ 
metals, bitumen, waters; a chemisoy of 
the vegetable kingdom, which aaaiyzea 
plants and their munediate products; and 
a chemistiy of die animal kmcdom, which 
studies aU substsnoes derivea fi!om fivine 
or dead animalsi This last is subdivided 
into phpiologieal chemistry, which con- 
siders die changes produced in animal 
substances by the operation of life ; paUi^ 
ological chemistiy, which traces the 
chttiges produced by disease or oisanie 
defects; AercqfeHtic or vharmaeeuUe chem" 
istry, which teaches tne nature and prep- 
aration of medicines, shows the means 
of pres^ring thein, and exposes the pre«> 
tensions of empirics ; hfgtOie cheiiu8tty| 
which acquaints us widi the means or 
constructing and armnffing our hid>itetionfl| 
so as to render them healthy, of examin- 
ing die air vriifieh we must bieadie in thetn, 
guarding against contagious diseases, 
choosing wholesome fbod, discovering the 
influence of occupation, fashion and eus< 
tomontheheahh. .^ricvttiiml chemistiy 

Digitized by 




Unam of tbe Batore c^plantti and 0oi)fl,«iid 
the kw8 of prodadioiL Sir Humphry 
Davy first gave ii tha ehameter of a ack* 
enco. It treati» L of the general poweia 
<^ matter whieh hare any infiuefice on 
TMetation, of gran^, eoheaon, chemical 
amiity, h»tt, light, wctricity, die elements 
(^matter, especially such as ore fbimd in 
vegetables, and the laws of their oomposi- 
tionandamngement; 9. oftheoi^gsniza^ 
tion of plants, then* structure, the chemical 
oompoattiGn of their organs, and the sub- 
stances found in them, 4ec. ; d. of soils; 
4. of the nature of manureJ-^Chemistry, 
finally, exerts an influence on the routine 
of domestic bfe, and on the aitSL It sim- 
l^ifies and regulates the daily ^fices et 
the housekeeper; renders our dwellings 
healthy, wann, light; assists us in prepare 
ing clodiing, ibo{ drink. Ate : it teaches 
the best way of making bread ; preparing 
and puriQing oils ; of constiucting bake> 
houses, ovens and hearths ; of bleaching 
and washing all kinds of stuff; of pro- 
ducing artificial cold, &c The appuca- 
lion of chemistry to the arte and manufac- 
tures is^ however, still more impoitant and 
extensive. Here its $ba is to discover, im- 
prove, extend, perfect and simplify the pro- 
caases by which the objects to be prepared 
may be adapted to our wants. We close 
our remarics with the observation, that a 
knowledge of chemistiy may fiequendy be 
useful in judicial proceedings, in expodng 
crime ; e. g., in cases of poisoning, counter- 
ftdting ccans and written documents, &c. 
Chemiad CUtss^oHon and ^TomendO' 
tun. The chemist finds a small number 
of bodies, firom which only one kind of 
niattei^can be obtained, in the present 
state of his knowledge, and by the instru- 
ments and agents which he now has at his 
disposal (& the other hand, there is a 
large number of bodies, from which he 
obtojns several Unds of matter. The for- 
mer he calls eUmenis^ cv simple bodies; the 
latter, eompinmd bodies* The number of 
simple bodies now known is 53: that of 
the compounds is much {preater, and might, 
at first, appear to be mfinite, since not 
onlv a difierenoe of elements, but even a 
difference of the proportions in which 
thev are combined, makes an essential 
diflierenoe in the properties of the com- 
pound. It 18, however, much less than 
would be supposed, and even less than 
die number of possible comhinadons of 
ample bodies. Twelve of the simple 
bodies are oxygen, iodine, chlorine, bro- 
mine, fluorine, hydregen, boron, carbon, 
phosphorus, sulphur, azote and selenium ; 
md 41 are melals. (q. v.) Tbe five first 

are cafled suf fo i f in ofosmbHsHsny because 
diev ootnbine with the others, producinff 
a dusengagement of heat and light, and 
aeid^fifing principles^ because they are also 
capable or producing acids by a similar 
eombinadon. The 46 others are called 
simpU eombustibleSf because their union 
with the supporters of combustion, aboye- 
mentioned, is a real combusdon. Com- 
pound bodies, as has been observed, are 
not so numerous as might be supposed. 
They resuh, 1. fixxn the combination of 
oxygen, or one of the other simple sop* 
poiters of combustion, vrith oub of the 
mmple combusdbles; such are the acids: 
9. nom that of a simple body combined 
widi oxygen, with another similar com- 
pound; such are the salts: 3. from that 
of two, three, rarely four, simple com- 
busdbles vritfa one another: 4. fiwmthat 
of oxygen with hydrogen and carbon, 
forming vegetable matter: 5. from that of 
oxygen wi& hydrogen, carbon and azote, 
foirning animal matter. Combusdbles 
combined with the simple supporters of 
combusdon are sometimes called burned 
bodies ; from the number of their elements, 
they are also called biruny compounds. 
When their taste is acid, and they have 
die property of reddening vegetable blues, 
they are tenned acids. If they are not 
acid to the taste, and have the property of 
turning blue what has been^rradened by 
acids, diey are distinguished by the termi- 
nadon uie, as oxidCf chkridCj &c. If only 
one of the latter class is formed, that il, 
if the supporter of combusdon will unite 
vrith the combustible in only one propor- 
don, we call this compound simpler the 
OTndt, chloride^ &C., of the combusubles; 
as, oxide of caibotu If they unite in sever- 
al proportions, we call the first, or that 
which contains the smallest proportion of 
oxygen, 5&c., protoxide^ &c. ; the second, 
detdoxide ; tbe third, tntoxide. The high- 
est is also called peroxide. So, if only 
one acid is formed, we designate it by die 
name of the combustible, with the termi- 
nation te. Thus carbon with oxygen forms 
carbonic acid. If several are formed, that 
which contains the larger proportion of 
the acidifying j^rinciple is designated oy 
the termination tc, and that which contains 
less, bjr tbe termination ous. Thus sul- 
phur forms sidphtric acid and sulphurous 
acid. If there are still intermediate com- 
pounds, we annex hypo (signifying less), 
to designate a lower degree of acidity. 
Thus we should have sulphuric, hypostd- 
phuric; sulphurous, hyposulphurous. In 
die acids and oxides, chlorides, &c., the 
combustible is called the base. Mrhen 

Digitized by 




ibe base k the eame, the poKMride* &c^ 
atwajB contaiDS le&B oxygen, &>e^ cbcm the 
lowest acid. For the names of compounds 
of two binary burnt bodies, no rules have 
been adopted to express the union of two 
oxides, two acids, or an add with a non- 
metaliic oxide. But those formed of 
acids and metallic ondes are called soUmj 
and their individual names are formed by 
changing the termination of the acid and 
placing It before the name of the metal ; 
the tenninstion out is changed into tte, 
and te into ate ; sulphurous acid with the 
oxide of tin woula form sulpkUe i^ tin; 
sulphuric acid and tin, stdphtUe q/'ttn. If 
the same acid combines with more than 
one oxide of the some metal, then we 
prefix the characteristic of the oxide to 
the name of the acid; thus sulphuric 
acidf combined with tlie protoxide of 
iron, fonns the protoBulphatef with the 
peroxide, the periulphate^ of iron. Other 
substances have also tlie iMt>perty of unit* 
ing with acids, neutralizing them, and 
forming compounds analogous to salts. 
There are no general rules for the names 
of these compounds; but the substances 
themselves are called $alifiable bases. The 
rules of nomenclature, m regard to the 
combination of the combustibfes, vary :— 
1. If the constituents are metals, they 
form alloys, 2, If the compounds are 
solid or liquid, and formed or a metallic 
and a non-metallic combustible, we give 
to the latter the termination urei ; as, car- 
bon with iron forms carlntret qf iron. If 
both are non-metallic, the termination 
wet may be attached to either ; as, phas- 
phuret of sulnhur^ or stUphuret if phos^ 
phoTus, 3. It the compound is gaseous, 
we name the gas, or one of the gases, if 
it is composed of two, and join me other 
component as an adjective ; as, phMplm- 
retea hydrogen. 

Chemnitz, the principal manufacturing 
town in the kingdom o^ Saxony, in the 
department of me Erzg^ebirge, on the 
river Chemnitz, is well built, and contains 
1000 houses, with 16,000 inhabitants, 
amongst whom are 1197 master-weavers, 
and 060 Journeymen and apprentices. 
The principal manufactures are white and 
print»l cahcoes, ginghams, handkerchie^y 
and various articles used for bed-quilts. 
Of 12 cotton factories, founded about the 
middle of the last century, several em^oy 
fix>m 300 to 500 woriunen. 40 spimung- 
mills, in the town and its environs, man- 
utacture upwards of 1,000,000 pounds of 
yam annually. The manufacture of cot- 
ten hose has been brought to very great 
jierfection, and they are exported in brge 

quantities to the U. Stales and Sooth 
America, besides funushinff moet of the 
European markets, through the fairs of 
LeipsK, Frankfort and Brunswick. With* 
in a few years, they have even been sent 
to England, strange as this may soimd. 
They are manufactured in the neighbor- 
ing villages. 

CHBMiriTB, Martin, a distinguished 
Protesl^t theologian of the 16th oentuiy, 
rose, bv his extraordinary talents and pro- 
found knowledge, from low ctrcumstanoes 
to a high degree of celebrity. He wis 
bom at Treuenbrietzen, in me MariL of 
Brandenburg, Nov. 9, 1522, of poor pa- 
rents; received his education at Macde- 
burg and Frankfort on the Oder, and, in 
1544, became a schoolmaster in Writzen 
on the Oder, to obtain the means of con- 
tinuing his studies at Wittenberg. By 
the advice of Melancthon, he applied 
himself to mathematics and a8ln>k>gy. In 
1550, he became librarian of duke Albert 
of Prussia. He then wrote his Lod Aes- 
logici (edit Polycarp. Leyser, Frankfort 
on the Maine, 1591, foL\, a valuable com* 
meiitary on Melancthon^s system of dog- 
matics. Being invited to Brunswick, as 
minister, he attacked the Jesuits in his 
71ieolop<t JesidUtrum proBcqnM Cofiia 
(Leipsic, 1562), and, when the council of 
Trent thou^t itself assailed in this work, 
he wrote his Examen ConcUii TVidenHni 
(best edit 1707, foL, FrankfcHt on the 
Mamel a work of great historical value. 
He adhered to Luther's doctrine concern- 
ing the eucharist, wrote on this subject, 
composed the Corpus Doetrinee prtdaiiem 
for the Lutherans, and gnuhially became 
so implicitly attached to ^e I^theran 
doctrine, that his efibrts in support of it 
contributed to check the promss of die- 
oloflical science. He died, April 8, 1586^ 
at Brunswick. He was the author of a 
great number of works besides those al- 
ready mentioned^ — ^His grandson, Philip 
Bogislav von Chemnitz, bom in 160^ 
a soldier in the Swedish service, wrote 
the celebrated work, De RaHone SMus tii 
Imperio nostro RomanO'GennanieOf &«. 
and. HippoUto a Lapide (1640, 4to., and 
1647, 12mo.), which did more injury to 
the interests of the emperor than the loss 
of many battles. He then became Swed- 
ish historiographer, and wrote a history 
of the Swedish and German war (164B 
and 1653). He died at his estate near 
Hallstadt, in Sweden, in 167a 

CniiriER, Marie Joseph de, bom, Auff. 
28, 1764, in Constantmople (where lus 
fiither, Louis Ch^er, knovfrn as the au- 
thor of valuable woriu on the BIooi% 

Digitized by 




Mofocco flnd ui6 OttonMOi empivO) was 
oonsu^gimeiBl), went, when Yerv young, 
to Paris, seired as an officer of dnigoonB, 
left the serrice, and devoted himself to 
iiteraiy pimuits m Paris. After an inter- 
val of three yeais, he published his 
Charies IX, which may be considered as 
a monument of the taste prevailing in 
France at the beginaing of the revolution, 
and is not without poetical merit Ch6- 
nier, by flattering the passions of the peo- 
ple, soon gained great popularity. His 
Henri VIU, La Mart de Caiaa, and Caiiu 
Cracehusy were received with great ap- 
plause. He was chosen a memW of the 
convention, where, for a considerable 
time, he belonged to the party of the 
most violent democrats. Tms spirit ap- 
pears even m his Fendon and Timolem, 
published in 1793 and 17d4. In the last 
years of his life, he was en^faged in pre- 
paring a historv of French hterature. His 
discourses at tne Atheneeum, in Paris, in 
1806 and 1807, contain the history of the 
French language, and of the different de-. 
partments of jpoetiy and prose, down to 
the times of Francis I. In an introduc- 
tion, published in 1806, he explained the 
plan of the woric, together vritn the prin- 
dpal results of his researchea (See his 
Fraemens du Cours de lAtUraturtf fait h 
VMkhUe en 1806 et 1807, &;c., Paris, 
1808.) Ch^nier also treated of the char- 
acteristic features of the principal works 
in French literature, from 1788 to 1808, in 
his TahUau kuiortque de Phot tt des 
Progrh de la LUUrature Dranfctise depuis 
1789. In his last piece on the decenniid 
prizes, he maintained that the prize prom- 
ised fbr^e best didactic woric viras due to 
one of ms former enemies. His criticism 
on La Harpers Lycie is the most correct 
and impartial view which has been given 
of that woric He died Jan. 11, 1811. 
GnxquEas. (See Drcmghis.) 
Chbuburo, or Chkhbouro; a seaport 
of France, on the Channel, in the depart- 
ment of La Mcmche (the Channel) ; 16 
leagues N. St Lo, 34 W. N. W. Paris; 
km. r 37' 3" W.; lat 49° 38^ 30" N: 
population, 15,600. It has a commercial 
court, an exchange, a school of navigation 
and a leained society. It is situated at 
the bottom of a large bay, between cape 
fiarfteur and cape La Hogue. The build- 
ing of small vessels and the manufacture 
of woollen stufis form the princijMd em- 
ptoyment of the inhabitants. This port 
has always been considered, by the 
French, as an object of areaX importonce 
in the navigation of the English channel, 
and immense sums have been expended 

in the erection of piers, deepening and 
enlarging the hartwr, and erecting S>itifi- 
cations. Afler die peace of 1783, the 
French government determined to make 
Cherfoujg a great naval dep&t, and in diF- 
fetent attempts, before 1806, expended 
more than £2,000,000 m constructing a 
vast bulwaik to break the water, render- 
ing the road a safe anchorage. Afler- 
wiods, under Napoleon, a basin v^as 
formed, 1000 feet long and 770 wide, oc- 
cupying 18 acres, having a depth of 50 
feet, and capable of containing 50 sail of 
the line. In addition to this, a wet 
dock has been constructed of equal di- 
mensiona The cost of the basin and 
dock was nearly £5,000,000, without the 
expense of improving die roads. The 
mud, however, afaready begins to accumu- 
late in the basin. The cunent, if the tide 
sets in, is so strong, that sometimes 10 or 
12 cables are necessary to hold a vessel. 
Napoleon's views respectinff Chetburg, as 
given in count Las Caseir Journal, are 
very interesting. 

Cheribon ; a principality of Java, on the 
N. coast ; lat 6° 46^ S.; ton. 108° 35' E. It 
m divided into 9 districts, and contains 
about 90,000 inhabitants, besides stran- 
gem. This country is divided between two 
princes, both of whom are feudatories of 
the Dutch East India company. The 
productions are cofiee, timber, cotton yam, 
areca, indigo, sugar, and fdso a litde pep- 
per : this last article fonnerly grew hero m 
such abundance, that, in the year 1680, the 
bhar, of 375 pounds, Mras paid for at the 
rate of no moro than 10 Spanish dollars. 
The rhinoceros is seen on the hills and in 
the forests in this district The horses 
aro small and well made, but vicious. 

Cheribon, Skeribonf or Tcheribon ; a tovm 
in Java, capital of the Mincipalhy of the 
same name, 170 miles £. BfUavia. It is 
situated at the bottom of a deep bay, and 
was formerly a station of some impor- 
tance. 25,000 inhabitants. 

Cheribon Reef; a reef in the East In- 
dian sea, near the north coast of Java : lat 
6^ 9^8.; Ion. 108° 34^ E. 

Cherokees, or Tsullakees, the mote 
proper name. (See Indians,) The name 
Cherokee is now perfectly settled (it is used, 
in &ct, by the Indians themselves) ; but the 
condition of this tribe is of so interesting a 
character, that we have (bought proper to 
defer our account of them to a place 
where we may be able to give the reader 
something more satisfactoir than would 
now be in our power, particulariy in respect 
to the subject of their political relations 
to the U. States and the state of Georgia, 

Digitized by 




mibkk have already oceasioiied much dia^ 
cuflsioii, and are likely to remain aoma 
lime longer in controyeny. 

CwEKotfEA, (See Chiroma.) 

CHEnaT. The cheiry is a fruit of the 
prune or phim tribe, the original stock of 
which is the wild cheny (nrunua certuus). 
The gradual effect of cultivation on the 
cheny has been the production of several 
kinds, wluch, both in size and flavor, 
inead V exceed the fruit of the parent stock. 
The kinds that are best known are the 
May-duke, white-heart and black-heait 
cherries. — ^The trees are propagated by 
greftinff them usually upon the stocks of 
wild mack and red oheny-trees, which 
are reared for that purpose. This agree- 
able fruit is eaten fresh or dried. It is 
sometimes preserved with sugar as a 
sweet-meat, made into jam, used in the 
preparation of the liquor called eherrV' 
tnwubf, and made into vrine. From wild 
black chenies the Swiss distil an ard^it 
spirit, by the sale of which to the French 
and Germans, they derive considenible 
profit — ^The wood of the cheny-tree, 
which is hard and tough, is much used, 
particularly by turners and cabinet-makers, 
m many places, for the manufacture of 
ehaiTB and other furniture. The gum that 
exudes from the baric is, in many respects, 
•equal to fom arable, and -is considered 
very nutntive. Hasselquist informs us 
that, during a siege, more than 100 men 
were kept alive for nearly two montiis, 
without any other sustenance than a litde 
•of this gum, which they occasionally took 
into their mouths, and suffered gradually 
to dissolve. 

Ch£&rt-Laubxl. The cherry-laurel 
(pnmus Uturrhcercuua) is remarkable only 
as producing the celebrated laurel-water. 
This is a most powerfrd poison, the 
strength of which (like that of peach- 
kemels, bitter almonds, cherry-leaves, &c.) 
depends upon the presence of prusaic 
acid, now so well known. Laurel-water 
is obtained from the leaves and flowers, 
or the leaves (mlv, of this plant, by distilla- 
tion, and was uinnerly much used, and 
•much dreaded, as a jpoison. Of late years, 
it has gone out oi use. The Qennan 
kirschwasser is a stranj^ spirit, possessing 
the same properties, m a less denee, 
as do noyau, and other similar cordials, 
which should alf be used with great cau- 

CHEasoN, capital of the Russian gov- 
emmrnt of Cherson, on the Dnieper, about 
60 miles frt>m its mouth, fonneriy the 
chief naval station on the Black sea, 
leuiided in 1778^ is well fortified, and 

contains about 9000 houses, poidy of 8tao6^ 
with 20,000 mhabitanlB. The city consistt 
of four paits: — 1. the IbitresB, with a 
church, a mint, an arsenal and a cannon- 
foundety ; 2. the naval oflce, with exten- 
sive naval magazines and dock-yards ; 3L 
the Grecian submb, with a laige ware- 
house; and, 4 the snburi> for soldierB. 
The naval ofcice haa been transfeired to 
Nikolajev (at the confluence of the Ingul 
with the Bug), founded ui 1789, the situar 
tion of which is more convenient and 
healthv. The harbor is annually entered 
by 400 Greek boats, besides several Aus- 
trian and French vessels. Wherever laige 
rivers have but a slight descent towaids 
their mouths, a great Quantity of mud ac- 
cumulates, which renders the bed gradu- 
ally shallower, and, flnalhr, rises above the 
surface of the water, forming morasses 
and islands, which leave a nanower bed 
for tiie stream. Such an accumulation 
takes place more rapidly, if two rivers of 
considerable size, hke^tiie Dnieper and 
Bug, empty into the same bay. A deep 
bed should, therefore, be dug and embank- 
ed for the united rivers, which wiU be 
kept free by the action of the current, at 
least for some time. This was overlooked 
by Potemkin, when he fiNrmed the plan 
of this city ; and laige vessels are, there- 
fore, obliged to dischuige part of their car 
goes in the harix>r of Oczako w, which has 
17 feet of water; and those wliich are out- 
ward bound complete their cargoes there. 
In 1823, however, the bed of the Ingul, 
which discharges its vmters into the Black 
sea, was deepened to ISJk foot, so tiiat, in 
1826, a ship of 110 guns could be launched 
at Nikolajev. The province of JDherson 
or Nikokuev (containing 25,500 square 
miles, and 371,000 inhabitantB) is a dry 
heath, rising gradually towards the south, 
containing ridi meadows here and there, 
and, along the rivers, about 18 limens, or 
manhy kdces. The soil alon^ the shores 
is eveiy where impre^^nated with iron, and 
produces salt plants m abundance. It isy 
therefore, suitable for raising sheep. The 
climate, in summer, is hot; in winter, cokL 
The mulbeny-4ree, which loves a soil im- 
pregnated with salt, thrives here luxuri- 
antiy ; but the inhabitants do not turn it 
to advantage by the cultivation of silk- 
wonns: agriculture is yet in its infan- 
cy here. & 1787, the emperor Joseph and 
the empress Catharine II met at CheiscM^ 
and, amid the splendid festivities of that 
occasion, formed an alliance against the 
Porte. The tomb of Potemkin is in the 
city, and that of Howard a fo w miles from 
iL The cities of OdesHi and OczakoH^ 

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«Bd the ni]D0 of Ofiua, at the mouth of tbe 
Biur, are in the government of Cheraon. 

CHBRSomBsus {Greek; a penimnila). 
This name has been given to aevecal pen- 
insulas; as, 1. the Cimbrian cheraone- 
sus {dienonesui CHmbnca), now JtUkmd^ 
&c (see Cimbri); 2. the Taurian cher- 
sonesus [eh, TauncOj also called Magna\ 
the peninsula fiMmed by the Black sea 
and the sea of Aaof— the Crimea ; 3. the 
Thiacian cheisonesus (ch, Thraeica^ or 
merely Chenonenu), the great peninisula 
in Thrace, now the peninsula or the Dar- 

Chebub, in the Scrintures ; an angel of 
the second chxAr of tne first hierarchy. 
Cherubim is the Hebrew pjunil of cherub^ 
as uraphint is of sertmh. The former sig* 
nifies, <u dMren; the latter, asjkanea ^ 
fire. The church has aasiffned to them 
their rank in the heavenly hosts. Paint- 
eis and sculptors commonly represent the 
cherubim by a child's heao, between 
wings. Raphael's paintings are beautifully 
adorned with these lovmy creations of 

CnsauBiNi, Loigi, bom at Florence, in 
1760, a disciple of Sarti, at the age of 16 
composed an opera, Adriano in SUiOf at 
Leghorn, which was, however, too learn- 
ed for the connoisseurs of that city. He 
was better undeistood at Mantua and Tu- 
rin. At the former place, in 1784, his sec- 
ond opera, AUssandro neW Indies and, at 
the latter, in 1788, his ^igenia in AuHdcj 
were received with univenni applause. |ie 
was then invited to Paris, where he attract- 
ed attention by his operas Demophoon^ 
Lodoiskoy Medea, &c But the tnumph 
of hk genius was the celebrated opera 
Let dewe JovmiUij winch is a master- 
piece of musical composition. The merits 
of ChenilHni are enhanced bv his singular 
modesty, in which he resembles the great 
Mozart, whose sublime genius he reveres. 
He is one of the five superintendenls of 
the eonMervatoire in Paris. In 1805^ he 
was invited to Vienna, to compose an op- 
era for the inmmal theatre. There he 
produced his iofiwAa,* which was 
sented with the greatest applause in li 
and di^kys great depth of feeling 
power of awakening emotion. He has 
composed much since his return to Paria 
In 1821 appeared his Blcauihe de Provence 
•tt la Cotir de$ Fies, in three acts, in 
which he was assisted by Berton, Boiel- 
dieu, Kreutzer and PaOr. 

GHEausci ; the most celebrated German 
trflbe among the Istievones. They inhah- 
ilfid both sides of the Hartz mountains, be- 
tween the south- western part of the Thu* 

•ringian finest, mhete the Catd were their 
neighbors, and the Saale. Drusus, cm 
his retreat fiom the Saale to the Rhine, 
passed through the southein part of their 
eountiy. But, in advancing fiom the tei^ 
•ritoiy of Paderbom, over me Weser, to> 
wards the Elbe, he took his course through 
the northern part Here tiie Aller seems 
to have been their northem and eastern 
boundary. They also poeseased some teiv 
ritory on the west bank of the Weser. 
Their national leaffue comprised all the 
tribes between the Weser, the Rhine and 
tibe lippe — the Cattuarii, Ansibarii, DuIp 
.gumnii, Marsi, Chamaveii, &c The Ro- 
mans first became acquainted vrith the 
Chemsci in the year 10 B. C, when Dra- 
sus fiirced his way as far as the Weser, 
but, for want of provisions, vras oblioed t» 
fetum. In the following year, he a<nranc- 
ed ficom the Weser tomrds die Elbe, on 
the north side of the Hereynian fi>re8t, 
through the midst of the Cherusci. At 
that tune, they were not very fbrmidaUe. 
In the year 7 B. C, they even entered into 
an allituDce with the Romans, and served 
in their armies. But when Varus attempt- 
ed to make them tributary to Rome, and 
subject them to the Roman laws, they r^ 
volted. Varus, being decoyed by ttiem 
into the foieslt of Teutoburg, in tne year 
9 A. D., was destroyed, with his whole 
army, in a battle which lasted three days. 
(See Armimui and Crermamia.) — Upon 
this, the Ch^usci became the chief object 
of the attacks of the Romans. Gerraani- 
cus (q. v.), victorioAs ov^ the Marsi and 
Catu, marched against the Cherusci, 
whose leaders, Segestus and Arminius 
(the latter of whom had carried off the 
daughter of the former), were at war with 
each other. Segestus, pressed by Armini- 
us, called Germanicus to his aid, who de- 
livered him, indeed, from his danger, but 
was obliged to return, afler several cam- 
paigns, without having obtained any per- 
manent advantages. By their last sucoess- 
es, the Cherusci had become very powerful 
Their alliance with the Lombards and 
Semnones, who had renounced the Mar- 
ooraannic confederacy, and the victory of 
Arminius over tiie Marcomanni under 
Maroboduus, raised the Cherusci to the 
first rank among the German nations. But, 
after the assassination of Arminius (21 
A. D.), new disturbances broke out among 
them. They committed the supreme com- 
mand to Italicus, the last survivor of the 
family of Arminius, but soon after expel- 
led him. The Lombards restored him to 
his rights and dignity, after a long and 
destructive war with Uie Chenisoii who^ 

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abandoned by thdr aOiea, were now con- 
fined to the teiritoiy between the Saale 
and the south side of the Hercynian forest 
In the third centuiy, they, with their for- 
mer allies, were swallowed up in the great 
Fruikisb confederacy, and no longer ap- 
pear as a distinct people. 

Chesapeaks Bat ; a spacious bay of 
North America, in the states of Vir^nia 
and Maryland. Its entrance is between 
cape Charles and cape Heniy, 16 miles 
wide; and it eictends 190 nules to the 
northward, through the states of Virginja 
and Maryland, dmding them into two 
parts, coiled the eaatem and tDesttm shorea. 
it is from 7 to 20 miles broad, and gener- 
ally as much as 9 fiithoms deep ; Word- 
ing many commodious harfoora, and a sa& 
aiKl easy navigation. It receiyes the wa- 
ters of the Susquehaima, Potomac, Rap- 
pahannoc, York and James rivers, which 
are all large and navigable* 

Cheseloeet, Wilham; a celebrated 
English surgeon and anatomist He was 
bom in Leicestershire, in 1688, and, after 
a common school education and some 
medical instruction in the country, he 
went to London to prosecute his studies. 
At the age of 23, he began to give lectures 
en anatomy, and, in 1711, he was chosen 
F. R. S. In 1713, he published a treatise 
on the Anatomy of the Human Body, 8vo., 
long esteemed a favorite manual of the 
sdence. He continued to read his lec- 
tures for more than 30 years, during which 
he gradually rose to me head of his pro- 
fessioQ. In 1723, he jfubUahed a Treatise 
on the High Operation for the Stone. 
Cheselden, who was a very dexterous and 
successful operator, afterwards added to 
his reputation by practising what is term- 
ed the lateral method of operating for the 
stone, since generally adopted. A pecu- 
liar operation, which he performed on a 
youth of 14, who had been blind from his 
oirth, and who obtained his sight by means 
of it, attracted much notice ; and, m 1728, 
he published an account of it in the Phi- 
losophical Transactions. In 1733 was 
published his Osteography, or Anatomy 
of the Bones, folio, conftistinff of plates and 
short ejqplanations, a splendid and accu- 
rate work. Cheselden obtsuned, in 1737, 
the appointment of chief surgeon to Chel- 
sea hospital This situation he held till 
his death, which took place at Bath, April 
10, 1752, in consequence of a fit of apo- 
plexy. Besides the productions already 
mentioned, he published a translation 
from the French of Le Dran's Suiveiy, 
and several anatomical and surgical pa- 
pers in the Philosophical Trai^tions. 

The private character of Cheselden 
generally respectable ; but he was not ex- 
empt mm faults and foibles. Amonf 
these vras a predilection for pugilism, and 
a degree of vanity which rendered him 
more ambitious of beuig thought a skilful 
architect or coachmaker than a good anat- 
omist He was, however, humane and 
liberal, and was much esteemed by Pope 
and other literary men with whom he was 

Chess ; the most celebrated and gen- 
eral of all sedentary games. One of the 
greatest charms of chess lies, no doubt, in 
me circumstance, that, whilst man is every- 
where surrounded by chance; in this game^ 
as goDerally played, he has entirely ex- 
cluded it, except that it must be decided 
by chance which of the two playera shaU 
begiu. The game affords so much yarn 
ety, so much scope for calculation, so 
many o^^rtunities to exhibit foresight 
and penetration, that it has been held in 
great esteem by all nations acquainted 
with it, and all persons who have con- 
quered the difficulties of learning it The 
Mohammedans except chess from the law 
against {^ambling. NVliilst tliis game af- 
fords enjoyment worthy of mature minds^ 
it is an excellent exercise for the young, 
as it teaches patience and circumspection, 
strengthens the judgment, and encourages 
perseverance in a plan aflfording a pros- 
pect of eventual success, though, at the 
moment, thj^ simation of things may ap- 
pear very critical The Chinese pretend 
to have known it 200 yeara previous to 
our era. It was brought, in the sixth cen- 
tury, from India to Peisia, whence It was 
spread by the Arabians and the crusaders 
all over the civilized worid. It is most 
commonly played in Asia. In j&ct, its 
whole composition and its name prove its 
Asiatic origin. In Sanscrit, it is called 
schihratdshj a word which is believed to 
indicate the most important component 
pans of an ancient Eastern army-~ele- 

E bants, infantry, sithed wagons, and 
orses. But this name was supplanted 
by the Persian term skak (king), whi<^ 
the game has retained^ more or less cor- 
niptoi, in all languages. Greneraliy, chess 
is played by two persons upon a board, 
the same as that used in draughts or 
chequers, contaioing 64 squares. The 
board must be so placed, that each plnver 
has a white square at liis right hand, l^he 
squares are named from £e pieces, viz.; 
tliat on which the king is placed is called 
the hinges square; that on which the 
king's pawn is placed, the king's second 
square ; that before the pawn, tl e king's 

Digitized by 




Oird square; the next, the ixnf^sfovarihi 
and so on with afl the pieces oreach side. 
£ach player has ei^ht pieces and eight 
pawi]& In placing Uie pieces, the ancient 
luJe is to be foUowed — serwU regtna colo^ 
rem (the queen maintains the color) — ^that 
By the black queen is to be placed on the 
hbck square, in the middle of the line 
next to the player ; in a similar way, the 
white queen on the white field. On the 
side of the king and the queen stand the 
bishops; then follow the two knights; and 
hst, the rooks or casdea The object of 
The game is, to bring the adversaiy's king 
into such a situation that he cannot move, 
which is called checkmating. The king 
can never be taken. The play ends with 
a checkmate. (It is related of doctor 
Frankhn, that once, playing chess in Paris, 
tod being checkmated, he said, '* Take the 
king ; I am a republican, and don't care 
ferbim.'^ It is not uninteresting to con- 
ader the difierent names which the pieces 
have received in various countries. In 
the East, the queen is called by the more 
proper name of mzter, or general. The 
bishops are called, in Germany, runners ; 
and in ¥nnce,fools {fotuf). These were, 
originally, elephants, with giants on them. 
The knights are called, in German, leap- 
eru The castles were, originally, udot^ 
dborioC*, wl)ich is also indicated by the 
word rock^ from the bidian rock, or rolh. 
With the old Germans, the pawns, now 
called peasants, were styled Jrenden (Van- 
dals), a tribe despised by the Germans. 
Don John of Austria had a room, the floor 
of which was made like a chess board. 
On this he pl^ed with living persons. 
The peasants of a German viUage, Strop- 
ke,or Strobeck, near Halberstadt, for about 
300 yeara, have been distinguished as chess- 
pbyers. The reason for this is doubtful 
The most probable opinion is, that a cer- 
tain Inahop, wIm) lived among them, made 
ihem acqusdnted witli this game, and freed 
them from several taxes, on condition that 
they wouM continue to practise it Nu- 
merous anecdotes show how much the 
nme of chess can absorb die mind. 
The ek^ctor of Saxony, John Frederic, 
was taken prisoner in the battle at Muhl- 
bcTg, by the emperor Charles V, and 
Was playing at chess with his fellow-pris- 
oner, Ernest of Brunswick, when it was 
intimated to him that the emperor had 
senieneed him to death. He paused for 
a moment, to remaric on the uregularity 
of the proceeding, and immediately re- 
sumed the game, which he won, and ex- 
pressed, m a lively manner, the pleasure 
which he derived from his victory. 
▼Ok III. 12 

Chories XII of Sweden pkyed at chess 
when he was so closely besieged in the 
house near Bender, bv the Turks. Al 
Amin, caUph of Bagdad, would not be dis- 
tuibed in chess-playing when his city was 
carried by assault Frederic the Great 
loved chess much. Napoleon did not 
play it particularly well. Amcmg the 
most fiunous players and writers on the 
game are, a duke of Brunswick, named 
Auguaius, who, in the 17th century, pub- 
lished, under the name of Selenus, an In- 
troduction to the gaine (1616, 4to.), now 
very rare ; Philidor, a Frenchman, who 
was particularly distinguished in London 
in 1780 — ^90; Gioacchino Greco, cde 
brated in the beginning of the 17th centu- 

?r; and the Arabian Philip Stamma in 
aris, 1737. Caxton's ^ Game and Playe 
of the Chesse,'* printed in 1474, is general- 
ly admitted to be the first typographical 
work executed in England. Anastasia, a 
German novel by Heynse, contains many 
ingenious ideas on chess-playing, and sev 
eral fine games. Some very curious man- 
uscripts, relating to this game, in the 
Chinese, Sanscrit, Persian and Arabic 
lanffuages, have been paitially translated ; 
and the presses of Europe have teemed 
with similar productions, the most noted 
of which are enumerated by Mr. Lewis, in 
the preface to his edition of Saratt on 
Chess, lSaSi.—Laws qf the game. 1. If 
the board, or pieces, be improperly placed, 
the mistake cannot be rectified after four 
moves on each side are played. 2. When 
a player has touched a piece, he must 
move it, unless it was only to replace it ; 
when he must say, J^adovbe, or I replace. 
3. When a player has quitted a piece, he 
cannot recall the move. 4. If a player touch 
one of his adversaiy's pieces without say- 
ing Tadovhe, he may li^ compelled to takft 
it, or, if it cannot be taken, to move his 
king. 5. When a pawn is moved two, 
steps, it may be taken by any adversary's 
pawn, which it passes, and the capturing 
pawn must be placed in that square over 
which the other leaps. 6. The king can- 
not castie if he has before moved, if he is 
in check, if in castling he passes a check, 
or if the rook has moved. 7. Whenever 
a player checks his adversaryls king, ho 
must say Check, otherwise the adversary 
need not notice the check. If the player 
should, on the next move, attack the queen, 
or any other piece, and then say Checkf 
his adversary may replace his last move, 
and defend his king. 8. When apa«m 
reaches the first row of the adversaiyB 
side, it may be made a queen, or any 
other piece the player chooses. 9. If a 

Digitized by 




ftlse moTe is made, and is not discovered 
until the next move is completed, it can- 
not be recalled 10. The king cannot be 
moved into check, nor within one square 
of the adveree king, nor can any player 
move a piece or pawn that leaves his king 
in check. 

Chtss Clvhs ; societies for the purpose 
ci playing chess, and assembling the best 
players of a place. They flourish most 
m France and England, but there are 
many in Germany. They often challenge 
each other, and tiie game is carried on by 

Chest (called, in anatomical language, 
the ^lorax] is the cavity of the body be- 
tween the neck and the belly. The ex- 
ternal parts of the thorax are the skin, the 
bfeasts, various muscles, and the bones 
which form the frame of the cavity. 
These are the sternum, running fix>m the 
neck down the middle of the breast, and 
the ribs, which are inserted in the spine, 
and arched towards the sternum, with 
which they are firmly coimected by means 
of a cartilage. The parts within the cav- 
ity of the thorax are the pleura and its 
productions, the lungs, heart, thymus 
gland, (esophagus, thoracic duct, arch of 
me aorta, part of the vena cava, the vena 
azysos, the eighth pair of nerves, and part 
of the great intercostal nerve. 

Chester (anciently Dem); a city of 
England, capital of Cheshire, on the Dee, 
about 20 miles from the Irish sea, 145 N. 
Bristol, 181 N. W. London ; Ion. 2° 59^ W. ; 
kt 53° 11' N. ; population, 19,949. It is a 
bishop's see. The city is square, and sur- 
rounded by a wall nearly two miles in cir- 
cumference. It contains a cathedral, nine 
parish churches, a Roman Catholic chapel, 
and eight places of worship for dissenters 
of different persuasions. The streets are 
hollovred out of a rock to the depth of one 
Btoiy beneath the level of the ground on 
each nde ; and the houses have a sort of 
covered portico running on fit)m house to 
house, and from street to street, level with 
the ground behind, but one stoiy above 
tfie street in front. The castle is a noble 
structure; the walls are evidently Nor- 
man. It has two yearly faira, the most 
considerable in the north of England, held 
on the 5th of July and 10th of Oct, each 
lasting 14 days. The manufactures are 
not extensive ; they consist chiefly of to- 
bacco, snufl*, shot, white lead, iron, tobac- 
eo pipes and leather. It sends two mem- 
bers to parliament 

CHESTERFiELn (Philip Dormcr Stan- 
hope), eari of^ a statesman, orator and au- 
thor, boni in London, in 1694, studied 

With great success at Cambridge. Ih 
1714, he made a tour through £int>pe| 
and acquired, pardculariy at Paris, that 
polished grace of mannera for which ha 
was disdnguished. On the accession of 
Geoige I, geneFBil Stanhope, his great un- 
cle, procuied him the place of gentleman 
of the bed-chamber to the prince of Wales; 
and the borough of St Germain's, in Corn- 
wall, elected him to parliament, though he 
had not yet attained the legal age. At 
the close of the first mondi of his mem- 
bership, he delivered a speech, in which 
he astonished the audience by the vijrar 
of his thoughts no less than by the ele- 
gance of his style, and the facility and 
grace of his delivery. He distinguished 
himself equally in tne house of lords, in 
which he took hia seat after his father's 
death. In 1728, he was appointed ambas- 
sador to Holland, and succeeded in deliv- 
ering Hanover from the calamities of a 
war, by which it was threatened. On his 
return, he was made knifht of the carter 
and lord steward of the househdd to 
George II. He was afterwards appoint- 
ed lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and, on his 
return, in 1746, received the place of sec- 
retary of state ; but he soon retired from 
public afiabrs, and devoted the remainder 
of his life to study and the society of his 
friends. His talents as an author are dis- 
played in several moral, critical and hu- 
morous essays, in his pariiamentaiy speech- 
es, which were printed at a later period, 
and particularly in a coUection of letters 
to his son, which are celebrated through- 
out Europe. To the charms of ifvit and 
grace he united good sense, a thorough 
knowled^ of the manners, customs and 
the political con(Ution of Europe, exten- 
sive information, a noble and unafllected 
elegance, and}'le that would do honor 
to the most experienced writer. All tliis. 
however, cannot excuse the cormpt mora! 
tone of his letters. One is shocked to hear 
a father recommending to his son grace 
of mannera as the most essential quality 
for a man of the world, and even instigat- 
ing him to licentious irregularities. It 
must be mentioned, however, in his ex- 
cuse, that the young man to whom these 
lettera were addr^sed (a natural son* 
whom he had adopted under the name of^ 
Stanhope), was remarkable for the awk- 
wardness of his manners, and that his &- 
ther, who set so hiph a value on elegance, 
hoped to inspire him vrith the same taste, 
by setting the subject in its strongest light 
His efforts, however, were not successfhL 
Towards the close of liis life, Chesterfield 
became deaf^ and suffered Scorn other 

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b^dShr iafinnities, which cast a gtoond 
over his last days. He was intimate with 
Pope, Swift, Bolingbroke, and other di&- 
tmguished scholan, and an acquaintance 
of doctor Johnson, who coUed him a wit 
among lords^ and a lord among wits, and 
said of his letters, that they taught the 
mcffals of a prostitute and the manners of 
a dancing-master. He died in 1773, at 
the age of 79. 

CHBSTinrr. The sweet chestnut (^c^puf 
eouianea) is a stately tree, and is distin- 
guished by having spear-shaped and point- 
ed leaves, with tapering serraturee at the 
edge. The flowers appear in long, hang- 
mg spikes, or clusters, about the month of 
May ; and the fitiit, which is ripe in Sep- 
teniher, is enveloped in a husk defended 
by a great number of complicated prickles. 
Notwithstanding the known durability of 
the oak, there does not appear any well 
authenticated instance of the age of an oak 
being equal to that of the celel^ted chest- 
nut-tree at Tortworth, in Gloucestershire, 
which was known as a boundaiy marie in 
the reign of king John. This tree is sup- 
posed to have been then more than 500 
years old, making its age at this time above 
J 100 years. The diameter of its trunk is 
15 feet, and it still continues to bear fruit 
Few forest trees are more beautiful than 
the chestnut It is true that the generali- 
ty of pointers prefer the oak for its pic- 
turesque form ; yet, in the landscapes of 
Salvator Rosa, and other celebrated mas- 
ters, chestnut-trees are veiy conspicuous. 
The timber of this tiee was formerly much 
in use. It is frequently used for the beams 
and rafleis of houses, and its appearance 
so neariy resembles that of the oak, that it 
re<}uires the eve of a good judge to distin- 
guish them from each other. For the 
heads and staves of casks, the wood of the 
chesmut is con«dered peculiarly excel- 
lent ; and pipes made of it for the convey- 
ancg of water under ground are said to 
be more durable than those made of either 
elm or oak. For furniture, it may be 
stained so as somewhat to resemble ma- 
hogany. Hop-poles and poles for espal- 
ierB, and dead fences, made of young 
chestnut-trees, are preferred to most oth- 
ers. In the U. States, it is chiefly used in 
the manu&cture of rails for fences. 

Chsstnot, Horse. (See Horse'Chat- 

Chetal, 1 (Dreneh)*, on hoiseback; 
astride any object In a military sense, a 
body of troops is said to be ^ eheval of a 
river, if one wing is stationed on the right 
and the other on the left bank. 

Chxtaux m Fbisx {Eriesland horses^ 

00 called because fint used at the siege 
of Groninsen, in that province, in 1656] ; 
an aimed beam of square timber or iron, 
used t9 defend the fronts of camps, breach- 
es, &.C. They are usually from 15 to 18 
feet long, and connected ^v chains, each 
being perforated with small holes, to re- 
ceive rods of wood or iron, pointed at 
their extremities, and, when moved in any 
direction, afifordmg a son of hedge of 

Cir^zT, Antoine Leonard ; bom at Paris, 
in 1773; professor of the Oriental lan- 
cuages, first professor of the Sanscrit 
language and literature in the college 
roycdy at Paris, the chair of which was 
esteblished for him by Louis XVIII ; and 
one of the conservatora of the royal or 
national libraiy. He has translated the 
poem Mgnun and Leila fix)m the Persian 
mto French, Sroni which A. Th. Hart- 
mann (Leipsic, 1607) translated it into 
German. In 1814, he publislied an epi- 
sode from the Sanscrit, entitled Death of 
YajuadaJtUu His wife is known in Ger- 
many, under the name of Hdminoj as a 
prose writer and a poetess. Her mother 
was a daughter of the welljknown Ger- 
man poetess, madame Karncliin. Helmina 
was bom in Berlin, Jan. 26, 1783, lived 
for a time with madame de Genlis in 
Paris, and resides in or near Vienna. She 
has written poetry, novels, tales, and an 
opera, Eurymithe, for Maria von Weber. 

Chiabrera, Gabriel ; a poet, bom at 
Savons, in the Grenoese tenitory, in 1553. 
Sound in mind and bodv, he Uved to a 
ffreat age, and died at Savona in 1036. 
His poetical genius developed itself late, 
and ne was considerably aavanced, when 
he began to study the poets attentivelv. 
He preferred the Greeks, and particularly 
Pindar, his admiration for whom inspired 
him with the desire of imitating him. 
Thus he created a manner and st^le 
which was altogether different from that 
of the other Italian lyric poets, and which 
procured him the surname of the Italian 
Pindar. Equally successful were his at- 
tempts to imitate Anacreon; his canzo- 
nets are as easy and elegant as Ms canzoni 
are sublime. He is, l^des, the author 
of several epic, dramatic, pastoral and 
other poems. His fame soon spread over 
all Italy. He visited Rome, and resided a 
considerable time at Florence and Genoa. 
Wherever he went, he was loaded with 
presents and honois. 

Chiaous, or Ohiaoux, is a French cor- 
ruption of the Turkish word eJuntsky or 
chamukj the title of the royal tnessengers 
or gentiemen-usheri in the court of the 

Digitized by 




grand cignor. Their office pertakes both 
of a civuand militaiy character, and they 
act as the heralds and messengers of the 
empire. * t 

CuiARAMONTi ; the family name of pope 
Pius VII. (q. V.) Like his predecessors, 
Clement XlV and Pius VI, from whom 
the miueum Pw-Clementinwn is called, 
he augmented the treasures of art in the 
Vatican. The museums established there 
by him and during his govenunent are 
called ajfler him ; but this name is partic- 
ularly applied to tliat collection of ancient 
statues and reliefs, which are placed in 
the hall adjoining the muHwn Pio-CU- 
nitiUinum, The selection and arrange- 
ment of these were conunitted to Canova. 
The description of this museum (& Museo 
Chiaramoim descriUo ed iUustraXo da Fi* 
lippo Aurdio Visconti e Gius* AnL Guat-' 
tani, &c^ Rome, 1818, 'fol.J forms a sup- 
plement to the work on the museo P%o- 
CUmmtinoy published by Giamb. and 
Ennio Quir. Visconti — The entrance into 
the museo Chiaramordij as well as into 
the libraiy of the Vatican, is by the museo 
(Chiaranwnii) deUU xnscrizioivi, the muse- 
um of Greek and Roman inscriptions, 
which are inserted in the walls of a long 
corridor — a collection which has not its 
equal in Europe. The pope caused it to 
be arranged by Gaet Marini. The en- 
trance to it is through the hffpe of tlie 
Vatican. There is also a Biblioteca Chi- 
aramonti, containing the whole library of 
cardinal Zelada, wmch has been added to 
the Vatican. 

Chiari, Pietro ; a prolific writer of 
comedies and novels; bom at Breficia, 
towards the beginning of the 18th ceutu- 
17. Ailer havmg completed his studies, 
he entered the order of Jesuits, but soon 
changed the monastic for the secular life, 
and, thus becoming free from all official 
duties, devoted himself solely to letters. 
He resided at Venice, with the title of 
poet to the duke of Modena, and, in the 
space of 10 or 12 years, brought more 
than 60 comedies on the stage. Chiari 
and Goldoni were rivals, but the public 
adjudged the palm to the latter. Cniari's 
dramas in verse fill 10 vols. ; those in prose, 
4. He is not destitute of invention nor 
of art in the management of his subjects, 
but his works are deficient in animation, 
vigor and hiunor. He died at Brescia, at 
a very advanced age, in 1787 or 1788. 

Chiaro scuro (an Italian phrase, mean- 
ing dear-obscure ; in French, dair-ohscur), 
in paintinff, is the art of judiciously dis- 
tributing me hghts and shadovra in a pic- 
ture* A composition, however perfect in 

other reepects, becomes a {ncture ooljr hf 
means of the diiaro scuro, which gives 
fidthfiilness to the representation, and 
therefore is of the highest importance for 
the painter ; at the same time, it is one of 
the most difficult branches of an artist's 
study, because of the want of precise 
rules for its execution. Eveiy art has a 
point where rules fail, and genius only can 
direct This point, in the art of paintings 
is the chiaro scuro. The drawing of a 
piece may be perfectly correct, the color- 
uig may be brilliant and true, and vet tlie 
whole picture remain cold and hardL 
This we find often the case with the an- 
cient painters before Raphael ; and it is 
one of the great merits of this subUme 
artist, that he left his masters far behind 
liim in cidaro scuro, though he is consid- 
ered not so perfect in this branch as Cor- 
reggio and Titian, who were inferior to 
liim in many other respects. The mode 
in which the light and shade are distrib- 
uted on any single object is easily showa 
by lines supposed to be dravm nom the 
source of the light which is shed over the 
figure ; but chiaro scuro comprehends, be- 
sides this, a<{rial perspective, and the pro- 
portional force 01 colors, by which objects 
are made to advance or recede from the 
eye, produce a mutual efiect, and fonn a 
united and l)eautiful whole* Chiaro scuro 
requires great deUcacy of conception and 
skill of execution ; and excellence in this 
bronch of ait is to be attained only by the 
study of nature and of the best masters. — 
Chiaro scuro is also understood in an- 
other sense, paintings in chiaro scuro 
being such as are painted in light and 
shade and reflexes omy, without any other' 
color than the local one of the object, as 
representations of sculpture in stone or 
marble. There are some fine pieces of 
this sort in the Vatican at Rome, by Poli- 
doro da Caravoggio, and on the walls of 
the staircase of the royal academy of lin- 
den, by Cipriani and Rigaud. 

Chicken, Mother Caret's. (See Pe- 

Chihuahua; a state or province of 
Mexico, bounded £. b]^ Coaghuila, S. by 
Durango, and W. by Cinaloa and Sonora 
It is an elevated district, and suffers for 
want of water. 

Chihuahua; a town of Mexico, and 
capital of the province of the same name» 
on a small branch of the Conchos ; 180 
miles N. W. of Mexico ; Ion. 104° SC W, ; 
lat. 28° 50^ N. ; population, 11,600. It is 
surrounded by nch silver mines. 

Chilblains are painful inflammatory 
swellings, of a deep purple or leaden color 

Digitized by 




to which the fingers, toes, heels and other 
eztieine parts of the body are subject, on 
being exposed to a severe degree of cold. 
The pain is not constant, but radier pun- 
gent and shooting at particular times, and 
an insupportable itching attends it In 
some instances, the skin remains entire ; but 
in others, it bieaks, and discharges a thin 
fluid. When the degree of cold has been 
veiY great, or the application long contin- 
ued, ue parts affected are apt to morti^, 
and slough of^ leaving a foul, ill-condi- 
tioned uker behind. Children and old 
people are more apt to be troubled with 
chilblains than persons of middle age ; and 
such as are of a scrofulous habit are re- 
maiked to suffer severely fiom them. 

Childermas Bat; a festival cele- 
brated by the church on the 28th of Dec.^ 
in commemoration of the massacre of the 
lonocentB. Boiume, in his .^niiquitatea 
VuIgartSf mentions a popular superstition, 
that ^'it is very unlucky to begin any 
woik upon Childermas day." Revels, 
however, were held on this dav. 

Chile ; a coimtiy of South America, 
bounded N. by Buenos Ayres, E. by 
Buenos Ayres iad Patagonia, from which 
it is separated by the Andes, S. by Pata- 
gonia, and W. by the Pacific ocean ; lorn 
69° to 74^ W.; lat 24P to 45° S.; about 
1400 miles long, and fix>m 100 to 200 
broad ; square miles about 200,000. Pop- 
ulation stated, in 1806, at 720,000; by 
Mahe-Brun, in 1820, and a Spanish jour- 
nal, at 900,000. Another statement, said 
to be founded on a census, makes it 
1,200,000, excluuve of independent In- 
dians. It is divided into two mtendencies, 
Sl Jago and Conception, which are sub* 
divided into 13 provinces, viz. Copiapo, 
Coquimbo, Quillota, Aconcagua, Melippa, 
St. Jago, Rancagua, Colchagua, Maule, 
Itata, ChiUan, Puchacay and Huilquilemu. 
The islands are Coquimbanes, MugiUan, 
Tortoral, Pajaro, Masapiero, Juan Feman- 
des. Mocha, and the archipelago of Chi- 
loe. The chief towns are Santiago or St. 
Jago (the capital), Conception, Valparaiso, 
"Vudivia, Chilian, Coquimbo, St Fernando 
and Petorca. The rivers are numerous, 
but small, and have generally rapid cur- 
rents. Some of the principal ones are the 
Maide, Biobio, Cauten, Tolten, Yaldivia, 
Chaivin, Bueno and Sinfondo. Chile pre- 
sents a plain, gradually rising in elevation 
as it recedes fiiom the coast and ap- 
proaches the Andes. From this sk>ping 
conformation, it is fertilized and beautifiea 
by numerous rivers flowing fit>m the An^ 
des; and of these, 53 communicate di- 
rectly with the Pacific ocean. The coun- 

try, intercepted between the foot of the 
Andes and the Pacific ocean, is divided 
into two equal parts, the maritime and 
midland. The maritime part is intercept- 
ed by three ridges of mountains, running 
parallel with the Andes, between which 
are numerous well-watered vallevs. The 
midland coimtiy is generally level, of great 
fertility, and enjoying a delightfiil climate. 
The great chmn of the Andes traverses 
the country fi!om north to south, and 
presents a number of sumnuts, tiie height 
of which has been estimated at upwards 
of 20,000 feet Among the Chilean Andes 
there are said to be 14 volcanoes in a state 
of constant eruption, and a still greater 
number that discharge smoke at intervals 
Chile abounds with vegetable, animal and 
mineral productions. Maize, rye, barley, 
pulse, wine, oil, sugar, cotton, and fruits 
of various kinds, are cultivated. It has 
luxuriant pastures, which feed numerous 
herds of cattie. It is rich in mines of 
gold, silver, copper, tin and iron. All tho 
metals are fbuna ; also a variety of earths 
and precious stones. It is fiiee fix)m dan- 
gerous or venomous animals, which are 
so much dreaded in hot countries, and 
has but one species of small serpent, and 
that perfectiy harmless. The climate is 
remarkably salubrious, and the weather 
generally serene. In the northern prov- 
inces, it rarely rains, in some parts never, 
but dews are abundant; in the central 
part, rain often continues 3 or 4 days in 
succession, followed by 15 or 20 days of 
fidr weather; in the southern provmces, 
rains are much more abundant, and often 
continue 9 or 10 days without cessation. 
The rainy season commences in April, 
and contmues through August. Snow 
&ll8 abundantly on the Andes, but is never 
seen on the coast. Earthquakes are com- 
mon. Chile was formerly a colony of 
Spain, but, in 1810, the people took the 
government into their own hands, and, in 
1818, made a declaration of absolute inde- 
pendence, which has been hitherto unin- 
terrupted, and recently acknowledged by 
Pormgal. The supreme authority was 
administered by an elective maffistrete, 
called the . supreme dvredor, until May, 
1827, when a president was substituted^ 
in imitation of the government of the U. 
States. The Roman Catholic is the es^ 
tablished religion of Chile, and the church 
is veiy rich. There are said to be about 
10,000 monks and nuns in this country, 
and the religious institutions with which 
they are connected hold nearly one third 
of the landed property of the country* 
The army, in 1816, was stated at 8400 

Digitized by 




regular troops ; the miUtia at 38,960 men, 
and the revenue at $2,177,967. The part 
of Chile lying south of the river Biobio, 
in lat 36^ 44^ S., is inhabited chiefly 
by Indians. The Araueanians, a cele* 
brated and warlike tribe, inhabit the re- 
ffion luring between the rivers Biobio and 
Valdivia. They are enthusiastically at- 
tached to liberty, and have never been sub- 
dued. — Of the histoiy of Chile, previous to 
the middle of the 15th centu^, nothing 
more is known than what may be derived 
from the vague traditions of the natives* 
In 1535, the Spaniards first visited it 
They were, at first, received W the Chi- 
leans with the utmost respect ; but a cruel 
massacre of some of their chief men, bv 
order of Alma^, the Spanish general, 
produced oj^posite feelings ; and Aunagro, 
advancing into the country of the Pro- 
mancians, was defeated with loss, when 
the Spaniards, disgusted with their gen- 
eral, and with the state of afiairs, returned 
to Peru, where they arrived in 15^ 
Two years afterwards, Pizarro despatched 
Pedro de Valdivia, with 200 Spaniards 
and a numerous body of Peruvians, to 
Chile, for the purpose of settling such 
districts as he should conquer. Valdivia 
succeeded in overcoming the resistance 
of the natives, and founded the city of 
Santiago, Feb. 24, 1541. Hostilities widi 
the natives ensued, till Valdivia, having 
settled his power in the northern prov- 
inces of Chile, turned his arms against the 
soutliem portion of the country. In 1550, 
he founded the city of Conception, and 
was soon afterwards attacked by the Arau- 
eanians, with whom he fouffht several 
battles, and vras finally defeated and taken 
prisoner, Dec. 3, 1553. Many battles were 
subsequently fought between the Span- 
iards and this tribe of Indians, which, 
though they generally terminated in favor 
of the former, were destructive to them, 
and impeded the progress of the setde- 
ments. In 1598, a general insurrection 
of the Araueanians took place ; and, with 
the assistance of their allies, they put to 
death every Spaniard whom they found 
outside of the forts. Vilianca, Valdivia, 
Imperial, and several other towns, were 
attacked and taken, and Conception and 
ChiUar were burnt To add to the misfor- 
tunes of the Spaniards, the Dutch landed 
on the Chiloe islands, plundered Chiloe, 
and put the Spanish |;ainson to the sword. 
Hostilities were contmued for many years 
without any extraordinary result £acb 
party seemed obstinate in its determina- 
tion, and each committed cruelties and 
outrages, with which the history of South 

America is unhappily too fkmiliar. At 
length, in 1641, preuminaries of peace 
were finally settled between the marquis 
of Baydes, then governor of Chile, and 
the Aituicaniana By the terms of the 
trea^, the two nations agreed to suspend 
hostilities, and the Araueanians enga^d 
to prevent any foreign power fit)m landing 
on their territories. Two years after- 
wards, the Dutch made an attempt to set- 
de a colony at Valdivia ; but, hearing diat 
an army of Spaniards and Araueanians 
were marching against them, they evac- 
uated Chile. The peace between the 
Spaniards and Araueanians lasted until 
lo55, when hosdlities again broke out 
with their former fury, and continued for 
10 years with various success. At the 
end of this period, a fbnnal treaty was 
made. This peace was more lasting than 
the former, and, until the bennning of the 
18th century, the history of Chile presents 
little deserving of record. Though tran- 
quil for so long a time, the spirit of the 
Araueanians was not brokeii, nor was 
their aversion to the Spaniattfa abated. 
In 1722, a general conspiracy was formed 
by the nations from the borders of Peru 
to the river Biobio. At a fixed moment, 
when the watch-fires were to blaze on the 
mountains, the Indians were to rise against 
the whites, and release the country fivm 
their yoke. The design, however, mis- 
carried : only the Araueanians took up 
arms ; and, after a short contest, peace was 
again concluded. In 1742, don Josef 
Manto, then governor, collected the colo- 
nists into towns, divided the country into 
provinces, and funded several new cities. 
In 1770, an attempt of don Antonio Gon- 
zago to compel the Araueanians to adopt 
habits of industry, and to associate in 
towns, was the cause of a new war. At 
length, peace was restored, one condition 
of which was that the Araueanians should 
keep a resident minister at Santiago— « 
stipulation which proves their power and 
importance. Chile appears to have en- 
joyed tranquillity during the remainder of 
the 18th century, and, Ming relieved fit>m 
the liostility of the Araueanians, agricul- 
ture and commerce, which had been 
greatly neglected, soon revived. The oc- 
cupation of Spain by the French troops, 
in 1809, caused a revolutionary movement 
in Chile, as well as in other parts of Span- 
ish America. July 10, 1810, the president 
Cairasco was deposed by the native in- 
habitants, and a junta of government was 
finrmed, under the pretext of holding the 
country fbr Ferdinand, but widi the secret 
intention of ultimately proclaiming inde- 

Digitized by 




pendeiiee. At this period, the most active 
and influential persona were the three 
CarreiBa, Rodriguez and O'Higgina, the 
government being, in realitv, ezerciaed by 
me Caneras. In 1814, Chile waa invaded 
by a royalist aimy fixnn Peru, under the 
command of general Osorio ; and the de- 
feat of the {wtriotB at Rancagua, Oct 1, 
1814, compelled the leading individuals 
to cjnofiB the Andes, and seek refuge in 
Buenos Ayres, leavinf^ their countiy in 
poeaession of the Spaniards. In 181 7, the 
patriots obtained succors from Buenos 
Ayres, commanded by general San Mar- 
tin, and reentered Chue at the head of a 
powerful bodv of troops, which defeated 
the SpeniaroB at Chacabuco, Feb. 12, 
1817, and again at Maypu, April 5, 1817, 
and thus permanently secured the inde- 
pendt'Aice of the country. By the in* 
tiiffues of San Martin, the three Carreras 
and their firiend Rodriguez, the best men 
in Chile, were shamefully murdered, and 
his &vorite, don Bernardo Olliggins, was 
placed at tibe head of the government, 
with the tide of sv^preme director. Mean- 
while, San Martin, witii the liberating 
anny, and aiiled by a Chilean fleet under 
kurd Cochrane, invaded Peru in return, 
ond gave it a temporaiy indefiendtoce. 
OHiggins continued to administer the 
government until Jan. 23, 1823^ when he 
was compelled to resign the supreme au- 
diority, owing chiefly to the dissatis&ction 
of the people with his financial measures. 
He was succeeded by general Ramon 
Frdre, the latter being appointed supreme 
director. In January, 1826, the archipel- 
ago of Chiloe, which bad remained to 
thiat time in the hands of the Spaniards, 
surrendered to the government of Chile. 
But disturbances have existed among the 
Araucanians, on the southern frontier, 
down to the present time, occasioning 
more or lesB inconvenience to the Chile- 
ans. In other respects, Chile has been 
wholly unmolested by foreign enemies, 
unless an attempt of the exile O'Higgins 
upon Chiloe, in 1826, can be considered 
such. But die unsettled state of the gov- 
ernment, and the maladministnition of its 
afl&irs^ have impeded the prosperity of the 
countrjr^— In July, 1826, the director Freire 
resigned his omce, and admiral Manuel 
Bianco was appointed in his place. In 
May, 1827, the Ibrm of the government 
was changed, and, Blanco having resigned, 
Freire was again called to the head of af* 
fiuis as president, but refused to be quali- 
fied; and the administration of the gov- 
ernment devolved upon don Francisco A. 
Pinto^ the vice-president Three attempts 

have been made to efiect a eofid organi- 
zation of the government by means of a 
permanent constitution. One constituent 
oonmas assembled in 1823, another in 
1824, and a third in 1826 ; but neither of 
them accomplished the object of their 
meeting, and the country is agitated still 
between the advocates of a central and of 
a federal constitution. (Stevenson's South 
•^m.,voLiii. ; ,^mer,An.Meg.,yo\. i. and ii.| 
Chillicothe ; a post-town and capital 
of Ross county, Ohio, on the west bank 
of the Scioto, 45 miles in a right line, and 
70 according to the windings, from its 
mouth ; 42 miles S. Columbus ; 93 E. by N. 
Cincinnati ; lon..82° 57' W. ; lat. 39^ IS' N. ; 
population, 24^ It is pleasantly situ- 
ated on the borders of an elevated, exten- 
sive and fertile plain, regularly laid out, 
the streets crossmg each other at right 
anises, and is a flourishing town. It con- 
tains a court-house, a jail, a maritet-house, 

3 houses of public worship, a rope-walk, 

4 cotton manufactories, and a steam mill 
In the vicinity of the town there are many 
valuable mills. 

Chillinoworth, William ; an eminent 
divine and writer on controversial theolo- 
gy. He was bom at Oxford, in 1602, and 
received his education at Trini^ college, 
in the university of that ci^. lie did not 
confine his academical studies to divinity, 
but also distinguished himself as a mathe- 
matician, and cultivated poetry. Meta- 
physics and religious casuistry, however, 
appear to have ^ea his favorite pursuits ; 
and lord Clarendon, who was particularly 
intimate with him, celebrates his rare tal- 
ents as a disputant^ and says he had '^ con- 
tracted such an irresolution and habit of 
doubting, that, by degrees, he grew confi- 
dent of nothing.^ This sceptical disposi- 
tion laid him open to the arguments of a 
Jesuit, who persuaded him that the church 
of Rome, in establishing the authority of 
the pope as an infallible judge, afforded 
the only means for ascertaining the true 
rahgion. He was convinced by this rea- 
soning, and converted, but subseouently 
came to the conclusion that he haa acted 
erroneously, and wrote several pieces to 
iustify his second conversion, especially 
The Kel]gk>n of Protestants a safe Way 
to Salvation, first published in 1637. Some 
scniples of conscience, relative to signing 
the thirdr-nine articles, prevented him, for 
a time, m>m obtaining church preferment 
His scruples, however, were so far over- 
come, that he made the subscription in the 
usual form, and was promoted to the 
chanceUoi^ip of Salisbury, with the j ire- 
bead of BiixworA annexed, in July, 1(1138, 

Digitized by 




Onthe'ciyil war taking place, Cfaillmg* 
worth joined the king's party, and em- 
ployed his pen in a treatise Of the Unlaw- 
luhiess of resisting the lawful Prince, al- 
though most impious, tyrannical and idol- 
atrous. This tract was not, however, 
committed to the press. He did not con- 
fine himself to hteraiy efforts in support 
of the royal cause, having, at the sie^ of 
Gloucester, in 1643, ac^ as engineer. 
His classical reading suggested to him an 
imitation of some Roman machine for the 
attack of fortified places; but the ap- 
proach of the parliamentary army pre- 
vented the trial of it against the walls of 
Gloucester. Not long after, he retired to 
Arundel castle, m an ill state of health, 
and Was made a prisoner on the surrender 
of that fortress to sir William Waller. 
Beinff removed, at his own request, to 
Chichester, he died in the episcopal pal- 
ace, in January, 1644. Chillinffworth 
published sermons and other theological 
works, of which the best edition is that of 
doctor Birch, 1742, folio. 

Chiloe; a considerable island in the 
south Pacific ocean, on the coast of Chile ; 
Ion. 7^ 45^ W.; laL 43° S.; 140 miles 
long, and 60, where widest, broad. It 
produces most of the necessaries of life ; 
and much ambergris is found here. The 
cedar-trees grow to an amazing size. 
There are many small islands east of Chi- 
loe, in a narrow sea, called the archipda- 
ro of CkUoty which separates the idand 
m>m the continent Population of the 
whole, 26,000. Chief town, San Carlos. 
There are 47 islands in the archipelago 
of Chiloe, 32 of them inhabited. 

Chiltern Hills ; a range of chalkv 
hills, in England, in the county of Cb^ford, 
once covered with woods, supposed to 
have been, at one time, a royal forest. 
There still remains a nominal office, called 
the stewardship of the Chiltern hundreds^ in 
the gifl of the crown. By the acceptance 
of this, a member of the house of^ com- 
mons vacates his seat in parliament It 
is, therefore, generally conferred on such 
members as wish to resign theur seats. 

Chimjira. (See Chimera,) 

Chimay, Theresa, princess of ; the di- 
vorced wife of TalUen. This lady, cele- 
brated for her adventures, is die daughter 
of count Cabarrus (q. \,\ and a lady of 
Saragossa named Galabert Endowed 
by namre with rare beauty and an ardent 
temperament, she early save herself up 
to her inclinations, and bad an intrigue 
with prince Ustenay, who was on his 
way from Paris to Madrid, to marry the 
daughter of the duke of Lavauguyoni 

French ambassador at the Spanish court; 
Her family, however, favored the suit of 
M. de Fontenay. Theresa married him, 
and followed her husband to Paris, where 
they arrived a short time before the break- 
ing out of the revolution. She embraced 
its principles with the greatest zeal, cuM* 
vated the fiiendship of the most distin- 
guished members of the constimeut as- 
sembly, and made her house the centre 
of the most splendid society. Her union 
with M. de Fontenay not being a happy 
one, she had recourse to the new law of 
divorce and, in 1793, her marriage was 
dissolved, and M. de Fontenay became 
an emigrant She now became the pa- 
troness of all societies devoted to litera- 
ture or art, and took a particular interest 
in the lectures (covrs de litUrabxrt) of 
La Harpe, which were delivered in the 
Lyceum, and were frequented by the 
most elegant society of Paris. After the 
3l8t of May, when the reign of teiror be- 
came so appalling in the capital, Theresa 
retired to Bordeaux, where she met Tal« 
lien, a member of the convention, whom 
she had formerly sliehtiy known as a 
clerk in the office of Alexander Lameth, 
chairman {rappofrUvar) of the military com- 
mitt^ m the constituent assembly. Tal- 
Uen was on a mission at Bordeaux, exe- 
cuting the bloody decrees of the national 
convention. He conceived an affection 
for raadame de Fontenay, who was not 
less amiable than beautiful, and they soon 
formed the tenderest connexion. She 
seems to have jrielded to Taltien's wishes 
only on condition that he would use his 
influence to avert from the city of Bor- 
deaux the cruel fate of Lyons and Nantes, 
Yih^veJusUladts and noyocfe^were the or- 
der of^the day. It was soon perceived 
bv the committee of public safety, that 
Tallien was no longer sufficientiy zealous 
in his revolutionary princi{des: he was 
therefore recalled to Paris to defend him- 
self against the charges which had been 
brouffht against him. Theresa was ar- 
restee, and likewise carried to Paris, to 
appear before the revoluti<Miary tribunal. 
The 9th Thermidor ^th of July, 1794) 
was near at hand: Danton's blood was 
yet steaming. Robespierre intended a 
new act of violence. The adherents of 
his enemy, that tribune, formeriy so terri- 
ble, but now crushed, were to be destroy-* 
ed with one blow. At dieir head stood 
Tallien. Theresa was destined to follow 
him to the guillotine. But the secret of 
the tyrant was betrayed. Love inspired 
Tallien with eneray, and the 9th of Ther- 
midor delivered France from Robespienei 

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.A few daT&aftemrardfl, Tallien and The- 
resa connnned their union before the 
altar. She had the most beneficent influ- 
ence upon her husband's public life, and 
all her effi>rt8 were exerted to assist the 
imfbrtunate and the sufferers by the revo- 
lution. By her political influence, and 
b^ hear beauty, which was then in the 
highest bloom, she again attracted the 
eyes of all Pans, and, wherever she ap- 
peared in public, was received with accla- 
mations. Theresaand Josephine de Beau- 
hamais, afterwards empress of France, 
were the principal ornaments of the splen- 
did circle which Bairas had assembled 
around him. Gratitude to her husband 
did not, however, prevent her from enter- 
ing into other passmff connexions, as taste 
or caprice prompted. Tallien followed 
Bonaparte to Egypt, and was soon for- 
gotten. On her application, she was for- 
mally divorced, but a fliendly intercourse 
always subsisted between her and Tallien. 
Napoleon, who, before his connexion with 
Jfosephine, had shown much attention to 
madame Tallien, broke off all intercourse 
with her when first-consul and emperor, 
and could never be induced to grant her 
admission to court. She was thus thrown 
into the opposition, and led to her con- 
nexion with madame de Stael and her 
durd husband, count Francois Caraman, 
whom she married in 1805^ and who af- 
terwards, in consequence of inheriting an 
estate, assumed the tide of pnnee of Ckir 
moy. Four children are the o&pring of 
this marriage. She lives, at present, in 
Paris, or on the estate of her husband. 

Chimboraso ; a mountain of Colombia, 
in the province of Quito, about 100 miles 
S. by W. Quito ; lat about 2° S. It is 
the most elevated summit of the Andes, 
rising to the height of 21,440 feet above 
the level of the sea, and covered with per- 
petual snow 2600 feet from the summit 
and upwards. It presents a magnificent 

r^tacle when seen from the shores of 
Pacific ocean afler the long rains of 
winter, when the tranmrarenc^ of the 
an* is suddenly increased, and its enor- 
mous circular summit is seen projected 
upon the deep azure-blue of the equato- 
rial sky. The great rarity of the air, 
through which the tops of the Andes are 
seen, adds very much to the splendor of 
the snow, and aids the magical efifect^of 
its reflection. This mountain was ascend- 
ed, in 1808, by Humboldt and Bonpland, 
who reached to withm 2140 feet of the 
summit, being, by barometrical measure- 
ment, 19,300 feet above the level of the 
greater elevation than ever was 

before attained by man. Their further 
ascent was preveirted by a chasm 500 
feet wide. The air was intensely cold 
and piercing, and, owing to its extreme 
rarity, blood oozed from their lips, eyes 
and gums, and respiration was diflicult. 
One of the party fomted, and all of them 
feft extreme weakness. Condamine as- 
cended, in 1745, to the hei^t of 1 5,81 5 feet. 

Chimera ; a fabulous monster, breath- 
ing flames, with the head of a lion, the 
body of a goat, and the tail of a dragon, 
which laid waste the fields of Lycia, and 
was at last destroyed by Bellerophon. 
(See JUpponous,) Her form is described 
by the poets as an unnatural mixture of 
the most incongnious parts. Therefore 
the name of chimera is used for a nonde- 
script, an unnatural production of fancy. 
According to some, uhimcra was a volca- 
no in Lycia, around the top of which 
dwelt Ijons, around the middle goats, and 
at the foot poisonous serpents. Bellero- 
phon is said to have been the first who 
rendered this mountain habitable. 

Chimes, in horology, is a species of 
music, mechanically produced by the 
strokes of hanuners against a series of 
beUs, tuned agreeably to a ^ven scale in 
music. The hammers are lifted by lev- 
ers, acted upon by metallic pins, or wood- 
en pegs, stuck into a large ban^l, which 
is made to revolve by clock- worit, and is 
BO connected with tlie striking part of the 
clock-mechanism, tliat it is set in motion 
by it at certain intervals of time, usually 
every hour, or every quarter of an hour. 
The music thus produced may consist of 
a direct succession of tlie notes constitut- 
ing an octave, frequently repeated, or oth- 
erwise may be a psalm-tune, or short 
popular air in the key to which the bells 
are tuned. This species of mechanical 
music most probably had its origin, like 
clock-work itself, in some of the monastic 
inetimtions of Germany, in the middle 
ages. The first apparatus for producing 
it, is said to have been made at Alost, in 
the Netherlands, in 1487. The chime 
mechanism may be adapted to act with 
the large bells of a chtuch steeple, by 
means of wheel-work strong enough to 
raise heavy hammers ; or a set of beUs, of 
different diameters, may be arranged con- 
centrically withui one another on one 
conunon axis, sufiliciently small to be' in- 
troduced into the frame of a clock, or 
even of a watch. The chime mechan- 
ism is sometimes so constructed, that it 
ma^r be played like a piano, but with the 
fist instead of the fingers This is cover- 
ed with leather, that the blow on ^e key 

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may be amdied more foidibly. Difficult 
aa the penormance is, some players can 
execute compositions consist] og of three 
parts, and even produce trills and arp^ 
gios. Bumey relates that the chino^ 
player Scheppen, at Louvain, laid a wacer 
with an able performer on the yiolin, that 
he would execute a difficult solo for the 
violin with the bells, and won his wager. 
Pottheff, organist and chime-player at 
Amsterdam, became blind in his 7th year, 
and received the abovenamed appoint- 
ment in his 3l8t year ; and, although ev- 
eiy key in his apparatus required a farce 
eaual to a two-poimd weight, yet he play- 
ed his bells with the facility of a perform- 
er on the piano-forte. Bumey heard him 
perform some fugues in 1772. 

Chimney. How far the Greek and 
Roman architects were acquainted with 
the construction of chimneys, is a matter 
of dispute. No traces of such works 
have been discovered in the houses of 
Pompeii, and Vitruvius gives no rules for 
erecting them. The firat certain notice 
of chimneys, as we now build them, is 
believed to be that contained in an in- 
scription at Venice, over the principal 
gate of the Scuola Grande di Sla. Maria 
delta Carilh, which states that, in 1347, a 

rLt many chimneys were thrown down 
an earthquake. Chimneys require 
much attention, to make them secure and 
prevent theur smoking, so great an annoy- 
ance to domestic comforL It seems, at 
present, to be acknowledged, that it is 
much better to exclude the cold, damp air 
finom the flues, by narrowing the aperture 
at the top, than to give a larger vent to 
the smoKe, at the risk of admitting a 

Quantity of air to rush down the flue, 
'or this reason, chimney-pots are of great 
use. In Prussia, where the arciutecm- 
nd police (Baupolixei) is strict, great at- 
tention is paid to the erection of chim- 
Qe3r8, and to the regular sweeping of 
them, the chimney-sweepers bein^ bound 
to sweep the' chimneys of a certam num- 
ber of streets within a regular time ; and, 
though the interference of a police in 
subjects of domestic economy is a delicate 
matter, the numerous flres which take 
place in the U. States, from the careless 
construction of chinmeys, seem to make 
■ome public supervision of theur security 
denrable. The longer a chimney is, the 
BBore perfect is its draught, because the 
tendency of the smoke to draw upwards 
if in proportion to the different weight 
of the column of air included in a chun- 
ney and an equal column of extetnai air. 
Short chimneys are habie to souoke, a^ 

flre-pleces in upper stories are, therefore, 
mora apt to smoke than those in the lower 
ones. Two flues in the same chimney 
should not oonununicate- with each other 
short of the top. Some chimneys, ia 
large establishments in London, are very 
remarkable for their size. 

Chibikbts WEEPERS aie, in all countries^ 
in a state deserving great pity. Their 
condition in London has led to the estab- 
lishment of a Sociefy for nqferseding the 
necessity of dimbing-boys, by encouraging 
a new mUhod of sweeping cfdmneysj amL 
for improving me condition ofdvUdren and 
others employed by chimnafsweq>ers. The 
subject has, likewise, occupied the atten- 
tion of pariiament, and due investigation 
has shown that there are few chimneys 
which cannot be swept as well by a ma« 
chine as by boys. Most of the particulani 
relative to the evils of this trade (one of 
which is the incurably cancerous aiseasea 
to which the boys are very generally sub* 
ject), and the facility with which a sub- 
sdtute may be provided for it, may be 
found in me Chimneysweeper's Fnend» 
or Climbing-Boy's Albmn, by James 
Montgomery. In France, the little chim* 
neysweepers are generally Savoyards. 

Chihu ; the name of some highly sin- 
gular and extremely interesting ruins near 
tne town of Mansiche, in Peru, which are 
supposed to be the Mist remains of an 
ancient city. Humboldt visited them dor 
ing his travels in Peru, and went into the 
interior of the famous Gnaca de TWledo 
(buryinff-pl&ce, or tumiulusy of Toledo), the 
tomb of a Peruvian prince, in which Gar* 
ci Gutierez de Toledo discovered, on 
digging a {^eiy, in 1576, massive gold 
amounting m value to more than a auarter 
of a million steriing, as is proved oy the 
books of accounts, preserved at the may- 
or's office in Tnudllo. 

China. The Chinese empire, includ- 
ing the tributary states, and those under 
its protection, consists of about 5,350,000 
square miles, with 342,000,000 inhabitants. 
China Proper, ^the centre of the work!,'' 
contains 1,296,000 square miles (lat 18^ 
37'— 4P 3y N.), vrith 146,280,000 inhab- 
itants, of whom ^000,000 live on the wa- 
ter. Among the inhabitants are 31,000 
sailors, 62^000 foot-soldiers, 410,000 
horse, 7552 military and 9611 civil officers. 
—Subject to China are Mantcfaou (726,800 
square miles! Mongolia (1,935,910 square 
miles), and Touifan (578,275 flqnare miles). 
Under her protection are Tiiibet, Boo- 
tan, Corea, Loo-Choo, containing together 
726^202 square miles. The Portuguese 
navigators who followed Vaaco da Gamtt 

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were the fast from whom the Europeaiui 
obtained tolerably correct ideas of the 
aituatioii, extent and character of this 
coimtiy. Since that time, our knowledge 
of China has been derived from several 
ambassadors, who saw the court and the 
roads, from merchants who had inhab- 
ited the suburbs of one seaport (Canton)^ 
and from numerous missionaries, who re- 
late what they have seen, but ^nerally 
with little discrimination. Much mforma- 
tion Is to be hoped from the Canton Reg- 
ister, a paper which is published twice a 
moiUh m Canton.* The emperors of the 
Mantchou dynasty, erroneously called 
TarUars^ have extended their conquests 
over the greatest part of the country for- 
merly cafied Indq>endmt Tarianf, the in- 
habitants of which are, however, not 
Tartars, but mosdy Calmucks and Mon- 
gols. The Russians advanced, at the 
same time, into Siberia. Russia and Chi- 
na have thus come into contact, on a line 
extending from lake Palcati to the mouth 
of the river Amour. This extensive 
frontier is principally formed by the Al- 
taian, Sayanian and Daourian mountains. 
In Daouria, however, the Russians have 
extended their possessions beyond the 
last-namea mountains to the banks of 
the river Amour. Lake Palcati, the Alak 
mountains, and the Beloor mountains, 
divide the Chinese empire, on the west, 
from the KircuiBes, Usbecks, and other 
independent Tartar tribes. While the 
Chinese dominions extend to the confines 
of Asiatic Russia on the north and north- 
west, on the west and south-west the^ 
extend over the immense regions of Thi- 
bet, and almost reach the English territo- 
ries in Bengal On this nde, China is 
divided from India by the small countries 
of Sirinagur, Nepaul, and others, and by 
the Garrow mountains. Farther to the 
east, the Burman empire bounds on the 
Chinese province of Yuu-nan. In the 
south, the empire of Anam and the prov- 
inces of Laos and Tonquin touch its bor- 
ders. The Eastern ocean, with the gulf 
of Corea, washes the coasts of China for 
an extent of 3600 miles, frtxn the Ton- 
quinese frontier to the mouth of the river 
Amour. To the south are the Chinese 
and Yellow seas, and the gulf of Ton- 
auin. The channel of Formosa separates 
the island of that name from the conti- 
nent The Blue and Yellow seas flow, 

• A mnseum, to be callnd Ttie BHtUh Mmemn 
^Onma. it is stated in the Canton Register, is 
MNit to be established amon^ the British residents 
that city. Perhaps this institution, also, will 
vootribute lo enkiiipe tmr knowledgie of China. 

the former betweoi China end the islands 
of Loo-Choo and Japan, the latter be- 
tween China and Corea. The sea of 
Japan extends from Corea to the river 
Amour: at the extreme point, it goes un- 
der the name of the chaamd qf Tartary, — 
China Proper is bounded on the east by 
the Eastern ocean ; on the north, by the 
immense wall of Mongolia and Manchoo- 
ria, which has been bmlt more than 2000 
Teais, and is 1500 miles in length, 30 feet 
high, and 15 feet thick on the top. To the 
west, political limits are prescribed to the 
wanderings of the Calmucks or Eleuthes 
of Hoho-Nor and of the Sifans. To the 
south, the boundaries of the Chinese em- 
puxs and China Proper are the same. 
China Proper contains 1572 towns, the 
principal of which are Pekin, Canton, and 
JNankin (q. v.) ; 1193 fortresses, 2796 tem- 
ples, 2606 convents, 32 imperial palaces, 
&c. It is divided into 15 provinces. 
Two chains of mountains extend through 
the coimtry ; the one in the south-east, the 
other m the north-west. The fonner ex- 
tends between the provinces Quang-s, 
Quang-tong, and Fo-Kien, on the south, 
and the provinces Hoo-Quang and Kian^- 
si on the north. Its original course is 
from west to east, but, aner reaching the 
limits of Fo-Kien, it turns to the north- 
east The principal chain ,is difficult of 
access, particularly in the provinces of 
Koeit-Cheou and Quang-si, owin^ to the 
savage tribes by which it is inhabited. 
Travellers have only examined the littie 
mountain Meiling, which rises 3000 feet 
above lake Po-yang. The heights to the 
north-west are rather a succession of ter- 
races than regular chains of mountains. 
The province of Shan-si is full of moun- 
tains, which appear to belong to a chain 
extending from the banks of the river 
Amour, traversing the whole of Mongolia. 
They are almost entirely composed of 
perpendicular rocks. The provinco of 
Shan-Tong consists, principally, of a 
mountainous peninsula. These moun- 
tains contain coal mines, and fbnA a 
noup entirely detached from the other 
Chinese chains. The largest plains are 
in the province Kiang-Nan, between the 
two great rivera Hoang-ho and Yang-tse- 
Kiang or Kian^-Ku. The fonner^ oi «he 
Yellow river, nses from two lakes in the 
country of the Calmucks of Hoho-Nor; 
the latter, or the Blue river, rises some- 
where in the north of Thibet, near the 
desert of CobL Both descend rapidly 
from the table-lands of central Asia, and 
each encounten a chain of mountains 
which forces it to describe a long circuit. 

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-—the Hoang-ho to the north, the Yaog- 
tse-Kiang to the south, — after which they 
again approach, and terminate their 
courses widiin a distance of 180 miles of 
each other. Besides these, there are the 
Fuen-ho, the Hoei-ho, and the Hoay-ho, 
which empty into the Blue river; the 
Yalon-Kiang, which is about 600 miles 
long, the Tchoo or Yang-KJanff, the La- 
Kiang, and the Yuen-Kian^, which flow 
mto the Yellow river. The Yuen and 
Yon flow into the Blue river through two 
lakes. The Hoan-Kiang in the south, 
find the Pay-ho in the north, are uncon- 
nected with the two great rivers. The 
former falls into the ffulf of Canton, and 
the latter into the gulf of Pekin. These, 
and innumerable other rivers, united by 
numerous canals, are of incalculable ad- 
vantage to agriculture and inland navi^- 
tion. The principal canal is the Imperial 
ranal, 1400 miles long, which foims a 
water communication l^tween Pekin and 
Canton, with an interruption of only one 
day's journey. China also abounds in 
lakes, paiticularly the province of Hou- 
quang (which signifies the cownJtry of 
laktB\ The Poyan^-hoo, according to 
Staunton the largest lake in China, is, ac- 
cording to Du Halde, only 95 miles in 
circumference. — In a country of such 
vast extent, the climate must necessarily 
be very various. In the south, near the 
tropic, the heat is excessive, but it is mod- 
erated by the influence of the periodical 
winds. The northern and western parts 
are much colder than the countries of Eu- 
rope situated in the same latitude, owing to 
the elevation of the land to the nature of 
the soil, which is filled vrith saltpetre, and to 
the snow, which, during the ^atest part 
of the year, covers the central mountains 
of Asia. — ^Agriculmre, in China, is in a 
very flourishing condition. The princi- 
pal production is rice. In the north- 
western provinces, which are too cold 
and too dry for its production, its place Is 
supplied by wheat and other grain. 
Yams, potatoes, turnips, beans, and a 
species of white cabbajze {vet9ai\ are 
likewise produced. Arable land is culti- 
vated vnthout interruption, the practice 
of fiUlowing being unknovtm. Even the 
steepest hills are brought into cultivation, 
and artificially watered. The manner in 
which the dwellings of the peasantry are 
. situated, not being collected into villages, 
but scattered through the country, con- 
tributes greatly to the flourishing state of 
agriculture. There are no fences, nor 
gates, nor any sort of precaution against 
wild beasts or thieves. The women raise 

alkworms and spin cotton; they also 
manufacture woollen stuffs, and are the 
only weavers in the country. The honota 
conferred on agriculture by the Chinese 
government are generally known. Every 
year, on the 15th day of tlie first moon, 
the emperor repairs, in great state, to a 
certain field, accompanied by the princes 
and the principal officers, prostrates him* 
self, and touches the ground nine times 
vrith Ills head, in honor of Tien, the CSod 
of heaven ; he pronounces a prayer pre- 
pared by the court of ceremonies, invok- 
mg the blesong of the Great Being on his 
labor and that of his people. Then, as 
the high-priest of die empire, he sacrifices 
a bullock to heaven, as the fountain of all 
good. Whilst the victim is oflered on the 
altar, a plough, drawn by a pair of oxen, 
highly ornamented, is brou^t to the em- 
peror, who throws aside his imperial 
robes, lays hold of the handle of the 
plough, and opens several furrows over 
the whole field. The principal manda- 
rins follow his example. The festival 
closes vrith the distribution of money and 
cloth amongst the peasantry. In the 
same manner the emperor again comea 
to sow the seed. In tlie provinces, the 
viceroys perform the same ceremony on 
the same day. In the cultivation of trees 
the Chinese have made comparatively 
little progress. They have many fiiiit- 
trees, out have done little for their im- 
provement Grafting is not common. 
Currants, raspberries, and, according to 
some, olives, do not grow in China. But 
nature has conferred on this country other 
treasiuies, such as the tea-plant, from 
which the Chinese derive immense prof- 
its, the camphor-tree, the aloe, the sugar- 
cane, the bamboo, indigo, cotton, rhubarb, 
the vamish-tree, soap-tree, tallow-tree, 
lime, wax-tree, and the li-tchi. The Chi- 
nese have all the^ domestic animals of 
Europe and America, amongst which the 
hog is the most numerous. The camel is 
the usual beast of burden. The vrild an- 
imals are the elephant, the rhinoceros, the 
tiger, the musk-ox, several kinds of aped, 
the deer, the vrild boar, the fox, &c. 
Poultry abounds in China, particularly 
ducks. Several sorts of birds are distin- 
guished for the richness of their plumage, 
such as the gold and alyer pheasants, and 
the peacock vrith spurs. Great quantities 
of fis^ are found in the waters. The 
gold-fish are there, as vrith us, kept as an 
omament Amongst the insects of China, 
the silkworm, which is found in all parts 
of the country, and appears to be indige- 
nous, is the piincipiu. Of the niinml 

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podnctkiBB. our infomuitiDii is teaj im- 
pcrftct SihrdT miiies are almiidaiit, but 
they are little woxked. The cold is, for 
^ most part, obtained from the SBnda of 
the men in the provincea of Se-tchuen 
and Yun-nan; but gold and silver are 
nM coined. Tutemwue is a metallic sub- 
stance peculiar to China, which is used 
for the manufhcture of vesBels and uten-* 
sila^ and which some suppose to be pure 
zinc, and others an artificial compoation* 
China produces a peculiar kind of cop- 
per; aJBO arsenic, much quicbsihrer (m 
Yun-nan), but Uttle lead and tin. Of val- 
uable stone^ it afibrds the lafus lazuli, the 
rock-ciystal, the loadstone, and various 
kinds of marUe. Of clays, the porcelain 
clay is the onlv kind we need mention. 
Batt is a profitable monop<^ of the gov- 
ernment— The features and the shape of 
the skull of the Chinese prove their de- 
scent Scorn the Mongols ; but a residence 
of many centuries in a nulder climate has 
softened their characteristic maiios. A 
Chinese woman is proud of her beauty 
in proportion to the smaUness of her eyes, 
the protuberance of her lips, the lankness 
and blackness of her hair, and the Bmall<« 
n^B of her feet. The Isst completes the 
Chinese idea of beauty, and is obtained 

Sf pressure and hindering the growth, 
y the men, corpulence, as the sign of an 
easy liie, is regarded with respecL Lean 
people are considered void of talent The 
bigber ckisses allow the nails of their fin- 
Ms to grow, some on one hand, some on 
both, and dye their hair and beards black. 
The Chimse possess the usual Virtues 
and vices of a slavish, industrious and 
omunercial people. — ^The government is 
an absolute monarchy, but me mandarins 
and tribunals are permitted to make re- 
aoec^fiil remonstrances to the emperor. 
The emperor calls himself holy son of 
heaoen, sole guardian qf the earthy and yo^ 
iker of hisj^opU, He is oUiged to oocu*> 
py hmoselr constantly with the affiun of 
state. He has three wives, of whom on- 
hr one bears the title and rank of empress. 
He rssidee, ffenerally, in Pekin ; in sum- 
mer, at TchehoL Ofiferings are made 
to his image and to his throne; his per^ 
son is wonhipped; his subjects prosdntd 
themselves in his {Hresence. The empe- 
lor never appears in public without 2000 
fietors^ beanng chakis, axes, and other 
instruments characteristic of Eastern des* 
podsm. The revenue is esdmated at 
9150,000,000, and consists, chiefly, in tiie 
productions of the soil It is raised by a 
ttUBcUtax, by duties on imports and ex- 
poftSi ttid on articles of mtemal com- 
voii. III. • 13 

meree, and by a pbfl-taz <tei eveir penobs 
between ibe ages of 20 and 60. That 
Chinese army is very numerous, cansisU 
ing of about 900,000 men, but does not 
af^pear capable of resisting the irregular 
Aflutic troops, much less European sol-, 
diera— The Chinese nobility is of tw«» 
kinds, the dLznity of the one being per*> 
sonal, that of the other c^ciaL Or the 
former there are five degrees, the three 
first of which are conlen«d only on rda- 
tions of the emperor, and are generally 
translated by tlie term princt. These 
princes are bound to live within the pre« 
dncts <^ the imperial palace. The per- 
sonal nobility has precedence over the 
mandarins, or official nobihtv. The rank 
of the mandarins is indicated by the color 
of the buttons on their caps. There are 
likewise titular mandarins. There are, 
in all, fixxm 13,000 to 14,000 civil manda^ 
rins, called gtwemsr<, and 18,000 military 
mandarins. The fi)rmer are divided intft 
nine, the latter into l^'v^ cbsses. The 
hi^est body of ofilcers in the onpire is 
the council of the ministerial mandarins. 
These transact buamess with the emperor. 
Subordinate central authorities are, 1. 
lArfu (guard of civil officers), whichpro- 
poses pardons to the emperor; 2. Euhfvt 
(ministry of finance) ; Z, Li^ (court of 
ceremonial) ; 4. Pim^'pu (council of war) f 
5. Hong'pu (ministry of justice, including 
Kong-ptLy or that of architecture). In ev- 
ei^ province, a mandarin is pernor, 
with a council to watch over his actions 
and execute his commands. There are 
courts of justice in the difilerent towns. 
The ceremonial dress of the mandarins i» 
of embroidered satin, with a covering of 
blue crape. Badges, hidicating the civil 
or military rank of die wearer, are ^m- 
luoidered in firont and on the back. The 
light to wear a peacock's feather on the 
hSck of the cap is equivalent to a Euro- 
pean order, and is conferred as a particu* 
lar mark of favor. The pretended wis- 
dcxn of the Chinese laws may be charac- 
terized in a few words ^—^ev are good 
police regulations, accompanied with good 
lessons on monUity. Tney give to the 
emperor, as well as to the mandarins, un- 
limited power over the nation, whicb 
considers blind obedience to superiors its 
first duty. lnnumend>le ceremonies per- 
petually remind it of the distinctions of 
rank. (See the C%mwe Ceremamal, in 
verK, Macao, 1834.) In intellectual im« 
pcovement, this nation has long been sta- 
tionary. This is partly owing to the love 
of antiqui^ common throughout Asia, 
portly to the want of inteUectual comma* 

Digitized by 




nicadon^witli other aaiioDa TfaisiBprin- 
e^polly prevented by the difficuhv of their 
written language, -which is not, like oufb, 
fbimed of letten and syllables, but of char- 
acters. {&w Chinese liiTi^uage and lAtera- 
tuarej at the conclusion of this article.) Me- 
dbanical skill has been carried to great 
perfection among them ; their industry in 
the manufacture of stit^ porcelain, lack* 
ered ware, &c. is astonishing, and can 
only be compared with their own labors 
in digsinff canals, in the formation of gar- 
dens, leveling mountiuns, and other simi- 
lar woika Many of our most useful in- 
ventions are to be found among them. 
Tliey printed books, before the ait was 
invented in Europe, with chamcters carved 
on wooden tablets, which is their present 
practice. They also used the magnet be- 
fore its use was known to us; but they 
have renuuned &r behind us in the art of 
navigation, on account of their ignorance 
of ship-building. A short time ago, a 
translation of a Chinese treatise on navi- 
gation, by one of their naval officers, was 
published, which showed an utter igno- 
rance of this art The monuments of 
China have, jperhaps, been, on the whole, 
too much praised. Yet we must acknowl- 
edge our wonder at their great roads, their 
immense singlciarched bridges, their py- 
ramidal towers, but, above all, at their 
neat wall, called, in Chinese, Van-U- 
Tching (the wall of 10,000 Li), which 
traverses high mountains, deep valleys, 
and, by means of arches, wide rivers, ex- 
tending from the province of Sh«i-8i to 
Wanirfaay or the Yellow sea, a distance 
of 1500 iniles. In some places, to protect 
exposed passages, it is double and treble. 
The foundation and comers are of granite, 
but the prindpal part is of blue bricks, ce- 
mented with pure white mortar. At dis- 
tances of about 200 paces are distributed 
square towers, or strong bulwarks. — The 
national character is the result of liieir at- 
tachment to established customs. The 
manner of living is prescribed to each rank 
by invariable rules. The Chinese abstain 
almost entirely from spirituous liquors : the 
use of tea is general Their principal arti- 
cle of food is rice. Polygamy is permitted 
to the nobles and mandanns. The empe- 
ror maintains a numerous harem. Women 
are kept in a sort of slavery. The peasant 
yokes his wife and ass together to the 
plough. The Chinese pay a kind of re- 
Ugious worship to their ancestors, and 
pmorm certain ceremonies around their 
tombs. Respect toward parents is a duty 
inculcated by their reliffion and laws. 
The primitive religion or China appean 

to have been a branch of SHtomanism, the 
foundation of which is the worship of the 
stars and other remarkable objects of na- 
ture. This ancient religion has been sup- 
planted by the doctrines of more modem 
sects. MnoDg these, the principal are the 
sect of Cong-fu-tse (Confiicius) and of Lao- 
Kiun or Tao-tse. The bulk of the nation 
has embraced the religion of Fo (see Cor^ 
JueiuSy and lb), which was brought from 
India. The religion of the emperors of 
the Taitar-Mantchoo dynasty is that of 
Ihe Dalai-Lama. (See Lama.) For the 
propagation of Christianity in China, see 
Mianone, The discovery of a coDSfmcy 
against the emperor, in 1823, gave rise to 
a general persecution of the Christiana, 
which, however, terminated in 1624. Ac- 
cording to the accounts of the French 
mission in China, the number of Chris- 
tians in that countir in September, 1^, 
amounted to 46,287; there 'were 27 
schools for Christian boys, and 45 for 
(/hiistian giris. In the year 1^29, two 
Chinese Christians were brought to Paris ; 
tliey spoke Latin, as most Christians of 
tliat country do. The foreign commerce 
of China does not correspond with the 
extent and richness of the empire. In 
1806, the exports amounted to 45,000,000 
pounds of tea, 13,000,000 of which were 
sold to the Americans, and 31,000,000 to 
the British ; 16,000,000 pounds of sugar, 
21,000piecesof nankeen,3,000,000 pounds 
of tutenague, besides copper, borax, alum, 
quicksilver, porcelain, lackered ware, cin- 
namon, rhubarb, muMc, and other drugs. 
These were exported in 116 ships, of 
which 80 were English, 33 American and 
3 Danish. These brought to China rice 
(36,000,000 pounds), cotton, and various 
kinds of cloths, glaiBS, fox, otter and beaver 
skins, sandal wood, areca nuts, &c. The 
trade with Europe and North America is 
confined to 12 pnvileged merchants, caDed 
Hong merdumU or nannisiSy whose profits 
are immense. (See if<mg.)--The ancient 
histonr of China is enveloped in daricness 
and fable. According to tradition, China 
was governed, for many millions ck years^ 
by the fods, Tien-Hoan-Chi, and the fab- 
ulous families of kings, Ti-Hoan-Chi, 
Kiehu-Tohu-Ki. Amonffst the latter was 
Fo-hi, the laweiver of the Chinese, and 
U-ti, under whose family commences, 
with the reisn of the celebrated Yau, the 
work called the Slm-kmg, from which 
the Chinese derive their early historr. 
But the historical character of this booK 
caimot bear criticism. The royal ftmilies 
of this obscure period are the Kia (till 
1767 B. C), Shang (till 1122), Chew (tiV 

Digitized by 




958). l/Vu-wang is iikvitfiably conaldered 
the founder of this last dynasty, but die 
accounts of its establishment differ. Ac- 
GOiding to one account, the natives of the 
intevior dethroned Cfaew-siA, the last of 
the preceding dynasty. According to oth* 
ere, Wu-wang came, with an anny of 
£)reigner8, from the west, and introduced 
civilization amongst the natives. After 
the establishment of this fiunily, there is a 
long chasm in the historicaL records. This 
the Chinese writers M with ftblesb Under 
this dynasty is the Chew-kew, or period 
of fighting kings, who ruled over many 
little neighboring states, and were contin- 
ually 8t war with each other (from 770 till 
390 R €.). At length, a Chinese hero, 
Chi-hoanff-ti, of the princely house of 
Ting, made his appearance, in the age of 
' Haimibal, and with him commenced the 
house of Tsin (firom 256 tiU 207 R C). 
He extirpated all the petty princes of the 
branch of Chew, and united the whole of 
China (247). He built the great wall as a 
protection against the Tartars. The em- 
pire was again dismembered, after his 
death, under his son Ul-efai, but was re- 
united, ten years later, by Lieu-pang. He 
adopted the new name of Ilangj and 
founded the dvnasty of Hang, which 
reigned till A. D. 220, and was divided 
into the western and eastern Hang (Si- 
hang, fitim B. C. 217 to A. D. 2^ and 
Tong-han«^, from A. D. 24 till 220). The 
princes of this dynasty extendi their 
conquests considerably to the west, and 
took pert in the aftaus of Central Asia. 
The religion of Tao-tse prevailed during 
their ascendency ; and in the same period 
Judaism was introduced into China. In 
the course of time, the princes degener- 
ated, and, under Hien-ti, China was di- 
vided into three kingdoms (220), wliich 
were agun united by Wu-ti (2o0). He 
was the founder of the family of Tsin 
(26&-420). The sovereigns of tiiis ftun- 
Uy were bad rulers. The last, Kong-ti, 
was dethroned by Wu-ti, founder of the 
Song dvnasty (420—479). A short time 
before this, a separate kingdom was form* 
ed in the southern provinces (386), called 
U-taiy or the ^yq fiunilies. The Sonoa 
were likewise sovereigns of Uttie worm. 
Whilst the whole aspect of Europe was 
changed by the general emigration of 
nations, two empires were formed in Chi- 
na, with the eiumction of the dynasty of 
Tsin— one in the north (386), and die 
other in the south (420); the latter 6f 
which was likewise called U-taiy or the 
empire of the five families^ In the latter 
leigtted successLvely the ftnuly Song (till 

.479), Tsin (till SOSSi Lang (till 537), Tchjii 
(till 5891 Soui (till 619). The northern 
empire (386 till 587) was founded by tiie 
Gofi Tartars, who conquered the nortiietn 
pert of China, and was governed b^ fbiil: 
drastics, — ^two native and two foreign, — 
VIZ. the Goei, of the race of To-pa, and 
the Hew-Chew, of the race of Sien-jn. 
a. The dynasty of Goei reiffned ^m 
386 till 556 in three branches ( Yuen-Goei 
till 534, Tong-Goei till 550, and Si-Goei 
or the western Goei, till 550) ; 6. the 
dynas^ of Pe-Tsi (the nordiem T^), from 
550 till 577 ; c. Uie dynasty of Hew-Chew 
(the last Chew), iiiom 557 till 581 ; d. the 
dynasty of Hew-Lang (the las( Lang), 
mm 554 till 587. Yang-Kien dethroned 
Hew-Chew (581), conquered the empire 
of Hew-Lane (^7), of the Tsin (589), and 
founded the dynasty of Soui. The second 
emperor of this dynas^, Yang-ti, was 
dethroned by Li-ien (617^ who founded 
the fiunily of Tang, which maintained it- 
self 300 yeaiB, and resided at Sia-gan-fti^ 
in Shen-ei. During the reipi of the first 
emperors of this Ime, particularly under 
Li-ien's learned son Tai-tsong I (626), 
China grew very powerftiL But his sue* 
oessors gave themselves up to pleasure, 
and were entirely governed by their eu- 
nuchs. Internal distractions were the 
consequences. The last eimieror, Tchao- 
siuen-ti, was dethroned by Shu-wen, who 
founded the dynasty of Hehu-Lang (907). 
This, as well as the succeeding dynasties 
of Hehu-Tang (923), Hehu-Tsiu (936), 
Hehu-Han(946), Hehu-Tchew (9571 was 
of short duration. These are called Hehu^ 
U-tai, or the five last families. After this, 
China was torn by internal commotions, 
and almost every province had a separate 
ruler, when, in 990, the people elected the 
able Shao-Quang-Yu emperor. He was 
the founder of the dvnasty Sing, or Song, 
which reigned till 1279. His immediate 
BuccesBora resembled him, yet the country 
suftered considerably by the devastations 
of die Tartars. Under Yin.tsongtl012), 
the Chinese were forced to pay tribute to 
the Tartar Leao-tsang. Whey-tBong over- 
threw, the empire of Leao-tsang (1101); 
but the Tartars possessed themselves of 
the whole of the north of China (Pe-cheli), 
1125. Kao-tsong U was their tributary^ 
and reigned over the southern provinces 
onl^. Under the emperor Ninff-tsong, the 
Chmeae formed an alliance wim Genghis- 
Khan, and the Niu-K^heng submittM to 
this great conqueror (1180). But the 
Mongols themselves turned their arms 
against China, and Kublai-Khan subjected 
them, after the deatii of the last emperor, 

Digitized by 




Ti-i^g(I960> Under the Tang (fyDuty, 
arts and sciences flourished in China; 
wvenJ of the emperors themselves were 
leamed men. The Chinese authors call 
the Mongohan dynasty of emperors Yuan 
ifiom 1^ till 1968), and Kublai-Khan is 
by them called Ski-Uu, This was the 
fum. time that the whole of China was 
aulgecied by foreign princes. But the 
conqueronB covformoA tnemselves entirely 
to the Chinese customs, and left the laws^ 
manners and religion of the countnr un« 
changed. Most of the emperors of this 
line were i^le minoes. But after the 
death of Timur-Khan, or Tong-Tsang 
(Tamerlane), 1907, and still more after 
that of Yeson-Timur-Khan, or Tai-ting 
(1318), divinons in the imperial ftmihr 
frequently occaaioDed internal wars, which 
weakened the strength of the Mongols. 
The Chinese Chu took up arms against 
the voluptuous Toka-mur-Khan, or Shun- 
ti| and the Monffolian grandees became 
divided among memselves. Toka-mur- 
Khan fled into Mongolia (1368), where he 
died (1379). His son Bisurdar fixed his 
residence in the ancient Mongolian capital 
Karakorum, and was the founder or the 
empire of the Kalkas, or northern Yuen. 
This state did not remain long united ; but, 
after the death of Tokoz-Tmiur (1460), 
each horde, under its own khan, became in- 
dependent ; in consequence of which, they 
were, with few exceptions, constantly kept 
in subjection to China after this period. 
Chu, afterwards called Tcd-Uoo IP\ a pri- 
vate individual, but worthy of the throne, 
delivered his country from the foreign 
yoke, and founded the dynasty of Ming 
(1368 till 1644), which gave the empire 16 
sovereigns, most of whom were men of 
merit On the frontiers of the empire, the 
remains of the Niudahee Tartars, now call- 
ed MarUchooa, still existed. The emperor 
Shin-tsong II gave them lands in the 
province of Leao-tong ; and, when an at- 
tempt was made, soon after, to expel 
them, <lhey resisted successftilly, under 
their prince Taitsu, and obtained posses- 
sion of Leao-tong ; upon which their 
chief assumed the title of emperor. He 
continued the war during the roigns of 
the Chinese emperors Quan-tsong and 
Hi-tsong, until lus death. His son Ta- 
tBonir succeeded him, and Hoai-tsong, a 
food but weak prince, was tne successor 
of Hi-tsong on the throne of China. On 
the death of Ta-tscmg, the Tartars did not 
appoint any one to succeed him, and dis- 
continued the war. But in China, Li- 
tching excited an insurrection, durinff 
which Hong-Puan put an end to his Hfe 

(16441 Li-tcfaiDg's opponents cafled m 
the Mantchoos to their assistance. They 
got possession of Pekm, and of the whofe 
empire, over which th^ stiD reign. Un- 
der Shun-«hi, a child of six vears old) the 
conquest of China was completed (1646— 
47)^ and the present dynasty of Tatira, or 
Tsim, or Tamg, was founded. He mas 
succeeded, in 1663, by his son Kang-hi, 
who subdued the khan of the Mongols^ 
took Foimoea, and made several <^er 
additions to his empire. During the reign 
of this prince, the Christian rengion was 
tolerateo, but his son Yong-ehing prohib- 
ited it in 1734. The son of the latter, 
Kien-Lung, continued the persecation 
against the Christians (1746—73). He 
conquered Cashgar, Yarkand, the greats 
est part, of Songaria, the north-easieni 
part of Thibet and Lassa, the empires 
of Miao-tse and Siao-Kin-tshuen, and 
extended his territories to Hindostan and 
Bucharia. He peopled the Calmuck coun- 
try, which the expulsion of the Songari- 
ans had rendered almost a deecot, with 
the fogitive Tor^ts and 9<Nigarians fiom 
Russia. In 17(38, he was totally defeated 
by the Biimese of Ava ; nevertheless, the 
Chinese took poseesnon of a town in Ava 
in 1770, and returned to their countiy 
with the loes of half of their army. They 
were more successful against the Bfiaotse 
(mountaineers). Towards the end of hit 
reign, his minister, ftivorite and son-in- 
law, Ho-Tchington, abused his influence 
over him. Kien-Lung was succeeded, in 
1799, by his 15th son, Kia-Kin^. His 
reign was fiequently disturtted by intemal 
commotions ; for in China there exist se- 
cret combinations of malcontents of dl 
classes. In their nightly meetinffs, they 
curse the emperor, celebrate Priiqnan 
myateries, and prepare eveiything for the 
arrival of a new Fo, who is to restore the 
golden age. The Catholics, whom he fo- 
vored, have lost most of their privileges 
by their inconsiderate zeal, and at P^in, 
the preaching of the Christian religion has 
been strictly prohibited. Kia-Kinff was 
succeeded, in 1820, by his second son, 
Tara-Kwani^ whom the Russians call 
Dctoguaru The embassy of kMd Macart^ 
ney (q. v.) was not more successful in 
attempting to change the policy main- 
tained by the court of China for more 
than 1000 years, than the Russian em- 
bassy of count Golowkin, or the more 
recent one of knrd Amherst, the British 
ambassador, in 1816. The envoys were 
unable to form poHtieal or oomroereia) 
treaties with this ^ celestial empire of the 
world," which treats all moiiarehs as ili 

Digitized by 




8tauiH)0Q% MticOanit&m 
IMuxM rAiHng to Ckma, &e. (London, 
1822.) A hietofy of China, tranfllated 
fiom the Chinese of Choo-Foo-Tsze, by 
P. P. ThooMB, many yean resident at Blar 
cao, in China, was ktely announced for 
pufolioati<Mi. It is etafed to conunenoe 
with the reign of Fuh-he, according to 
Chineee cfaronolorjr, B. C. 3000, and to 
reach the reign of Min-te, A. D. 300, iiv- 
ehiding a period of 3300 jreaia. 

OtnUse Lan^uagej Writing and LUarW' 
lure. The Chinese language belongs to 
tiiat class of idioms which are called 
monM^UAie. (See Languages.) Every 
word of it consists onlv of one syllable. 
They may, however, be combined to- 
gether as in the English words uwfeame, 
weUarti but every pliable is significant^ 
and therefore is of itself a i0on£^ If the 
Chineee language were written, like our 
own, with an alphabet, it would be fi>und 
to possess comparatively but few sounds. 
It wants the cousonaBts 6, d^ r, v, and z. 
Every syllable ends with a vowel sound. 
The Chinese cannot articulate two conso- 
nants successive^, without interpodng a 
jAcoo, or English « short. Thus they 
|noiK>unce the Latin word Cknatus in 
this manner, jKu[-t»<-u<-oo-n(ft. The num- 
ber of syllables of which the Chinese 
Jbnffoage is composed is very small. Ac- 
cording to Remusat, it does not exceed 
238 ; but Alcmtucci thinks there are 460. 
It is not, therefore, aceuratebT^ known. 
But this number is quadrupled by fbur 
difierent tones or accents (some say five), 
of which an idea cannot be given by 
words. By means of these accents, the 
Chineee speak in a kind of cmaHena^ or 
Becitative, which is not, however, much 
observed whra th^ fs^eek ftst, in th^ 
ofdinanr conversation. It requires a nice 
ear to distinguish those varieties of ton& 
This language, ccmaisting of monosylkip 
bles, is destitute of grammatical forma. 
The nouns and verbs cannot be inflected, 
and therefore the differences of tenses, 
moods, cases, and the like, are either left 
to be understood by means of the context, 
or cxpro as o d by the manner in whidi the 
words axe placed in rdation to each other, 
as in French, sage^fenune and^/emme-so^. 
With all these deficiencies, if they can so 
be called, the Chinese understand each 
other perfectly well, and are never at a 
k)8b to express their ideas. Their extm- 
nve and varied literature is a proof of it ; 
but this is generally ascribed to thek 
writing, whidi, it is said, expresses more 
than their six>ken language. But we do 
not concur with those who hold this opin- 

jon. We dunk tibat Ae flfsokm language 
isfiiUy adequata to the expression of eveiy 
idea, and that the written eharacters add 
notlung to its force. The enthusiaam with 
which some writers ipeak of the wondeiv 
fid eSBdtm of the Chmese writings upoa 
the minds of those who read them, has 
often reminded us of the ocular harpai*' 
thord of fiither CasieL The Chinese 
characters, like all otheia, represent the 
flounds, that is to say, the srllalMC sounds 
or words of the moken language; and 
through those sounds the ideas are com* 
muniosted to the mind. — ^The writing of 
the Chinese, indeed, if we consider oraify 
the number of their characteri, and com- 
pare it with that of then* woids, wouki 
seem to possess a veiy great, superiority* 
There are not less tiian 80,000 Chinese 
characters ; but of these on^ 10,000 are 
in common use, and the knowledge of 
than is sufficient to enable <nie to undei>' 
Btsnd ahnost every Chinese book. It was 
once thought tiiat it required a man% 
whole fifo to learn to read and write Chi«- 
nese ; but M. Remusat, the celebrated pro*> 
feasor of that language in the royal college 
at Paris, has demonstiated by ftM^ that 
the Chinese may be leamed in as short a, 
time as any other idiom. The great numi- 
ber of these characters proceeils, in the 
first place, fiom the considerable quantity, 
of homof^onous words which exist in the 
Chinese. These are renresented by di^ 
forent characters, as wim us by different 
modes of spelling, of which tiie French 
words eent^ cms, samg^ sans, sens, sent, 
each having a different meaning, but aH 
pronounced afike, are a striking example. 
Neither are homophonous woida wanting 
in English, as how and ^ottfA^ greai and 
grate, and many others. The Chinese 
charactors, also, hy being combined to- 
gether, as it were, mto one, express two 
or more words at the same time, and this^ 
in a great deme, accounts for there being 
80 many of mem. The Chinese charao- 
ters are all reduciUe to 214, which are 
called keus or radicals (in Chinese, jmw), 
each of tnem representing one woid, and 
each word an idea. By the analogy of 
tiiose ideas the complex charactera are 
formed— an ingenious contrivance, wiiich 
facilitates veiy much the acquisition of 
the knowledge fiii them. Thus all the 
words which express some manual labor 
or occupation are combined ^ the chsp- 
acter which represents the word hand, 
with some other, expressive of the partio- 
ukr occupation intended to be designated^ 
or of the material enmloyed. This has 
induced many of the leaniedi and enn 

Digitized by 




the dnhem fiterad thdimielyes, to main^ 
tatn tljot the Chineee writing is ufeo- 
grapkU:^ and represents ideas in a manner 
unconnected with thesjK^en language; 
but this euppoflition is aisproved by the 
Act that no two Chinese can read aloud 
irom the same book without using the 
flame words, which are precisely those 
which the characters represent If it 
were otherwise, every person in reading 
would use difierent wonds, and the wriUen 
ianguagtj as it is caUed^ would be troM' 
UiM, not read. It must be added, also, 
tiiat the Chinese poetiy is in rhymey and 
therefore addressed to the ear, and not to 
the eye« This shows that it is impossible 
for those who are ignorant of die Chinese 
language to read the Chinese writing, un- 
less their own idiom should be construct- 
ed exactly on the same model with the 
Chinese, have the same number of words, 
with the same meaning affixed to each, 
and the same fframmatical foims. It has 
been repeated^ asserted that the Coreans, 
and other nations in the neighborhood of 
China, can all read the Chinese writing, 
and understand it, without knowing a 
word of the i^ken lan^age; but this 
appears imposnble. It is more reason- 
aole to suppose, either that they have 
adapted the Chinese chamcters to their 
own idioms, or that the Chinese is among 
them, as Latin is with us, a learned lan- 
guage, which is generally acquired as a 
part of a liberal system of education. The 
Chinese chancters are written irom top to 
bottom and fiom right to left. The lines 
ore not horizontal, knit perpendicular, and 
parallel to each other. The Chinese Ih- 
erature is rich in worics of every descrip- 
tion, both in verse and in prose. Tliey 
«re fond of worits of moral philosophy, 
but they have a great many books of 
histoiy, geography, voyages, dramas, ro- 
mances, tales and fictions of all kinds. 
Several of the latter works have been 
lately translated in England and France. 
The books called the Kings, ascribed to 
their great sage Confucius, are now in a 
course of translation. The worics of his 
Miccessor, Meng-Tseu, have been ktely 
published at Paris in the original, vrith an 
elegant Latin translation, in two octavo 
volumes, by M. Stanislas Julien. Other 
trsndations from the Chinese are m prog- 
ress, both at London and Paris, under the 
patronage of the Asiatic societies of those 
capitals. The khig of France hasestab- 
bmed a professorship of Chinese in the 
roval college at Paris. This chair is now 
filled by the learned Remusat, who has 
•beady fomed several distinguished pu- 

fMb. The study of the Chinese hmgoage 
appears to be now puraued wrkh great ar- 
dor in Europe, ana with remariuu>le suo- 
cesB. The reverend Mr. Morrison has 
published a Chinese mmraar, and a dic- 
tionary of the same famguage, in 4 vols^ 
4to. ; the former printed at Serampore, the 
latter at Macao, and both difficult to be 
procured. M. Remusat has published at 
Paris an excellent grammar of that lan- 
^age. The manuscript dictionarr of 
either Basil de Qlemona was translated 
into French, and published at Paris, by 
M. de Guignes, under the patronage of 
the emperor Napoleon, in the year 181d; 
in one thick folio volume, to which a val- 
uable supplement has been since added 
by M. KJaproth. Auxiliary means are 
not now wanting for those who are desi- 
rous of learning this curious idiom. 
Crizia Ware. (See Poralmn,) 
Chinchilla. (See Lanifftrcu) 
Chiztesb Sttlk. (See ,Srchiteeturt,)^ 
Chio ; called by the ancients Cmci 

Chippewat; a town in Upper Canada, 
on the Chippeway or Welland, 2 miles 
N. W. Niagara falls, 10 S. Queenstown. 
This place is famous for a victory gained 
near it by the American troops over the 
British, July 5, 1814. 

Chippeway ; a river of the U. States in 
the North-West Territory, which runs 8. 
W. into the Missisappi ; Ion. 99^ W. ; lat 
43*' 45^ N. ; length, about 300 miles. 

Chippewats; Indians, in the North- 
West Territory, on the Chippewav, in 
Michigan Territory, and in Canada on 
the Utawas. Number, according to Pike, 
11,177 ; 2049 warriore. (See IndUma,) 

Chiquitos ; a province of 8. America, 
in Buenos Ayres, inhabited, in 173^ by 7 
Indian nations, each composed of about 
600 families. The countiy is mountain- 
ous and marshy; but the more fertile 
soils produce a variety of fruits without 
eukure. The varilla is common, and a kind 
of cocoa is found, whose fruit is more like 
a mek>n than a cocoa-nut It lies to the 
south of Moxes. 

CHiRAeRA ( Oreek ; from x<<f>) the hand, 
and jypa, a seizure) ; that species of arthri- 
tis, or gout, which attacks the joints of the 
hand (the wrist and knuckles) and hinders 
their motions. It gradually deprives the 
hands of their flexibility, and bends the 
iin^rB, distorts them, and impedes their 
action, by the accumulation or a calcare- 
ous matter around the sinews, which final- 
ly benumbs and stifiens the joints. 
Chirograph. (See Charier.) 
CntEoiiOeT ; the language of the fin- 

Digitized by 




asn, (NT the art of making one'a aeif im* 
deratood by meanA of the handa and fiiv 
gens. It is an iinportaiit meanaof com- 
municadoQ for the deaf and dumb. 

Chiromajtct (from the Greek), or Pai.- 
msTRT ; the pretended art of prognosti* 
cadng by the linea of the band. Its adhe- 
rents maintain, that human mclinationa» 
feults and virtues are designated in an in- 
fallible manner by the lines which divine 
Providence has ori^nally drawn in the 
hands of all men. Traces of chiromancy 
are found in the writings of Aristotle, who 
aiMerts, for instance, that it is a sign of a 
long life if one or two lines run across the 
whole hand. The chiromancers quote 
some paasages of the Bible to prove that 
their ait is founded on the divine decrees, 
as the following : — *' And it shall be for a 
agn unto thee upon thine hand, and for a 
memorial between thbie eyes" lExodu9 
xiiL 9) ; and, ^ He sealeth up the nand of 
eveiy man, that all men may know his 
work" (Job xxxviL 7). In the middle 
ages, chiromancy was cultivated ; and, in 
the present age, the French chironumcer 
madame Lenonnand found, as she states, 
some eminent adepts in Paris, and in her 
travels to the different European congress- 
es. The books in which chiromancy is 
explained and taught are numerous ; and, 
in order to give dignity to the art, it has 
been connected wUn astrolo^. The Gip- 
sies are at present the principal professors 
of chiromancy, and people who have no 
feith in the art not unfrequently amuse 
themselves with their predictions. 

Chiron; son of Saturn and Philynu 
Saturn assumed the shape of a horse, in 
this amour, to deceive his wife Rhea. 
The shape of Cliiron, therefore, was half 
that of a man, half of a horse. In point 
of fact, Chiron was one of the people 
called Centaurs. He was celeorated 
through all Greece for his wisdom and 
acquirements; and the n'eatest princes 
and heroes of the time — -Bacchus, Jason, 
Hercules, Achilles, i^Esculapius, Nestor, 
Theseus, Palamedee^ Ulysses, Castor and 
Pollux, &c. — were intrusted to him for 
education. Besides the other branches in 
which young men of rank were instructed 
at that time, they learned from him music 
and medicine. lie was particularly skill- 
ed in surgery. When Hercules drove the 
Centaurs fiom mount Pelion, they took 
refuge vnth Chiron, in Malea ; but their 
enemy pursued them even into this retreat, 
ind uniortunately wounded his old teach- 
er with a misdirected arrow. The speedy 
operation of the poison, in which the ar- 
row had been dipped^ rendered remedies 

oaeleea ; and Chiron maSSend the severest 
torments. The gods, at his prayer, put 
an end to his life,. though his nature waft 
iounortal by reason of his descent from 
Saturn. Ailer his death) he was placed 
among the stars, and became the constel- 
lation Sagittarius. 

CHiaoiroinr (xufovofi/a, Greek; from x^, 
the hand, and vtf^of, a rule); the science 
which treats of the rules of gesticula- 
tion, which is a part of pantomime. The 
ancient orators recognised the importance 
of gesticulation as a means of giving ex- 
pressiveness to a discourse, (^e Gilbert 
Austin's Chironoffdoy or a TVeaHse on Rhe- 
torical Ddivaryf Loudon, 1806.) 

Chivai«rt (fh>m the French chevaUerj a 
horseman ; in German, iittter, which sig- 
nifies likevrise a rider on hoiseback). Po- 
ets stiU sometimes use chivalry for cavalry; 
but this word is generally employed to 
signify a certain institution of the middle 
ages. The age of chivalry is the heroic 
age of the Teutonic-Christian tribes, cor- 
responding to the age of the Grecian he- 
roes. This heroic period of a nation may 
be compared to the youth of an individu- 
al ; and we find, therefore, nations, in this 
stage of their progress, distinguiahed by 
the virtues, fbUies, and even vices, to 
which the youth of individuals is nK>6t 
prone-^irst for ^loiy, enthusiasni, pride^ 
mdescribableand mdefinite aspirations af- 
ter something beyond the realities of lifeu 
strong faith in virtue and intellectual 
greatness, together with much vanity and 
credulity. Chivabry, in the perfection of 
its glory and its extravagance, existed 
only among the German tribes, or those 
which were conquered by and mingled 
with them, and whose institutions and 
civilization were impregnated with the 
Teutonic spirit. Therefore we find chiv- 
abry never fully developed in Italy, be- 
cause the Teutonic spirit never penetrated 
all the institutions of that countir, as it 
found a civilization already established, of 
too setded a character to be materially a^ 
lected Iw itsinduence. We do not find 
much of the chtvalric spirit in Greece, nor 
among the Sclavonic tribes, except some 
traces among the Bohemians and the 
Poles, who had caufht a portion of it 
from the Germans. Among die Swedes, 
though a genuine Teutonic tribe, chivalry 
never struck deep root ; but this is to ble 
ascribed to their remote situation, and to 
the circumstance that they early directed 
their attention to navigation and navaS 
warfiire, which, in many ways, were un-' 
&vomble to the growth of the chivalrie 
spirit ; afifordingy for instancci company 

Digitized by 




tnreiy little q»poituiii^ for that display of 
courage and accompfiahiheDt in toe eyes 
of admiring multitudes, or in the adven- 
turous quests of the single knight, wluch 
£)rmed so striking a feature of the chival- 
jicage. Poets and orators are fond of 
deckuing that the chivalric spuit is gone. 
The fiunous passage in Burke's Reflec- 
tions is &miliiur to every one ; but the man 
v^ho coolly investigates the character of 
pest times, and compares them virith the 
present, vnll hardly come to the conclu- 
sion that our age is deficient in any of the 
aualities which constituted the gloiy of 
le age of chivahry. Their stien^ is the 
same; their direction only is changed* 
Is it courage vrhich has departed ? The 
soldier, vrho steadily marches up to the 
iawB of a batteiy, can hardly be considered 
less brave than the knights of former days, 
who cased theur bodies in steel to meet 
&r less formidable means of destruction. 
The late wars in Europe abound with 
displays of valor, which may compete with 
any recorded in histoiy or romance. In 
the batde of Dresden, me emperor Napo- 
leon (as Oldeleben relates in his account 
of Napoleon's campaign in Saxony ), being 
seated before the Pima gate, and seeing 
the artillerists in a redoubt shrink from 
serving the cannon, because the Prussian 
riflemen shot eveiy man who presented 
tumself, turned to his old guard, and said, 
"Show them how Frenchmen behave in 
batde f* when some of the soldiers address- 
ed immediately sprung upon the redoubt, 
and marched up and down, in full view of 
the enemy, till they were shot. Of chiv- 
alric self-sacrifice, we can hardly find a 
more striking instance than that of a Prus- 
sian officer of the coips of colonel ScfaiO 
(q. v.), who, when his comrades were con- 
demned to death at Wesel, by a French 
court-martial, fi)r a nulitaiy expedition in 
eontravention of the ejdstmg peace, refused 
the pardon which was proffered to him 
ak>ne by Napoleon, and preferred to die 
with his fellow soldiers. Are we referred 
to the enthusiastic self-devotion which 
crowded the plains of Palestine vrith the 
thousands of European chivalry, eager to 
shed then- blood for the tomb of theur Sa- 
vior ? We say the same spirit in our days 
has chosen a nobler direction: the adven- 
turers, who expose themselves to every 
peril in the cause of science and human 
improvement, the Humboldts, Cli^per- 
iODS, Burckhaidts, display equal heroism 
m a wortiiier cause. We would not gov- 
ern ourselves by so narrow a theory of 
utility as to refuiw to acknowledge what 
mis really great and sublime in the spirit 

of chivalry, but we cannot admit tiiat the 
virtues of'^the chivalric age have vanished, 
because they now appear with less show 
and gorgeousness. 

To explain the nature and origin of 
chivalry, vi^ must consider the character 
of the ancient German tribes. The vrar* 
like spuit was common to them vrith 
other oarbarous nations ; but there were 
certain traits in thdr character pecutiariy 
their own. Among these was their esteem 
for women. This is dwelt upon by Taci- 
tus, and is sufficientiy apparent fiom the 
early native German historians. This re- 
gard for the female sex viras diffiised bv 
them throuffh every coun^ into which 
the^ spread, though with eonaderable 
diflerence in the forms in which it devel- 
oped itself. In France, it becsme that 
refined gallantly, for which the nation has 
been so long conspicuous; in Spain, it 
assumed a more romantic and glowins 
character, displaying much of the fire of 
Oriental feeling ; in Germany itself^ it be- 
came faithful and tender attachment to 
the wedded vrife. Undoubtedly the Chris- 
tian religion essisled in developing this 
feeling of esteem for the female sex in 
those times, particulariy by the adoration 
of the Virgin, which v^as taught as a part 
of it The constant reverence of this dei- 
fied image of chastity and female purity 
must have had a great effect. We do not 
conceive, however, that the elevated con- 
dition of women can be referred entirely 
to the Christian reD^on, as we see that it 
has not produced this effect in the instance 
of nations who have had no opportunity 
of imbibing the Teutonic spirit ; and many 
Asiatic nations recognise that feature of 
this religion, to which vire have attributed 
so much efficacy, (namely the birth of the 
being whom they wonihip firom a wgin,) 
and yet keep their women in a very de- 
graded conoition. We may be told, in 
answer to our claim of the peculiar regard 
for the female ss a characteristic of^the 
Teutonic tribes, that women were held in 
high esteem by the Romans. It is true 
that vrives and mothers were treated vrith 
great regard by the Romans, and the his- 
tory of no nation affords more numerous 
instances of female nobleness; but this 
esteem was rendered to them, not as fe- 
males, but as the fiiithful companion." and 
patriotic mothers of citizens. It had some- 
what of a political cast. But tiiis was not 
the case with the Germans. There is 
another trait of the German character 
which deserves to be considered in tills 
onnexion, which is very apparent in theii 
Iiferttture»and the fivaa of many individtt* 

Digitized by 




hIb; we fnean that indefinite tidisc fyt 
aomediing euperior to the realilieB of iiib, 
tfaftt Mftfieii, to use their own wonl, which 
hardly adnnts of translation, which has 
produced among them at the sadie time 
•o much excellence and so much extrava- 
gance. These three traits of die Teutonic 
nee, their warlike spirit, their esteem for 
w^omen, and their indefinable thinit fbr 
ffiperhuman greatness, together with the 
innuenee of the ftudal system and of the 
Roman Catholic reli|pon, ailbrd an ex- 
planation of the spirit of duvahy — an insd- 
tution whicli, to many observers, appears 
like an isolated point in history, and leaves 
them in doubt whether to despise it as 
foolish, or admire it as sublime. The 
feudal system divided the Christian Teu- 
fonic tribes into masses, the members of 
wiiich were united, indeed, by some polite 
ical ties, but had little of that Ultimate 
eonnexion M^ich bound men together in 
Ihe communities of antiquity, and has 
produeed like eflfects in our own and a 
few preceding i^ee. They still preserved, 
in a great measure, the independence of 
baibarians. There was, however, one 
strong bond of union, which gave con- 
flistency to tbe whole aggregate ; we mean 
the Roman Catholic reugion, which has 
lost much of its connecting newer, in pro- 
portion as other ties, chien^ tliose of a 
eonmien civilization, have yarned strength. 
Hie influence of this religion was of great 
Bervice to mankind during the ages of ig- 
norance and violence, by giving coherency 
to the links of the social chain, which 
were continually in danger of partmg. 
To this cause is to be ascribed the great 
imifbrmity of character which prevmled 
during the ages of chivalry. The feudal 
system, besides, enabled the gentiy to live 
en the labors of the oppressed neasanta, 
without the necessity of providing for 
dieir own support, and to indulge the love 
of adventures incident to their warlike and 
an^tious character. If we now combine 
the characteristics which we have been 
oon£adering-~a warlike spirit, a lofty devo- 
tion to the female sex, an undefinable 
thirst fer glory, connected with feudal in- 
dependence, elevation above the drudgery 
of dadSy toil, and a uniformity of character 
and purpose, inspked by the influence of 
a common religion — we obtain a tolerable 
view of the chivalric character. This 
character had not yet quite developed 
itself in the age of Chanema^e. The 
courage exhibited by the warriors of his 
age was rather the courage of individuals 
in bodies. The independence, the indi- 
Tkfaiali^ of character, which distinguish- 

ed die emot knight who sought fer and 
wide for adventures to be adiieved by his 
tingle arm, was the erowth of a later pe- 
riod. The use of ue war-horse, which 
formed so essential an instrument of the 
son of chivalry, was not common among 
the G^mans until the time of then* ware 
with tbe Huns. They were indeed ao- 
<|uainted with it before, and Tadtus men- 
ttons it in his account of C}ermany ; but it 
was not in common use among them tiH 
the period we have mentioned. After it 
was introduced, cavahy was considered 
among them, as among all nations in the 
early stages of their progress, much su- 
perior to infentry, which was, in feet, 
despised, until the successes of the Swiss 
demonstrated its superiority. In the 11th 
century, kniffhthood had become an es- 
tablished and well-deftned institution ; but 
it was not till the 14th that its honore vrere 
confined exclusively to the nobility (q. v.}. 
The crusades gave a more religious turn 
to the spirit of chivalry, aid made the 
knights of all Christian nations known to 
each other, so that a great uniformity is 
thenceforward to be perceived among 
them tiirougfaout Eorojpe. Then arose 
^e religious orders of knights, the knights 
of St. John, the templare, the Teutonic 
knights, &c. The whole establishment 
of kni^thood assumed continually a 
more formal character, and, degenerat- 
ing, like every human institution, sunk at 
last uito Quixotic extravagances, or firitter- 
ed away its spirit amid tbe forms and 
punctilios springing fixmi the {Hide and 
the distinctions of tne privileged ordere of 
society. It merged, m feet, among the 
abuses which it has been one of the great 
labore of our age to overthrow. The de- 
cline of chivab^ might be traced through 
the difierent forms ndiich it assumed in dif- 
ferent nations as distinctly as its develope- 
ment — a task too extensive for this work. 

The education of a knight was briefly 
as follows : — ^The young and noble strip- 
ling, generally about his 12th year, was 
sent to the court of some baron or noble 
knight, where he spent his time chiefly in 
attendhig on the ladies, and acquiring 
s^ in the use of anns, in riding, &c. 
This duty of waiting about the persons of 
the ladies became, in the sequel, as injuri- 
ous to the morals oi the page as it may 
have been salutary in the begiimin|^. 
When advancing age and experience m 
tibe use of arnis luul qualified the page for 
war, he became an escuyer (esquire or 
squire). This word is generally supposed 
to be aerived from escu or Bcudo (shield)^ 
because, among other Moes^ it was ths 

Digitized by 




squire's busmesB to eanr the shield of the 
koiffht whom he seiretL The third and 
hi{|[hest rank of chivahy was that of 
knighthood^ which was not conferred be«- 
fore the 21 st year, except in the case of 
distinguished birth or great achievements. 
The individual prepared himself by con- 
fessing, festing, &c. ; religious rites were 
perfoimed ; and then, a&r promising to 
be feithful, to protect ladies and orpluns, 
never to lie, nor utter slander, to live in 
harmony with bis equals, &c. (in France, 
there were 20 vows of knighthood) he re- 
ceived the ctccoUuk (q. v.), a slight blow 
on the neck with the flat of die sword, 
firom the person who dubbed him a knight, 
who, at the same time, pronounced a for* 
mula to this efl^t : ** I dub thee knight, 
in the name of God and St« Michael (or 
in the name of the Father, Son and Holy 
Ghost). Be feithful, bold and fortunate." 
This was often done on the eve of batde, 
to stimulate the new knight to deeds of 
valor, or, after the combat, to reward sig- 
nal bravezy. 

Though no man of any reflection 
would vnsh for the return of the age of 
chivalry, yet we must remember that 
chivahy exercised, in some respects, a 
salutary influence at a time when govern- 
ments were unsettled and laws Uttle re- 
garded. Though chivalry often carried 
the feelings of love and honor to a fenat- 
ical excess, yet it did much good by ele- 
vating them to the rank of deities ; for the 
reverence paid to them principally pre* 
vented mankind, at this period of barba- 
rous violence, fipom relapsing into barba- 
rism ; and, as the feudal system was una- 
voidable, it is well that its evils were 
somewhat alleviated by the spirit of chiv- 
alry. The influence which chivalry had on 
poetry was very great The troubadours 
m the south of France, the trouvens in 
the north of the same country, the min- 
sirds in England, the Mtrmesanger in 
Germany, sung the achievements of the 
knights who received them hospitably. 
(See Ballad,) In Provence arose the 
court d*amour (q. yX which decided the 
poetical contests of Uie knights. Amorous 
songs (chansons^ duets (ten«m*), pastoral 
songs {fHtetoureiies) and poetical colloquies 
(nrvenies) were performed. In Germany, 
the chivahic spirit produced one of the 
most splendid and sublime epics, the 
Nibdungtnlitd, (a. v.) B^ tiie inteiv 
course with the East, which grew up 
during the crusades, feiries, and all the 
wonders of enchantment, were introduced 
into the romantic or chivahic poetry. It 
is probable, faowev^, that there eadsted 

' of die Baaoie kind befere tfie in- 
fluence oFdie East was felt ; for iurtanoe^ 
the stories of the enchanter Merlin. C^y«- 
alric poetry, in our opiniim, begins, as 
Schlegel has shown, with the mythologi- 
cal cyclus (^ king Arthur^ round tahla. 
The second cyclus is that of Chariemagne 
and his paladins, bis 12 pem, which w 
mained tne poetical foundation of cluval- 
ric poetry for many centuries. The cvclus 
of Amadis (q. v.), which bebngs, perhaps^ 
exclufflvely to Spain, does not rest on any 
historical ground. (F<h- fluther informal 
jtion, see the article Chxoaky^ in the sup- 
plement to the £ncye2opatfta BritcMffitefl^ 
written by sir Walter Scott, which con- 
tains many interesting fecte, though the 
writer does not investi^te very deeply 
the 8}Hrit of the mstituuon. The article 
Chevakrie, in the Enofdop^dU Modems^ 
is ftill of valuable information. The pre^ 
ace to lord Byron's Childe Harold should 
not be forgotten. See also Heeren*^ Et^ 
toy on the i^uence qfikt CruHtdeSy trans- 
lated into French flx>m the German: 
Biisching's Vorknmgen aher Riiterznt 
und Ritterwesen, Leipsic, 1823, 2 vols.; 
Mimoires aur raneienne ChtvaUrUy war 
Laeume dt SaiMt-Palayt^ Paris, 1626^ 
2 vols., with engravings ; and last, but not 
least, Don (fuixote. See also the article 
Tournament^ and the other articles in this 
work connected vrith this subjecL) We 
have dwelt so long on chivahy, as wa 
think a correct view of it important to the 
understanding of many other subject^ 
and as some of our views may be new to 
our readers. 

Chlaoni, Ernest Florence Frederic, 
one of the most distinguished proflcients 
in the science of acoustics, bom at Wit* 
tenberg, 1756, son of E. M. Chladeniua, 
professor in the faculty of law at that 
place, received his first education in the 
royal school at Grimma, devoted himself 
afterwards at Wittenberg and Leipac to 
law, and in the latter university was made 
doctor of philosophy in 1781, and, in 1782) 
doctor of kw. After the death of his fe- 
ther, he abandoned the law, and devoted 
bunself entirely to the study of namre, in 
which he had hitherto employed all his 
leisure hours. As an amateur of music, 
in which he recmved his first instructioa 
at the age of 19 years, be observed that 
the theory of soimd was much more neg« 
lected than the other branches of physics, 
and determined to supply this deficiency* 
The study of mathematics and physics, 
with reference to music^ enabled him to 
present new views relative to the theory 
and practice, of the aru Suice 1767, h^ 

Digitized by 




htspioTOd hinwelf a profiHind natuntliflr, 
by several works, relating, raincipally, to 
sound and tone ; e. g^ his Discoveries in 
R^;aid to the Theory of Sound (LeipBir, 
17^ ; Suggestions for promoting a bet- 
ter Explanation of the Theory of Sound, 
a work dedicated to the society of natural- 
ists at Berlin. His principal composition, 
which is a classical work in its kind, is 
his Acoustics (Leipsic, 1802, 4to^ with 
copperplates), precedeo by the history of 
his discoveries in acoustics. (A French 
translation, revised by himself, appeared 
in Paris, 1809— TVoi^^ (TAcausijque.) He 
has also written Further Contributions to 
Acoustics (Leipsic, 1817], and Contribu- 
tions to Practical Acoustics and the The- 
oiTof Constructing Instruments (Leipsic, 
1^22). Chladni is the inventor of the 
euphon and tlie clavicylinder. To make 
these instruments known, he ^ent 10 
years in visitine the capital cities of Ger- 
many, HoUano, France, Italy, Russia, 
Denmaric, and everywhere gained the 
esteem of connoisseurs. He retumeil, in 
J812, to his nadve place, where he is con- 
tinually employed in new researches. He 
also commenced examinations of the bo- 
lides, or fiery meteors, the phenomena of 
which, as the flame, smoke, noise, &c., 
have little in common vrith the electrical 
phenomena with which they have been 
confounded. He endeavored to prove, in 
two treatises, On the Origin of the Iron 
Masses found by Pallas, and other similar 
Masses (Riga, 1794), and On Fiery Mete- 
ors (Vienna, 1819), 1. that the stories which 
represent masses of stone as having fallen 
on our earth are worthv of credit ; and, 
2. that these masses and meteors are not 
the productions of our earth, and come 
from bevond the region of our atmos- 
phere. (See Meteoric SUmes,) 
Chloric Acin. (See Chlorine.) 
Chloride of Nitrogen. (See CJdO' 

Chloeoe. The discovery of this gas 
was made in 1770, by Scheele, and named, 
by its discoverer, depMo^iHioated marine 
acid. The term dephlogisHcated had ex- 
actly the same import as that ofoxygefuU- 
edj soon afterwards introduced by Lavoi- 
aer. From its pculiar yellowish-green 
color^ the • appellation of chlorine (from 
^>uifdf, green) nas been given to it Chlo- 
rine gas is obtained by the action of muri- 
atic acid on the peroxide of manganese. 
The most convement method of preparing 
it is by mixing concentrated munatic acid, 
contained in a glass flask, with half its 
weight of finely-powdered peroxide of 
manganese. On the application oi a 

modeMie hefit, to ga)» is evolv^ and 

should be collected in inveited glass bot- 
tles, filled with warm water. In order to 
comprehend the theoiy of this process, it 
must be premised that muriatic acid con- 
sists of chlorine and hydrogen. Tlua 
peroxide of manganese is composed of 
manganese and oxygen. When these 
compounds react on one another, the peiv 
oxide of manganese gives up a portion 
of its ox^sen to the hydrogen of the mu- 
riatic acu^ in consequence of which water 
is generated, and chlorine (the other in- 
0^ient in muriatic acid) is liberated. 
The method which is employed in the 
arts, and which is the most economical, is 
the followliig : — ^Three parts of common 
salt (muriate of soda) are intimately min- 
gled with one of the peroxide of manga- 
nese, and to this mixture two parts of nil'* 
phuric acid, diluted with an equal weij^ht 
of water, are then added. By the action 
of sulphuric acid on the muriate of soda, 
muriatic acid is disengaged, which reacts 
as before explained upon the peroxide of 
manganese; so that, instead of adding 
muriatic acid directly to the manganese, 
the materials fcMr forming it are employed. 
Chlorine is gaseous under a common at- 
mospheric pressure. It is twice and a 
half heavier than atmospheric air, or its 
specific gravity is 3.5. The gas has a yel- 
lowish-green color. Of all me gases, it is 
the most insupportable in its action on the 
lungs. When pure, it occasions immedi- 
ate death if an animal is immersed in it ; 
and even -when largely diluted with com* 
mon air, it cannot m respired wi^ sa&ty. 
It occasions a severe sense of stricture at 
the breast, which renders it impossible to 
make a fiill inspuation. This continues 
for a considerable time after it has been 
inepired, and has often produced a pem 
manently injurious eflect. When thorw 
oughly dried, by exposure to fused chlo? 
ride of calcium, it sufiers no changes 
though cooled to 40°. When prepared 
over water, however, so as to contain a 
quantity of aqueous vapor, it condenses 
on the sides of the vessel even at a tem- 
perature of 40° ; and, if surrounded by 
snow or ice, it shoots into acicular ciystaJs 
of a bright-yellow color, and sometimes 
two inches in length, which remain at* 
tached to the sides of the vessel. This 
solid is a hydrate of chlorine, and, when 
heated to 50°, it melts into a yellowish 
oily fluid. Chlorine is abs^bed by watei^ 
in a quantity which increases as the tem- 
peramre diminishes. At 50^, the water 
takes up about twice its volume. Tlie 
solution has a yelloTvish-gre^i; c^lor^ and 

Digitized by 



in o<for is that of ilie gas HmK Its tasie 
10 rather styptic than sour, and the liquid, 
like the gu, has the property of destroy- 
ing the vegetable colors. fifesDce it may 
be employed in bleaching. It is not 
changed Inr a boiline temperatiite. Solu- 
tion of chlorine is deconmoeed, however, 
by exposure to the solar light ; the chlo- 
rine attracts hydrogen from the water, 
forming muriatic acid, which remains dis- 
solved, and pure oxyeen is disengaged. 
Chlorine gas supports tne combustion of a 
number of inflammable substances. A 
lighted taper bums in it, though feebly, 
with a rea flame ; phosphorus takes fire 
when immersed in it ; and a number of 
the metals, as antimony, arseniCi copper 
and others, if introduced into it in leaves 
or filings, bum spontaneously. Potassium 
and scxlium burn vividly in it. In these 
eases, the inflammable or metallic sub* 
stances are believed simply to unite with 
the chlorine. Chlorine combines with 
many of these bases in more than one 
proportion. When in one proportion, the 
compound is called a chloride ; when in 
two, a birchloiride, or a deuio'-ddoride, 6cc 
Whenever a metallic chloride, which is 
soluble in water, is thrown into that fluid, 
it is conceived to be instantly converted 
mto a muriate ; the water present is de- 
composed, its oxygen goes to the metallic 
base, and its hydr^n to the chlorine, and 
a muriate of an alkali, earth, or metallic 
oxide, is fbrmed. Thus common salt, 
when dry, is a chloride of sodium : it is 
no salt, containing neither acid noralkafi, 
but, whenever it is dissolved in water, it is 
immediatdy tnmsfimned into a sah : the 
sodium attracts oxygen and becomes soda^ 
and the chlorine takes hydrogen and be- 
comes muriatic add, and muriate of soda 
exists in the solution. When any of tlie 
compounds of chlorine, with inflammable 
substances or metals, are subjected to the 
action of a galvanic apparatus sufiiciently 
powerfiil to decompose them, the chlorine 
IS always evolved at the positive pole of 
Ae batteiy, and the base at the negative 
pole. In this respect, and in its power of 
supporting combustion, chlorine is analo- 
gous to oxy^n. One of the most im- 
portant chenucal properties of chlorine is 
displayed in its action on the vegetable 
ooforB. Many of them it oidrely destroys ; 
and even those which are the most deep 
and perman^it, such as the co\or of indi- 
go, it renders fiiint, and changes to a light 
veUow or brown. This agency is exeited 
liy it, both in its gaseous and its liquid 
jorm. The presence of water is, howev- 
m^ ndOfJBUgy to this. Hence, when the 

gas dei03K)ys color, it must, probably, be 
enabled so to do by the h^grometric watet 
it contains. It is accordmgly found, that, 
^hen fifeed fivim this, it does not destroy 
the color of dry litmus paper. The de- 
straction of color appears to be owing to 
the communication of the oxygen of the 
water present to the coloring matter: thd 
chlMine attracts the hydrogen of the wa- 
ter to form muriatic acid, and the evolved 
oxygen unites with the coloring matter, 
and, by changing its constitution, alters its 
relation to li^t, so that the tint duappean. 
Berthollet applied this agency of ciiJorine 
to the process of bleaching, and with such 
success as to have entirely changed the 
manipulations of that ait The method 
of usmg it has been succesenvely improv- 
ed. It consisted, at first, in subjecting 
the thread or dodi to the action of the 
gas itself; but the eflect, in this way, wA 
unequally produced, and the strength and 
texture were sometimes ii^nred. It was 
then applied, condensed by water, and in 
a certain state of dilution. The thread, or 
cloth, was prepared as in the old method 
of bleaching, by boiling first in water, and 
then in alkaline lye ; it was then immersed 
in the diluted chlorine : this alternate ap« 
]>]icatic»] of alkali and chlorine was con- 
tinued until the color was discharged. 
The oflfenave, suffocating odor of the gas 
rendered this mode of using it, howeven 
scarcely practicable ; the odor was found 
to be removed by c<nidensing the chlorine 
by a weak solution of potash : lime, dif- 
fused in water, being more economicaL 
was afterwards sub&tuted. Under all 
these forms, the chlorine, by decomposmff 
water, and causing oxygen to be imparted 
to the coloring matter, weakens or dis- 
charges the color, and tiie coloring matter 
appears to be rendered more soluble in 
the alkaline solution, alternately applied, 
and of course more easily extracted by its 
action. More lately, a compound of chlo- 
rine and lime has been employed, prepar- 
ed by expofring slacked fime to chlorine 
gas : the gas is quickly absorbed, and the 
ddoride ^ Ume, as it is called, bein^ dis- 
solved in water, forms the bleaching liquor 
now commonly employed, and which pos- 
sesses many advantages. In using it, the 
colored cloth is first steeped in warm wa- 
ter to clean it, and is then repeatedly wash* 
ed with a solution of caustic potash, so 
diluted that it cannot injure the texture of 
the cloth, and which is thrown upon it by 
a pump; the cloth is then wasned and 
Bteepea in a very weak solution of chlo- 
ride of lime, agam washed, acted on by a 
boiling lye as before, and again steeped ia 

Digitized by 




Ike aolntkm; and tiiMe 
peffimned ahefnately Bevarad timei. The 
eiodi 18 laetly iinmened in veiy dilute bu1» 
{Auric ecidf which ghres it a pure white 
eolor; after which it ie wished and dried. 
Chloride of magnfuiia has been subethnt*' 
ed, with (great aavanlage, for that of lime^ 
m whitening cloth fi>r calico printing; 
the doth, wSbu lime is used, retsining a 
J&ttle of i4 which, in the subsequent apen^ 
doo of clearing by inuneiriQi] in weak 
sulphuric acid, ibrmB sulpb&te of lime, 
which remains, and affects tfaoeolon when 
t is d/ed ; while the sulphate of magnesia 
« so soluble, that it is entirely removed. 
Ohloride of alumine has been employed 
to dischaise the color of the Turicey-red 
dye, which resists the action of other chlo* 
fid^ and is only djschai|pd by chlorine 
ipn, by an operstion veiy mjurious to the 
workmen. Another important application 
of chlorine gas is that of destroying or 
■ e utin liziny contagion^ Acid vapors, sul* 
phuiousacid in particular, under the form 
of die iiimes of buming sulphur, had often 
been employed for that puroose ; but chlo- 
rine, fiom iie focility with which it de- 
onmpniws the different compound gases 
that comain the dements of vegetable and 
animal «Aatter,and which may be sup- 
poaed M eonsdtute noxious effluvia, is su- 
perior \» my other agent, and is now uni- 
versally ^.mployed for the purposes of fti* 
migatioii. It is the onfy airent which can 
jMJnrimMtfnr rdiof in csscs of asphyzia ftom 
«il|Aureted hydrogen; and it has been 
ibimd useftd, among such persons as are 
obliged to frequent places where conta* 
spouB eflSinvia are constant)^ developed, to 
bathe the hands and aims with itssohitkm. 
Ohforine, unked vrith hydroaen, foims an 
ifflpoctant compound, called munofic, or 
hidnchloncaeidgai, (SteMuriaHc^hid.) 
Whh oxygen, it rives rise to four distinct 
compovmdB, which are remariEable for the 
ftebte attraction of their constituent ele- 
■KHDts, notwithstanding the strong affinity 
of oxygen and chlorine for most elemen* 
my substances. Theae compounds aro 
navermet within nature. Indeed, they can- 
Boc he fonned by the dunect combinatioii 
of their oonsiituenis ; and their decompo* 
silkm is effected 1^ the slightest causea 
Notwithstanding this, their union is ahfaya 
regukled by the law of definite propoiw 
Ikins, as appears ftom the following tabular 
view, iflnstrative of tbdr composition. 

Chlorim. Ox^j^tn, 
Frotande of chlorine . • 96 . . . 8 
Peroxide of chlorine .. 96 ... 33 

Chloric acid 36 ... 40 

Ferchkxrie acid 36 • • • 56 

TOJU tu. 14 

Chlorine forms, 9kfD^ wiib nStrogen, oM 
CRf die most explosive coimNmnds yet 
known, and was the cause or serious ae« 
odents to M. Dulon^ its diseoverar, and 
afterwards to sir H. Davy. The dihruU 
4(f wUrogen is fonned firom the action of 
chlorine on some salt of ammonia, oblo- 
rine and nitrogen being incapable of unit- 
ing, when presented to each other in theb 
fnneous form. Its formation is ovring to 
me decompoaition of ammonia fa com- 
pound of hydrogen and nitroffen) py chlo- 
rine. The hydrogen of the ammonia 
unites with chlorine, and forms muriatic 
acid ; while the nitrofjen of the ammonia^ 
being presented in its nascent state to 
chlorine, dissolved in the solution, emten 
into combination with it. The chloride 
of nitrogen has a specific gravity of 1 .653 ; 
it does not congeal by the intense cold 
produced by a mixture of snow and sah. 
At a temperature between 200^ and 312^, 
it explodes ; snd mere contact with most 
sidistsnces of a combusdble nature causes 
detonation at common temperatures. The 
products of the explosion are chlorine and 
nitro^. Three distinct compounds of 
chianne and ear6on have of late been 
made known by Faraday ; but ftir an ac-^ 
count of these, as well as of the chloride$ 
ofndpfmr and ofphos^/orui^and ihechlo* 
ro'-carbomc acid ga$^ the reader is reforred 
to the larger treatises on chemistry, it be- 
ing incompatiUe with the plan of the pres- 
ent woriL to enter into those detaiki which 
are not connected with the usefol arts^ or 
which are not absolutely necessaiy in or- 
der to aftfeid a correct idea of the mode 
of reasoning and general theoiy of the 

Chlobite. (See Ttdc.) 

Cboc (ftom me French cAoe, the violent 
meeting of two bodies), in military lan- 
guage, signifies a violent attack. It is 
flenerally apphed to a chaiiie of cavalry. 
To give such an attack its full effect, it is 
necessary, 1. that the line be pr e ser ve d 
un1»oken, so that the attack shall take ef« 
feet at all points at the same time ; 3. that 
the hoorses be strong and heavy, that their 
momentum may be great; SL diat the 

* A letter oTM. Dauvergne to M. Gay-Lussac, 
in the Ann, de Chemie, recently pabfistied, states 
the effect of cMorine as an antidloie of hydrocjranie 
arid. A cat, to which two drooa of hydrocraoie 
acid were given through the ladirymal gUuuf, was 
affected most violenUy bv the poison. While the 
animaJ was in this coocution, some chlorine was 
put into heroMNttb, and, one hoar after, she was 
able to make a few tottering steps : the not asofiH 
ing the anmial was quite well. It has also bees 
lately stated, in the public ioumals, that the Frendb 
physicians have found chlorine very effectual in 
preserviag from the plague, if pot en the liMB, &a. 

Digitized by 


' CHOG-^-inOlfiBUL. 

chazce be made as swiftly aa posdlile, not 
merdy for the sake of the physical effect^ 
but idso of the moral eflect which it has 
on the enemy. This swiftness, however, 
must be attained gnidually, increasing aa 
the distance diminishesi The chai^ 
commences with a short trot ; a long trot 
follows; at the distance of 150 paces, this 
is increased to a gallop; and 50 paces 
from the enemy, the horse must be put to 
his speed. A choc, whether successfiil 
or not, is of short duration. 

Chocolate. (See Cac€Ui,) 

Choctaw 8, or Flat-Heaps ; a tribe 
of Indians, reading between the Missis- 
sippi and the Tomlnghee, partly in Ala- 
bama, but mostly in Mississipm. Th&r 
territory is bounded N. and N. E. by that 
of the ChickasawB. The country has a 
fertile soil, and is traversed by the upper 
waters of the Yazoo, Big Black, and 
Pearl rivers. Their number is estimated 
at about 20,000 or 25^000. They are a 
hardy, intrejnd and ingenious race, and 
have made, within the Laust 20 years, great 
advances in agriculture and otlier arts of 
civilized life. They raise cotton, and 
manufiicture it into cloth for their ordina- 
ry use, and often appear well clad in gar- 
ments of their own making. In lSl8, 
the American board of foreign missions 
established a misnon among tlie Indians 
at Elliol, on the Yalo Busha, a branch of 
the Yazoo ; and, since that period, eight 
other similar establishments have been 
formed. (See Indiana.) 
. Choczim [Chotsekm) ; an important 
frontier fortress of Russia, on the right 
Ijank of the Dniester, opposite to Kaminiec, 
in Bessarabia, with 25,000 inhabitants and 
a considerable trade. The people are en- 
tirely employed in furnishing supplies for 
the army. The Turks caused Choczim 
to be regularly ft>rtified, in 1718, by 
French engineers; but it was taken by 
the Russians in 1730, 1769 and 1786. As 
the Pnith, in Europe, is, at present, the 
boundary of the two empires, the situa- 
tion of Choczim renders it of great im- 
portance as an arsenal and place of ren- 

Chodowiecki, Daniel Nicholas, apaint- 
er and ensraver, bom at Dantzick, 1726, 
received trom his father, in his leisure 
iiours, his first instruction in miniature- 
jtainting, which he practised with great 
assiduity, in order to support his mother, 
after the death of his nther. His first 
mala excited the astonishment of con- 
noisseurs. A litde engraving, the Play 
at Diet, in 1756, particularly attracted the 
ottentionof the academy of Berlin. Dur- 

ing &e seven years' wiir, he enslaved rtir 
rious subjects connected with it; among 
others, the Buatian Prisoners at Berim^ 
which is now rare. The history of the 
unhappy Calas gave him an affecting 
subject for a picture, which, at the desire 
of ail who saw it, he engraved' on copper* 
The iinpresfions of the year 1767 are 
particuko-ly esteemed. Almost all the 
plates to LavatePs Physiognomical Frag- 
ments are from his desisns. He engrav- 
ed several of ihem himself. At last, 
scarcely a book appeared in Prussia, for 
which he did not engrave at least a vig- 
nette. The number of his engravings » 
more than 3000; but we must observe, 
that he was in the habit of making 
changes in his plates, after a number cf 
copies had been struck o^ so that all the 
copies of the same plate are not entirehr 
alike. He must be conddered the founds 
er of a new art in Germany — that of rep* 
resenting modem figures. He died, Feb. 
1, 1801, at BerUn, where he was dnector 
of the academy of arts. He was univer- 
sally esteemed for his integrity. 

Choir ; tliat part of the churdi 
where the choristers sing. In some old 
churches, the seats of the choristers, and 
other parts of the choir, are ornamented 
with admirable carved work. ^See Ar- 
chitecture, vol. I, page 343, sect, vii., CMkk 

Choiseul, Etienne Francois de ; duke 
de Choiseul et d'Amboise; minister of 
state of Louis XV ; bom in 1719. When 
count of StainviUe, he displayed a brik 
liant courage, and was mpidly promoted^ 
His marriage with a rich heiress^ sister to 
the duchess of Gontaut, and his intimate 
connexion with the marchioness de Pom- 
padour, permitted him to indulge his am- 
bitious hopes, which he never concealed* 
He went as ambassador to Rome, and, in 
1756, in the same capacity, to Vienna. 
In 1757, he succeeded the cardinal Ber- 
nis, then minister of foreign affiurs, vrho^ 
from chagrin at the opposition which he 
experien<^, after the conclunon of the 
much-contested alliance with Austria, re* 
signed his ofiice. The new minister 

2uickly gained the greatest influenceu 
Ee was made duke and peer, and admin- 
istered, at the same time, the department 
of war. He afterwards resigned the de« 
partment of foreign af&irs to the cowd 
Choiseul, who subsequently became duke 
of Praslin. Without havmg the name, 
he was, .in ftct, prime minister^ and con- 
ducted alone all ^e public affairs. From 
the begifming, . he. veas. unfrien<Uy to the 
Jesuits, and united with the pariiamenfa to 

Digitized by 




i^ct thftir mill. M eaUwiiile, die seveA 
years' war contLaued, and France, ai%er 
ezperienGii]^ continual reveniea, was com- 
pelled, by Uie exhausted state of her fi- 
nances, to condude a peace, in 1763, on 
un&Torable terms. This misfortune could 
not be ascribed to the two ministers who 
divided between themselves the adminis- 
tration of the state. Less able ministers 
would probably have been obliged to 
make greater sacrifices. But the honon 
and demonstrations of favor with which 
Choiseul and Fraslin were loaded were 
sufficient to draw upon them the bitterest 
accusations. Their enemies asserted that 
they only prolonged the war to render 
diemselves necessary, and reproached 
them for not having sooner concluded 
peace. Madame de JPompadour died in 
1764, the dauphin in 1765, and the dau- 
phiness in 1/67. After spreading the 
most absurd and infamous reports con* 
ceming the death of the dauphin, to throw 
suspicions on Choiseul, his enemies, the 
duke d'Aiffuillon, the abb^ Terray, and 
the chancdflor Maupeou, had recourse to 
the vilest instruments to efiect his ruin. 
They succeeded so far, that Louis XV, 
in spite of the representations of the min* 
jster, and his own promised, degraded the 
royal dignity by introducing the countess 
du Bany (q. v.) at court At first, the 
countess used all her arts to Insinuate her* 
aelf into die favor of the minister. Her 
ambidon was, to succeed to all the influ- 
ence of madame de Pompadour. Choi- 
eeul haughtily refused her proposals ; but, 
laudable as was his conduct towards the 
mistress, he ought not to have allowed 
himself to foivet the respect due to his 
king and benemctor. He might, perhaps, 
have persuaded him by compliance : his 
boldness only irritated him, and supplied 
his enemies with new pretexts for assail- 
ing him« The duchess of Grammont, 
the minister's sister, always possessed 
great influence over him. She exercised 
It, on this occasion, without the least mod- 
enidon, encouraged by tlie discontent of 
the nation, which favored the parliaments, 
then attacked by the chancellor JVIaupeou* 
The cause of the parliaments and the 
minister soon became one. The king 
was persuaded that Choiseul excited them 
to oppoation. The attachment of Louis 
to his minister struggled, for some time, 
against the intrigues of his enemies; bu^ 
in December, 1770, he announced to him, 
in severe terms, his disgrace, and his ban- 
ishment to Chanteloup. The departure 
of Choiseul resembled a triumph. His 
reuv>val was considered, by the nati<Mi, a 

public mislbitime. He lived three yeaift 
m exile, surrounded by a splendid and 
select society. Oto the deam of Louis 
XV, he recovered his liberty, having been 
in exile just long enough to increase his 
reputation, and to confirm the general 
esteem in which he wns held. While 
minister of war, after seven yearn of re- 
verses, he had changed the orsanizadon 
of the army, in consequence of the new 
tactics introduced by Frederic the Great 
Although the displeasure of the old offi- 
cers vras excited, and many gave in their 
rasigBadons, yet the necessity of the 
diange was soon evident The corps of 
artillery received a new form, and excel- 
lent schools were established, in which 
officers were educated, who rendered the 
French artillery the finest in Europe. 
The same improvements were made in 
the corps of eiigineera. Choiseul devoted 
nertieular attention to the West Indies. 
Martinique was fortified anew, and St 
Domingo raised to the bluest degree of 
prospenty. When Choiseul and Fradbd 
left the ministry, in 1770, the loss of the 
fleet had been repaired in lees than seven 
years. It consisted of 64 ships of the 
nne and 50 fiigates and corvettes. The 
magazines were filled. Choiseul also 
concluded the faniily compact, which 
united all the sovereigns of the house of 
Bourbon, and nlaced the Spanisl#fleet at 
the disposal or France. Thus he recov- 
ered the respect which France had lost 
by her military reverses. His firmness 
supplied what was vranting to his country 
in real strength. He conquered Corsica 
without any open opposidon from Eng- 
land. Convinced of the irrmortance of the 
independence of Poland for the balance 
of Europe, he continually thwarted the 
ambitious designs of Rusma, and involved 
it in a war with Turkejr, which he would 
have supported more viforouslh^, had not 
the king himself opposed it French offi- 
cers were sent to the Polish confederates, 
to the Turks, and the East Indian princes, 
whom he hoped to arm, as well as the 
American colonies, against the Engtidt 
Prodigal of his own lortune, he was fru- 
gal in the public experHiitiues. Louis 
AV soon feh the loss of Choiseul, and ex- 
claimed, on hearinff of the division of 
Poland, ** This would not have happened 
had Ch<HBeul been here." After Louis 
XVI ascended thei throne, Choiseul waa 
recalled, and received in the most hon- 
orable maimer, but vras not a^m ad- 
mitted into the ministry. Notwithstand- 
ing his immense debts, hr) continued to 
support an expensive s^le of livin|$, wnA 

Digitized by 



dwd in I78S, without ohildran. Hii 
Dfiphew and heir was 

CHoiBEUJL-StAiirviLLB, Claiide Antoine 
Gdnid, duke o^ bom 1763^ peer of 
Fjnneo before the revolution« He emi- 
crated in 1792, after he had anisted the 
Sight of the king, in 1791, and been ar- 
rested and releraed. He nised a regi- 
ment of huBBBTB, and served against 
Frmce. In the sequel, he was ship- 
wrecked on the French coast, taken, and 
remained four vears in prison, while it 
was debated whether the laws against 
emigruits returning to France were ap- 
phcaUe to him. Tne first consul release 
ed him, and caused him to be transported 
into a neutral territoiy, Januaiy 1, 1800« 
In 1801, he gave him penmnon to return 
to Fiance. After the restoration, Choi- 
seul was made lientenant-generaL In the 
house of peers, he joined ttie constitution- 
al paity. He has written ROatum du iM- 
part de L&uis XFI, U 20 Mnj 1791, and 
(both in the Mimoirts dts Contemporams), 

CHoisE0L-6o0rriER, Marie Gabriel 
Augusta, count de, peer of France, Ixmh 
in 1752, adopted the name of Crmffier af- 
ter his marriage with MUe. de Gouffier. 
In 1776, he travelled in Greece and Asia. 
His instructive journal of his travels ob- 
tained him a seat in the academy. In 
1784, h#was ambassador at Constantino- 
{^ and took vrith him several literary 
men and artists, in whose society he occu- 
pied himself, during his leisure hours, in 
learned researches. In 1791, he was ap- 
pointed ambassador to the court of Lon- 
don, but remained in Constantinople, and 
addressed all his notes to the brothers cff 
Louis XVI, then in Germany. But, on 
the retreat firom Champagne, this corre- 
spondence fell into the Imnds of the re- 
publicans, and, October 22, 1792, the 
convention ordered his arrest. He there- 
fore left Constantinople, and repaired to 
Eusna, where the empress granted him a 
pension, as an acadeimcian. In Februaiy, 
1797, he was appointed privy-counsellor 
by the emperor Paul I. In 1602, he re- 
turned lo France, and, in the following 
year, as a monber of the former academy, 
was admitted into the national institute, 
and, more latel^r, into the academy itself 
after its restoration. He died in the sum- 
mer of 1817. The 1st part of die 2d vol- 
ume of his VbwMge piUoresque en (Met 
appeared in 18(W, the 2d part in 1820. the 
& in 1824, gr. fbho, with copperplates 
and an atlaSi The 1st vohune or this 
work was published in 1782. In 1816, 
na read, in me academy of inaoriptionsi a 

DismlaUon war Hmhre, dfaertcd againsl 
the German philosopheiSL 

Cholsra TCelsus derives it fi:om x^^ 
and ^^, literally, a flow of bile, and Tral- 
lian from ^oX^ and ^m. intestinal flnx); 
HarrhBta choUriea ; fdl^uapasaio ; a ge- 
nus of disease arranged by Cullen in 3ie 
class neunaes and order $patmL It is a 
purfpngand vomiting of Infei attended with 
anxiety, painftil gripingi^ spasms of the ab- 
dominal muscles, and those of the calves 
of the legs^ There are two species of this 
genus : — 1. Cholera ip<mta$tea^ which hap- 
peni^ in hot seasons, without any manifest 
cause. 2. Cholera aeeidentalia, which oc- 
curs after the use of food diat digests 
slowly and irritates. In warm climates, it 
is met with at all seasons of the year, and 
itB occurrence is very fiequent; but in 
England, and other cold climates, it is 
most prevalent in the middle of summer, 
particulariy in the month of August ; and 
the violence of the disease has usualty 
been greater in proportion to the intense- 
ness of the heat It usually comes on 
with soreness, pain, distenmon, and flatu- 
lency in the stomach and intestines, suc- 
ceeded quickly by a severe and flnequent 
vomiting, and purging of ImUous matter, 
heat, thiiHt, a hurried respiration, and fre- 
quent but weak and fluttering pulse. 
When the disease is not violent, these 
symptoms, after continuing for a day or 
two, cease gradually, leavmg the patient 
in a debilitated and exhausted state ; but 
where the disease proceeds with much 
violence, great depression of strength en- 
sues, with cold, cmmmy sweats, conmder- 
able anxietjr, a hurried and short respva-^ 
tion, and hiccoughs, vrith a sinking and 
irregularity of the pulse, which quickly 
terminate in death--an event that not un- 
frequently happens within the space of 
24 hours. The appearances generally 
observed on dissection are, a quantitv of 
ImUous matter in the prhut true ; the ducts 
ofthe liver relaxed and distended. Sev- 
eral of the viscera have been found, in 
some cases, displaced, probably by the 
violent vomiting. In the earlj period of 
the disease, when the strength is not rmich 
exhausted, the object is, to lessen the irri- 
tation, and facilitate the discharge of the 
bile, by tepid demulcent Druids, flnequent- 
Yf administered. It vrill hkewise be use- 
ful to procure a determination to the sur- 
ftce, by fimientations of the abdomen, by 
the root-bath, or even the warm-bath. But 
where the symptoms are uifent, and the 
patient appears rapidly sinkm^ fiom the 
G<»tinuea vomitfaig, violent pom, Sui^ it is 
to give ogixaok mdy^ but in a 

Digitized by 




hoSkf fiom (me to diree giainsy or 
even more, in a table-spoonful of linaeed 
infusion, or with an effervescing safine 
draught, which must be repeated at short 
intervals, perhaps eveiy hour, till relief be 
obtained. Sometimes, where the stomach 
cx>uld not be ^t to retain the opium, it 
has answered m the fonn of clyster ; or a 
liniment containing it may be rubbed into 
the abdomen; or a blister, applied over 
the stomach, may lessen the irritability of 
that orsan. Afterwards, the bile may be 
allowed to evacuate itself downwards ; or 
mild aperients, or clysters, given, if neces- 
sary, to promote its discharge. When the 
urgent symptoms are reheved, the streuffth 
must be restored by gentle tonics, as Die 
aromatic bitters, calumba, and the like, 
with a light, nutritious diet: strong toast 
and water is the best drink, or a litde 
burnt brandy may be added, if there is 
much languor. Exposure to cold must be 
carefully avoided. The abdomen and the 
feet, particularly, must be kept warm, and 
creat attention is necessary to regulate the 
Bowels, and procure a regular discharge 
of bile, lest a relapse should happen. It 
will also be proper to examine the state 
of the abdomen, whether nressure give 
pain at any part, because innanmiation in 
the prwuB v{<B is very liable to supervene, 
often in an insidious manner. Should 
that be the case, leeches, blisteiing the 
> part, and other suitable means, must be 
promptly resorted to. 

Cholssteric Acid; a French name 
fcH* the acid formed by the union of nitric 
acid and the fat matter of the human bil- 
iaiy calculi. 
CROLESTERiine. (See Calculus.) 
Chojliamb (Greek, x^^^v^^y ^^^ \bjo» 
iambus ; also called skiawiy fit>m v«a{w, to 
halt; or versus Hiyponadicus^ because the 
satirist Hipponax of Ephesus made use 
of it, or perhaps invented it). The choli- 
amlnis is an iambic trimeter, the last foot 
of which, instead of beinff an iambus, is a 
trochee or spondee, which gives it a lame 
motion, as, for izistance, Martial 1, L ep- 

Cur in tbeainun, Gato severe, Tenisti t 
All ideo lantum veneras, nl exires 1 

We perceive, from the construction of the 
choliambus, that it may be applied with 
advantage to produce a comic effect. The 
Germans have happily imitated this veise, 
as well as all other ancient metres. An 
instance of a German choliambus is — 

Der CboKambe scheint do Vera (tir Kunstrichter. 
ChojiULa ; a town of Mexico, in Puebla ; 
60 miles £• of Mexico ; lat 19'a^ N. ; Ion. 

96^ 8^ W.; population, 16,000. It waa 
formerly a ciQr of Anahuac, containing, in 
the time of Cortes, acoorihng to his ac- 
count, 40,000 houses^ independent of the 
acyoining villages or suburbs, which he 
oomput^atasmanymore. Itsconmierce 
consisted in manufactures of cotton, gems, 
and plates of clay ; and it was much fiuned 
for its jeweUers and potters. With respect 
to religion, it may be said that Cholula 
was the Rome of Anahuac The surpris- 
ing multimde of temples, of which Cortes 
mentions that he counted more than 400, 
and, in particular, the great temple erected 
upon an artificial mountain, which is still 
existing, drew together innumerable pil- 
grims. This temple, which is the most 
ancient and celebrated of all the Mexican 
religious monuments^ is 164 feet in per- 
pendicular height, and, at the base, it 
measures, on each side, 1450 feet. It has 
four stories of equal height, and appears 
to have been constructed exacd^ in the 
direcdon of the four cardinal points. It 
is built in alternate layers of clay and 
bricks, and is supposed to have been used 
both as a temple and a tombb 

Choral (derived from eAorti^) ; a term 
apphed to vocal muac, consisting of a 
combination of different melodies, and 
intended to be performed by a plurality of 
singers to each part ; as ch&raL onfAem, cfto* 
roZ strvice. In Germany, this Ve^oi is ap- 
plied to the music of hymns, in the com- 
position of which the Germans are so 
much disdnguished. 

Chord (»om the Gredc x^p^^ &n intesh 
tine), in modem music ; a coiiQJi>inatioa of 
two or more sounds according to the laws 
of harmony. The word chard is often 
used in counterpoint ; as/umiamenfoZ chords 
accidental anomalous^ or equi-vocal, tna^ 
tieni choriL 

Choregrapht ; an invention of modem 
times ; the art of representing dancing by 
«gns, as singing is represented by notes. 
It points out the part to be performed bv 
every dancer— 4he various modons which 
belong to the various parts of the music, 
the position of the feet, the arms, and the 
body, &c The degree of swifhiess with 
which every motion is to be performed 
may be thus indicated, by which all be- 
comes as intelligible to the dancer as a 
piece of music to the musician. Draw- 
mgs to assist the tactician, by designating 
the poeidon. motion and evoluti(»is of 
troops, have also been called chongrapk^ 

Chorumbus, in metre; a foot com- 
pounded of a trochee and an iambus. 
(See BJufOim.) 

Digitized by 




CHOsoGtiAPflf ; the deBCription of a «n^ 
§jl» district, in contradistinction to geog- 
raphy (the description of the earth). The 
art of drawing maps of particular difMricts 
is also called ehorographf. 

Chorus, in the drama. This was, origi- 
nallv, a troop of smgers and dancers, in- 
tended to heighten the pomp and solem- 
nity of festivals. This, without doubt, 
was at first the purpose of tragedy and 
comedy, of which the chorus was orin- 
naUy the chief part, in fact, the basis. In 
the sequel, it is true, the chorus became 
only an accessory part During the most 
flourishing period of Attic tragedy, the 
chorus was a troop of male and female 
personages, who, during the whole rep- 
resentation, were bystanders or spectatora 
of the action, never quitting the stage. In 
the intervals of the action, the chorus 
chanted songs, which related to the sub- 
ject of the performance, and were intended 
either to augment the impression, or to 
express the reeling of the audience on the 
course of the action. Sometimes it even 
took part in the performance, by observa- 
tions on the conduct of the pjersonaffes, by 
advice, consolation, exhortation or dissua- 
sion. It usually represented a part, gener- 
ally the oldest portion of the people, where 
the acdon happened, sometimes the coun- 
seliors of the king, &c. The chorus was 
an indifij^nsable part of the representation* 
In the beginning, it consisted of a great 
number of peisons, sometimes as many as 
50 ; but the number vms afterwards limit- 
ed to 15. The exhibition of a chorus was 
in Athens an honorable civil charge, and 
was called ehoragy. The leader or chief 
of a chorus was called cofypfusiis, who 
spoke in the name of the r^ when the 
chorus participated in the action. Some- 
times the chorus was divided into two 
parts, who sung alt^nately. The divis- 
ions of the chorus were not stationary, but 
moved from one aide of the stage to the 
other; from which circumstance the names 
of the portions of verse which they recited, 
strophe, anlisirophe and epode, are derived. 
But it cannot be determined in what man- 
ner the chorus sung. It is probable that 
it was m a sort of solemn recitative, and 
that their melodies, if we may call them 
so, consisted in unisons and octaves, and 
were very simple. They were also ac- 
companied by instruments, perhaps flutes. 
With the decline of ancient tragedy, the 
chorus was omitted. Some tragedians of 
the present age, of whom Schiller was the 
^rst (see his prologue to tne Bride (f Met- 
Mina) have attempted to revive the ancient 

Cftonif, in mmic, in its geaeral senses 
denotes a composition of two, three, four 
or more parts, each of which is intended 
to be sung by a plurality of voices. It ia 
uiplied, abo, to the peiiformera who ans 
those parts. These choruses are adapted 
to express the joy, admiration, griel^ ado- 
ration, &C., of a multitude, and sometimeB 
rduce much eflfect, but are very difficult 
the composer. 

Chosroes I, king of Persia, succeeded 
to the throne in 531. His memory is still 
venerated in the East, and his virtues ob- 
tained him the titles of the Mofnamnunts 
and the Jutt At his accession to the 
crown, Persia was involved in a war with 
Justinian, to whom Chosroes granted a 
perpetual peace, on the payment of a large 
sum of money. But, in 540, Chosroes 
invaded Syria, laid Antioch in ashes, and 
returned home laden with ^ils. After 
several other victorious expeditions, he in* 
vaded India and Arabia, renewed the war 
with Justin, the successor of Justinian, 
whom he compelled to solicit a truce, but 
was, soon after, driven back across the Eu- 
phrates by Tiberius, the new emperor, and 
the Romans took up their winter quarters 
in the Peifiian provinces. Chosroes died in 
579. His love of justice sometimes led him 
to acts of cruelty ; but he encouraged the 
arts, founded academies, and made a con- 
siderable proficiency in philosophy himseifl 
His reputadon obtained him a visit ftt)m 
seven sages of Greece, who sdU adhered 
to the pagan religion ; and, in a treaty with 
Justinian, he required that they should be 
exempt from the penalties enacted against 
those who continued to ftivor paganism. 
Persian historians ascribe to him the com- 
pletion of the great wall of Jabouge and 
Magogue, extending fix)m Derfoent along 
the Persian frontiers. 

Chosroes II, grandson to the preced- 
ing, ascended the Uirone in 590, and carried 
his arms into Judea, Libya and Egypt, and 
made himself master of Carthage. In 
617, he reduced Heraclius, the Roman 
emperor, to solicit a peace, which he re- 
fused to grant, except on condition of his 
renouncing the crucified God, and wor- 
shipping the sun. Heraclius, deriving 
courage from despair, penetrated into the 
Persian empire, and piilased and burned 
the palace of Chosroes, who was dethron- 
ed by his own son, and cast into prison, 
after wimessing the massacre of 18 of his 
sons, and suftering every indignity. His 
suflTerings were terminated by his death, 
in 628. 

Chouans, in the French revolution ; the 
insurgents on the right and Idt banks of 

Digitized by 




te Loire. The name nvius properly ap- 
plied to the royaliscs on the right bank of 
the Loire, in oretagne, Anjou and Maine. 
The principal theatre of the war formed 
neariy a square, the angles of which are 
tfaft cities of Nantes, Angers, Mayenne and 
Rennes ; but the excursions sometimes 
extended to the coast, to the city of L'Ori- 
eat. The origin of the word Chouans is 
not known. Some derive it fitim the 
name of the sons of a blacksmith, who 
fint excited the insurrection in that quar- 
ter ; others firom a corruption of the 
word ehat-huant (screech-owl). Accord- 
ing to the latter, there was a horde of 
amugi^enk who, befbie the revolution, se- 
cretly exported salt from Bretagne into 
the nei^boring provinces, and whose 
fliffnal was the cry of the screech-owL 
The revolution broke up the trade of 
these men, most of whom had no other 
resource. Accustomed to a vagabond life, 
they wandered through the country, com- 
mitting depredations, imd were gmdually 
joined by others of a similar character. 
At first, murder and pillage was the chief 
object of these wretches, but they after- 
words united with the Vendeans (see Ven^ 
die) in defence of monarchy and religion, 
and shared their ftle. Since the return 
of Louis XVIIl, several of the chiefs of 
the Chouans have been honorably reward- 
ed.fbr their former services. 

Chovoh, or Chouch (choucasj French) ; 
the trivial name of a species of crow (cor- 
vus monedulOj L.). It is about the size of a 
pigeon, and has a sharp cry ; is nearly om- 
nirorous, except thant does not feed up- 
on carrion ; is of a dark ash color idmut 
the neck and under the belly, though fre- 
quently entirely black. The chouglia live 
together in large flocks, and make their 
nests in steeples, old towers, or in large 
and lofly trees. Their manners are veiy 
sinoilar to those of tlie rooks, with which 
they are sometimes seen flying in compa- 
ny. They are exceedingly vigilant in 
gnanling their nests and young from birds 
of nrey, which they attack anid drive off 
wim great vigor whenever they approach 
their vicinity. 

Ghodiix^ Shumla, or Shidmla ; a 
Tmki^ fortress in the mountains of the 
Balkan, (a. v.) Varna (q.y.) and Choum- 
la are called, on account of their great 
military importance, the states of Comtanr 
imopU. The town of Choumla, properly 
so cdled, is nearly surrounded by a natu- 
ral rampart, consistinff of a portion of 
mount Hcemus, or the Balkan. The steep 
flkipes of this great bulwark are covered 
with detached rooks and dose, thoAy 

bushes. The nature -of die ground makes 
it a veiy advantageous position for the 
Turkish soldier, who, when sheltered by 
the inequalities of the ground and a few 
entrenchments, displays great resolution 
and address. The town is about a league 
in length and half a league in breadth, and 
may contain from 30,000 to 35^000 souls. 
The fortifications are rudely constructed, 
but its situation in the midst of a vast 
natural fortress, capable of containing an 
immense army, with its magazines, &C., 
secures it finom the enemy's artillery. The 
air is very healthy in the elevated parts 
of the Balkan, and in the narrow vail^ 
which lie between its ridges. On the 
other hand, there cannot be a more un- 
healthy countiy than that which extends 
from die Balkan to the borders of the 
Danube and the Pruth. This difiference 
between the climate of the mountains and 
that of the pliun is the most e^ctual defence 
which nature has given to Choumla. In 
the late war between Russia and Turkey, 
it was besieged by the troops of the former 
power fit)m July 20, 1828, until Oct 25, 
of the same year, when they retired, after 
the conquest of Varna, Oct 11.- On the 
11th of June, 1829, a decisive victory was 
gained by the Russians over tlie Turkey 
not fer from Choumla. The grand vizier 
commanded the Turks, who are said to 
have lost 6000 killed, 1500 prisonerB, and 
00 pieces of cannon, with large quantities 
of ammunition and baggage. The loss of 
the. Russians amounted only to 1400 killed 
and 600 wounded. 

Chrism (fit)m the Greek x^aAia, salve) ; 
the holy oil prepared on Holy Thuroday 
by the Catholic bishops, and used in bap- 
tism, confirmation, ordination of priests, 
and the extreme unction. Hence the 
name Christ, the anointed. 

^ Christ (Gr. Xpcor);, the anointed). MeS' 
siah, from the Hebrew, has the same sig- 
nification. (See ChrManitVj and Jtsus.) 

Christ, Pictures op. Legends exist 
of a }>ortrait of the Savior, which king 
Abgarus of EMeesa is said to have pos- 
ses^. This was miraculously impressed 
by the Savior on a napkin which he 
placed ujion his fkce, and afterwards sent 
to the king. The handkerchief of S^ 
Veronica (Berenice) is said to have also 
contained a portrait of Christ impressed 
in a similar way. A picture of Christ, 
taken by St Luke, is likewise mentioned. 
In a letter, evidently spurious, which Len- 
tulus, the predecessor of Pilate, is said to 
have vmtten to the Roman senate, Christ 
is described as being of a handsome, 
manly stature and countenance. Among 

Digitized by 




the existing repreflentatioiiB of Christ, the 
most ancient is in a hasso^rdievo of mar- 
ble, on a sarcophagous, of the 2d or 3d 
century, in theVaucan. Christ is there 
exhibited as a young man without beard, 
with Roman features, flowing and slight- 
ly curled hair, wearing a Roman toga, and 
sefUed upon a curule chair. In the Mune 
place, there is another Christ, of the 4th 
oentuory, with an oval fiice, Oriental fea- 
tures, parted hair, and a short, straight 
beard. This representation was the model 
which the Byzantine and Italian painters 
feUowed until the time of Michael Angelo 
and Raphael Since the 16th centuiy, 
the Italian school has generally taken the 
heads of Jupiter and Ajwllo as the models 
for the pictures of Christ. Different na- 
tions have given his image their own 
characteristic features. The head of 
Christ has become the highest point of 
the art of painting among Christian nar 
tions; and men of the greatest genius 
have labored to imbod^ their conceptions 
of his divinity, the umon of the dinerent 
virtues of his character, his meekness and 
firmness, and the flill perfection of his 
Godlike nature. The representations of 
the Savior by Titian, Leonardo da Vinci, 
Ri^hael, &C., are among the subhmest 
prcMuctions of modem art. Christ's head 
18, for the modem artist, what the head 
of Jupiter or Apollo was for the ancient, 
with this difference, however, that it has 
become more especially the ideal of the 
painter, whilst the others principally fur- 
nished subjects for the genius of the 
sculptor; and this circumstance shows 
the difference in the character of the two 
periods of art, which must, of courae, be 
most apparent in their highest productions. 
Some of the most elevated expressions of 
the countenance of the Savior, e. g. the 
glowing love of his divine soul, cannot be 
well represented by the marble. There 
exist, however, excellent statues of Christ 
The two best of modem times are that 
of Tborwaldsen at Copenhagen, and that 
of Dannecker at Stuttgart. 

Cbrist-Church Collbos. (See Qar- 

Chkist's Hospital (generally known 
by the name of Blue coat schoot, the titie 
liaving reference to the costume of the 
chiMren educated there) ; a sdiool in 
London, founded by Edward VI, for sup- 
porting poor orphans. At the same time 
St* Bartholomew's hospital was founded, 
for the wounded and diseased, and Bride- 
well was assigned as a place of confine- 
ment for vagabonds. Charles II connect- 
ed a mafhematical school with it There 

are generally fhim 1000 to 1200 boys and 
girls at this establishment, receiving in- 
struction, board and clothing. The great 
hall at Christ's hospital is remarkable for 
some very fine pictures. 

Christian II, king of Denmark, bom 
at Copenhagen, 1481, vras educated with 
little care. While yet a youth, his violent 
character led him into great extravar 
gances. King John, his father, punished 
him severely, but in vain. In 1507, he 
was called to Bergen, to suppress some 
seditious movements, where he conceived 
a violent passion for a young Dutchwoman, 
named Dyveke, whose mother kept an 
inn. Dyveke became the mistress of 
Christian, who allowed her, and particu- 
lariy her mother, an unlimited influence 
over him. He vnis viceroy in Norway, 
until the declining health of his father 
recalled him to Copenhagen. After he 
had ascended the throne, he married, in 

1515, Isabella, sister of Charles V. He 
afterwards remonstrated with Henry VIII 
of England, on account of the piracies 
committed by the English ships, renewed 
the treaties which had been made with 
the grand-duke of Moscow, and endeav- 
ored to deprive the Hanse towns of their 
commerce. The hopes which this con- 
duct excited among his subjects were 
soon annihilated by the horrible scenes 
caused by the death of Dyveke. The re- 
lations of Toibem Oxe, govemor of the 
casde of Copenhagen, were accused of 
having poisoned her. Oxe acknowled^ 
a former passion for her, and the kinc 
ordered him to be beh^^ Severu 
other executions spread horrof through the 
whole kingdom. Christian hated the no- 
bility, and protected the commons and the 
peasantry against their oppressionsL In 

1516, a papal legate arrived in the North, 
in order to dispose of indulgences. Chri»- 
tian received hini, hoping that he mi|^ht 
be useful to him in Sweden, in obtaining 
the crown, at which he was then aiming. 
The Swedes were divided into several 
parties. Gustavus Trolle, archbishop of 
IJpsal, a swom enemy of Stenon Sture, 
adininistrator of the kingdom, had secretiy 
united himself with Christian; but tJie 
Swedish suites protected Sture, dismissed 
TroUe, and caused his castle to be demol- 
ished. The nuncio, who arrived during 
these events in Sweden, vras gained over 
by Sture, discovered to him tiie plans of 
Christian, and justified the Swedes to 
the pope against the charges of TroUe. 
Christian finally arrived at Stockholm in 
1518, for tiie sake of an interview widi 
the adminiscratDry receiving, for his own 

Digitized by 




Beeori^, six hoetages from the fint fami- 
lies. When these hostages, among whom 
was Gustavus Vasa, arrived at the Danish 
fleet, the faithless monarch treated them 
as prisoners, and returned to DenmariE. 
He appeared in Sweden, in 1520, in the 
middle of winter, at the head of an army. 
The Swedes were beaten at Bogesund, 
Jan. 19, and Smre was mortally wound- 
ed. The Danes pursued their advantage. 
TroUe presided over the assembly of Uie 
etates-geneial at Upsal, and proposed to 
them to acknowledge Christian for theur 
king. Although many were disinclined 
to the union, they were, nevertheless, 
oUiged to submit to it. A general ani- 
nes^ was proclaimed, and aU hastened to 
prom by It The capital, to which the 
widow of the administrator had repaired, 
offered ^me resistance. As soon as the 
sea was open, Christian apneared with 
his fleet before Stockholm, which did not 
surrender to him. The sumimer was 
passing away ; his providons were nearly 
exhausted ; bis troops murmured. At last, 
he resolved to send Swedish messengers 
to the inhabitants. His promises, aided 
by famine, effected what his arms had not 
been able to accomplish. The gates were 
opened to him. He promised to maintain 
the liberty of Sweden, and to forget the 
past. He arrived at Stockholm near the 
end of October, demanded from the bish- 
ops and senatoiB an act acknowledging 
him as their hereditary king, and causea 
himself to be crovmed, two days after, 
by Trolle. He bestowed the honor of 
knighthood only on foreiimers, and de- 
clared that he would confer this dignity 
on DO Swedish subject, because he had 
conquered the country by force of arms. 
In sfMte of the general consternation, he 
ordered public rejoicings, during which 
he knew how to gain the favor of the 
muhiuide. He determined to strengthen 
the royal authority in Sweden, and to ef- 
fect his purpose by the annihilation of the 
first femilies. His advisers differed only 
•s to the means. Finally, Slaghoek, the 
king^ confessor, renundea him of the ex- 
communication of the enemies of Trolle, 
and added, that, though, as a prince, he 
mi^ht feiget the past, he ought to extir- 
pate the heretics, in obedience to the 
Goirmiands of the pope. Accordingly, 
TroUe demanded the punishment of the 
heretics , the king appointed coirnnission- 
ers before whom the accused appeared. 
Chrisdna, the widow of the admiiustrator, 
was among them. To vindicate her hus- 
band's memory, she produced the decree 
of the senate passed in 1517 Christhin 

obtained possession of it, and formed from 
it his list of proscriptions. The accused 
were declared guilty, and 94 victims were 
executed in the presence of the king. 
These bloodv scenes continued in the 
capital as well as in the provinces. Chris- 
tian justified himself by the public decla- 
ration, that they were necessary for the 
tranquilli^ of the kinj?dom. He then re- 
turned to Denmark. His way was marked 
with blood : he garrisoned all the cides, 
and committed the same crueldes in Den* 
mark. He soon afler vront to the Nether- 
lands, to request the assistance of Charles 
V against Frederic, duke of Holstein, his 
uncle, and against the inhabitants of L(i- 
beck, who were always ready to assist ths 
Swedes. On his return to Copenhagen, 
he feund all Sweden in arms. Slag- 
hoek's tvnmny had excited a general re- 
volt. Christian gave him the archbish- 
opric of Lund, but soon after caused him 
to be burnt alive, in order to appease the 
pope, who had sent a legate to Denmark, 
to examine into the mu^erof the bishops 
at Stockholm. In order to reconcile the 
pope, he altered every thing in the laws 
which fevered Lutheranism, for which he 
had previously shown much inclination. 
Meanwhile Gustavus Vasa escaped from 
prison, and raised his standard against the 
Danes. The states-general, assembled at 
Wadstena, declared that Christian had 
forfeited the Swedish crown. The garri- 
son of Stockholm revolted on account of 
the want of pay. Christian, exasperated 
by these events, ordered the Danish gov- 
ernors to execute all the rebels. This 
measure hastened his ruin. Norfoy still 
held Stockholm, Calmar and Abo, three 
places which were considered as the keys 
of the kingdom ; but he was soon harassed 
by the inhabitants of Ltibeck, who even 
made an attack upon the coasts of Den- 
maric. Christian, to revenue himself^ - 
commenced negotiations with the duke 
of Holstein, but thev were soon interrupt- 
ed by his own violence. Meanwhile, he 
{mblished two codes restricthig the privi- 
eges of the clergy, and extending the 
rights of the peasantry. The^ contained 
many wise laws, which are still in force, 
but mixed with others which caused ^- 
eral discontent The nation complained 
of the debasement of the currency, and 
the insupportable burthen of the taxes, 
mie bishops and senators of Jutland, per- 
ceivinff the disposition of the people, 
formed the [dan of revolting against the 
king. About the end of 1522, thev n*- 
nounced their allegiance, declared Uhris- 
tian to have forfeifed his rights, and of^od 

Digitized by 




the crown to Frederic, duke of Holsteio. 
The king, who suspected their designs, 
summoned the nobility of Jutland to Cal- 
limdboK;, in Zealand ; and, as none obeyed 
the cal( he summoned them anew m 
1523, to Aarhuus, in Jutland, whither he 
repaired himself His arrival compeUed 
the conspirators to hasten the execution 
of their plans. They assembled in Vi- 
bor^, and adopted two acts ; by one of 
which they deposed the king, and by the 
other invited Frederic to take possession 
of the throne. A civil war was on the 
point of breaking out, when Christian 
abandoned his kingdom. In April, 1523, 
he left Denmaik, and took the queen, his 
children, his treasures, and the archives of 
the kingdom, on board the fleet A storm 
dispersed his ships, threw him upon the 
coast of Norway, and, after the greatest 
dangers, he reached Veere, in Zealand. 
Charles V contented himself with writing 
to forbid Frederic, the nobility of Jutland, 
and the city of Lubeck, to act against 
X^hristian. The latter. had, meanwhile, 
raised an army and equipped a fleet, and 
landed at Opslo, in Norway, in 1531. 
But his troops suffered new losses. Being 
attacked in his camp by the Danish and 
Hanseatic fleet, he shut himself up in the 
city, and his vessels became a prey to the 
flames. Depri.ea of all resources, he 
proposed a treaty to the Danish generals, 
who Anally ^p-anted him a safe conduct, 
permitting him to repair, in the Danish 
fleet, to Copenhagen, for the purpose of 
a personal interview with Frederic. In 
July, 1532, he arrived before Coper'iagem 
But Frederic rejected the treaty, a *d the 
senate ordered the imprisonment of Chris- 
tian. He was accordingly conveyed to 
the castle of Sonderburg, in the island of 
AJsen. He there passed 12 years in the 
society, at flrst, of a dwarf, and afterwards 
of an old invalid, in a tower, the door of 
which was walled up. A stone table is 
still shown, around tne edge of which is 
a line worn by the hand of Christian, 
whose sole exercise consisted in walking 
round it, with his hand resting on the sur- 
fece. He was totally abandoned. When 
Christian III ascended the throne, in 1543, 
his condition was improved, by virtue of 
a treaty with Charles V. He Uved, fiiom 
1546, at Callundborg, with a flxed in- 
come, and died at this place, Jan. 24, 
1559. His wife, Christina, a professor of 
Lutheranism, fidthfully shared his mis- 
ibitunes until her death, in 1526. He had 
three children— John, who died at Ratis- 
bon in 1532, at the age of 13 yeare ; Dor- 
othea, who married Frederic, the elecuw 

palatine; and Christina, who married 
Francis Sforza, duke of Milan, and, after 
his death, Francis, duke of Lorraine. It 
ought not to be foi^gotten, that Christian^ 
cruelty was, in some de&pree, owing to the 
insolence of the nobility, whose arro- 
gance he was determined to repress. 

Christian YII, king of Denmarit,boni 
1749, son of Frederic V and Louisa of 
England, succeeded lus &ther, Jan. 13^ 
17^ In the same year, he married 
Caroline Matilda (<]•▼•)» sister of Geor^ 
III of England. Dunng his travels, m 
1767—69, through Gennany, Holland, 
England and France, he visited the most 
distinguished men of learning, the acade- 
mies and literary societies, was made 
doctor of laws in Cambridge, and every- 
where maintained the character of an 
affable and enlightened prince. At first, 
the cotmt J. U. 6. de BemstorflT, who had 
enjoyed the entire confidence of Frederic 
V, continued to preside over the af&dn 
of the state. But, in 1770, Struensee 
(q. v.l the king's physician, who had 
gained an unlimited influence over him, 
and had also insinuated himself into the 
fiivor of the imprudent young queen, ob* 
tained this post The refoims undertaken 
by this minister excited the hatred of the 
nobility and the discontent of the militaiy. 
The ambitious queen dowager (Julia Ma- 
ria of Bninswick, step-momer of Chris- 
tian) had in vain endeavored to disunite 
Christian and his wife, in order to obtain 
the direction of aftairs. She now fonned 
a connexion with some malcontents, and 
succeeded, Jan. 16, 1772, in conjunction 
with tliem and her son, the hereditary 
prince Frederic (Christian's step-brother)^ 
m obtaining fitim the king, after a long 
resistance, an order for the imprisonment 
of his queen and Struensee, on pretence 
that they were conspiring the deposition 
of the king. From that time the guidance 
of afiairB was in the hands of Juha and 
of her son Frederic. The king, whom 
disease had deprived of his reason, reicned 
only nominally. In 1784, the present Ring 
was placed, as regent, at the nead of the 
government. {See Frtdaic VL) Before 
the taking of the capital by the Englidi^ 
in 1607, Christian VII had been earned 
to Rendsburg, in Holstein, where he died, 
March 13, 1808. The queen, Caroline 
Matilda, after having been conducted to 
the casde of Cronborg, had been subjected 
to an examination as to her connexion 
with Struensee. She afterwards repaired 
to Celle, where she died in 1775. Chris- 
tian had but two children, the present 
king, Frederic VI, and the princess Aa* 

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^DBtof manied to the late duke of Hoi- 
Btein-Augustenbux;^. (For an account of 
Struensee's fate, see the Mhnoires de M 
de FdUkemkioidj major-general of the 
king of Denmark, published by Secretan, 
PajS^1826.) / «-» 

Ch&istiania; capital of the kingdom 
of Norway, seat of govenuuent, and the 
place where the fStrtking (Norwegian 
parliament) meet; ton. 10^49' E.; lat. 59° 
59^ 46^' N. It contains 1500 houses, and 
11,040 inhabitants, is situated in the dio- 
cese of Cliristiania, or Aggerhuus, on the 
northern end of the bay a£ Christian&- 
fiord, in a district where gardening is 
much pursued. Besides the suburbs, it 
contains Christiania Proper, built by king 
Christian IV, in 1624, on a regular plan, 
the Old City, or Opslo, and me citadel, 
Ag^rhuus, which was demolished in 
i815. Among the principal buikLinss 
are the royal palace, the new councu- 
house, and the exchanse. Since 1811, a 
university (Fredericia) has been establish- 
ed here, with a philological seminary, a 
botanical f;arden, an ob^rvatoiy, a Kbra- 
nr, collections of various kinds, 18 pro* 
fessora, and 200 students. Christiania also 
contains a mihtary school, a bank, a com- 
mercial institute, an alum ifactoiy, &c. 
It has much trade, chieflv in lumber and 
iron. Its harbor is excellent. The value 
of the lumber annually exported is esti- 
n^ated at 810,000 guilders. In the vicinity 
are 136 sawin^-nulls, which furnish, an- 
nually, 20 milhons of pknks. 

Chri9Tia5itt; the religion instituted 
by Jesus Christ. Christianity, as it now 
exists in our minds, has received, from the 
influence of the priesthood, of national 
character, of the spirit of die time, and 
the thousand ways in which it has been 
brought into contact with politics and 
science, a quanti^ of impure additions, 
which we should fust separate, in order to 
understand what it is in reality. There 
could be no better means of attaining a 
correct understanding of it, than to inve&- 
tieate, historically, the religious principles 
¥^cb Jesus himself pro^ssed, exhibited 
in his life, and labored to introduce into 
the world, if the investigator could avoid 

S'ving the coloring of his own views to 
s explanation of the records of the ori- 
jpu or Christianity. But the most honest 
mquirers have not entirely succeeded in 
8o doing. Even the Christian theologians 
of the present age—less divided, in some 
countries, for instance, in Germany, by 
the spirit of creeds and sects, than by the 
difference of scientific methods and phi- 
k)sophical speculadons— dispute resjMct- 

ing the princmle that constitutes the ba- 
sis of thd rehgion of Christ, which, m 
other respects, has been unanimously 
adopted. (See the articles RdAgion^ J2ev- 
dahouj RationaUtm, and Supematttral' 
iamJ) This princifde appears, by its e^ 
^t upon the numerous nations, difierinf 
so greatly in intellectual character and 
cultivation, which received Christianity 
at first, to have been a universal truth, 
adapted to the whole human race, and of 
a divine, all-uniting power. The Jews 
believed in a Uvine God, the Creator of 
all things, and, so nir, had just views of 
the source of religiorL The Greeks, be- 
sides developing the principle of the 
beautiful in theur works of art, had laid 
the foundations of valuable sciences ap- 
phcable to the business of hfe. The Ro- 
mans had established the principles of 
law and poHtical administration, and 
proved their value by experience. These 
scattered elements of moral and intellect- 
ual cultivation, insufficient, in their disu- 
nited state, to bru^g about the true happi* 
ness and moral perfection of man, in his 
social and individual capacity, were refin- 
ed, perfected and combmed by Christian- 
ity, through the law of a pure benevo- 
lence, the highest aim of which is that of 
rendering men good and hapmr, like God, 
and which finds, in the idea of a kingdom 
of heaven upon earth, announced and re- 
alized by Christ, all the means of execut- 
ing its design. His religion supphed what 
was wanting to these nations — a retij^ous 
character to the science of Greece, moral 
elevation to the legislative spirit of Rome, 
hberty and light to the devotion of the 
Jews— and, by inculcating the {wecept of 
universal love of mankind, raised the nar* 
row spirit of patriotism to the extended 
feeling of general phiknthropy. Thus 
the endeavors of ancient times after mor* 
al perfection were directed and concen- 
trated by Christianity, which supplied, at 
the same time, a motive for oifiusing 
more widely that light and those advan- 
tages which mystery and the spuit of 
castes had formerly withheld mm the 
multitude. It conveyed the highest ideas, 
the most important truths and principles, 
the purest laws of moral life, to all ranks ; 
it proved the poesibiUty of perfect virtue, 
through the example of its Founder ; it 
laid the foundation for the peace of the 
world, through the doctrine of tlie recon- 
ciUation of men with God and with each 
other; and, directing their minds and 
hearts towards Jesus, the Author and 
Finisher of their fkith, tlie crucified, aris- 
en and gk>rified Mediator between heavea 

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and earth, it taught them to diacem the 
benevolent oomiexion of the future life 
with the present The histonr of Jesus, 
and thepreparationa of God tor his mis- 
sion, afiorded the materials from which 
Christiaus formed their conceptions of the 
character and tendency of their religion. 
The first community of the fbllowera of 
Jesus was formed at Jerusalem, soon afler 
the death of their Master. Another, at 
Antioch, in S}'ria, first assumed (about 
65) the name of Ckriatianay which had 
originally been given to them by tlieir ad- 
versaries, as a term of reproach ; and the 
travels of the apostles spread Chrietian- 
ity tlirough the provinces of tlie Roman 
empue. Palestine, Syria, Natotia, Greece, 
the islands of the Mediterranean, Italy, 
and the northern coast of Africa, as early 
as the Ist century, contained societies of 
Christians. Their ecclesiastical discipline 
was simple, and conformable to their 
humble condition, and they continued to 
acquire strength amidst all kinds of op- 
pressions. (See Persecutiona,) At the 
end of the 2d century, CLnsdans were to 
be found in all the provinces, and, at the 
end of the Sd century, ahnost one half of 
the inliabitants of the Roman empire, and 
of several ueidiborinf countries, professed 
this belief. The endeavor to preserve a 
unity of faith (see Orthodoxy) and of 
church discipline, caused numoerless dis- 
putes among those of different opinions 
(see Heretics and Stds\ and led to the 
establishment of an ecclesiastical t}'ranny, 
notwithstanding the oppressions which 
the first Christians had experienced from 
a similar institution— the Jewish priest- 
hood. At the beginning of the 4th cen- 
tury, when the Christians obtained tolera- 
tion by means of Constantine the Great, 
and, soon afler, the superiority in the Ro- 
man enipire, the bishops exercised the 
power of^arbiters of faith, in the first gen- 
eral council (see Atce\, 325, b^ instituting 
a creed bmding on all Christians. Upon 
this foundation, the later councils (q. v.), 
assisted by those writers who are honored 
by the church as its &thers and teachers 
(see Fathers of the ChtaxJtj Jerome^ Am- 
hrose^ Augustine, &^.), erected the edifice 
of the orUiodox system; while the superi- 
or portion of the ecclesiastics, who were 
now transformed into priests, and elevated 
above the laity as a pnvileged, sacred or- 
der (see Clergy and Priests'j, were ena- 
bled, partly by their increasmg authority 
in matters of church discipline, partly by 
the belief^ wliich they had encouraged, 
that certain traditions firom the apo&es 
were inherited by them only (see Drad^ 

iums)j to preserve the prerogatiTee at fint 
ffranted tnem out of love and gratitude, 
but afterwards much extended by them- 
selves, and to make themselves, gradually, 
masters of the church. (See Bishops, 
Patriarchs, Popes, Hierttrchy,) Their 
views were promoted by the favor of the 
emperors (see Theodosius the Great) (with 
Bhffht interruptions in the reign of Julian 
and some of his successors), by the in- 
creased sjdendor and various ceremoniala 
of divine worship (see Mass, Saints, Rel- 
ics, Jconodasts), oy the decline of classical 
learning, the increasing superstition result- 
ing fh)m this increase of ignorance, and by 
the establishment of convents and monks. 
(See Convents,) In this form, appealing 
to the senses more than to the understand 
ing, ChristianilY, which had been intro- 
duced among the Gotiis in the 4th centu- 
ry, was sprecui among the other Teutonic 
nations in the west and north of Europe, 
and subjected to its power, during the 7th 
and 8th centuries, the rude wamors who 
founded new kin^oms on the ruins of 
the Western Empire, while it was losing 
ground, in Asia and Africa, before the en- 
croachnients of the Saracens, by whose 
rieorous measures hundreds of thousands 
of Christians were converted to Moham- 
medanism, the heretical sects which had 
been disowned by the orthodox church 
^see Jacobites, Copts, Armenians, Moron- 
ties, ^estorians) bein^ almost the only 
Christians who maintained themselves in 
the East During this progress of Mo- 
hammedanism, which, in Europe, extend- 
ed only to Spain and Sicily, the Roman 
popes (see Popes and Gregory VU), who 
were advancing systematicaUy to ecclesi- 
astical superionty in the west of Europe, 
plained more in the north, and, soon after, 
m the east of this quarter of the world, by 
the conversion of the Sclavonic and Scan- 
dinavian nations (from the 10th to the 
12th century), than they had lost in other 
regions. For the Miohammedans had 
chiefly overrun the territory of the East- 
em church (see Greek Church), which 
had been, since the 5th century, no longer 
one with the Western (Latin] church, and 
had, by degrees, become entirely separate 
from it. In the 10th century, it received 
some new adherents, by the conversion of 
the Russians, whaare now its most pow- 
erful support. Bui the crusaders, who 
were led, partly by religious enthusiasm, 
partiy by the desire of conquest and ad- 
ventures (1096 — 1150), to attempt the re- 
covery of the holy sepulchre, gained the 
new kingdom of Jerusalem, not for the 
Crreek emperor, but for themselves and 

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Oe papal hieraichy* (9ee Cnaadis.) 
The confuaon which this finally unsuc- 
cessful undertaking introduced into the 
civil and domeelic affairs of the western 
nations, gave the church a fiivorable op- 
portunity of increasmg its poasessions, and 
asserting its pretensions to umveraal mon- 
archy. But, contrary to the wishes and ex- 
pectations of the rulers of the church, the 
remains of ancient heresies (see Jlfotttd^ 
€msy Poudiciana) were introauced into the 
West, through the increased inte]:courBe 
of nations, and by the returning crusaders, 
and new and more liberal ideas were 
propagated, springing from the philosoph- 
ical spirit of examination of some school- 
men (see Ahdardy Arnold of Brescia^ and 
the indignation excited by the corruptions 
of the cleigy. These kmdled an opposi- 
tion among all the societies and sects 
against the Roman hierarchy. (See CiP' 
than, Mnrenaes, ffaldenBesA The foun- 
dation and multiplication of ecclesiastical 
orders (q. v.), particularly the Franciscans 
and Dominicans, for the care of souls and 
the instruction of the people, vsiiich had 
been neglected by the secular priests, did 
not remedy the evil, because they labored, 
in general, more actively to promote the 
interests of the church and the papacy, 
than to remove superstition and igno- 
rance ; and bold speculations, which would 
■ot yield to theu: persuasion, were still 
less hkely to be extirpated by the power 
of the inquisition (q. v.), which armed it- 
self with nre and sword. The great dif- 
ference of the Christian religicm, as it was 
then taught and practised, from the reli- 
gion of Jesus Christ, the insufficiency of 
what the church taught to the religious 
wants of the human mind and heart, 
was apparent to many, pardy from their 
knowledge of the spirit of Jesus, derived 
from the Bibk, which was aheady studi- 
ed, in secret, by curious readers, in spite 
of the prolubitions of the churcli, and 
partly from the bold eloquence of single 
teachers and chiefs of sects. Ecclesias- 
tical ordeis also desired to pursue their 
own course (see Km^his Tea^lars, FraU' 
eiseans) ; offended prmces forgot the great 
services of the papal power in promoting 
the cultivation of nations in the first cen- 
turies of the middle ages; and the popes 
themselves made Utde effort to reform or 
conceal the coiniption of their court and 
of the clergy. They even afforded the 
scandalous spectacle of a schism in the 
church (see Schism, Popes, and Antipope), 
which was distracted, after 1378, for more 
than 30 years, by the quarrels between 
two candidates, who both aaspjted their 

vox*. IIL 15 

right to the papal chair. This dispute 
was settled only by die decrees of the 
council of Constance (1414—14181 which 
were very un&vorable to the papal power. 
The docnines of the English Wickliffe 
(q. v.) had already given rise to a par^ 
opposed to the popeidom ; and the revolt 
of the adherents of the Bohemian reform- 
er (see Huss, HussUea), virho was burnt at 
Constance on account of similar doctrines, 
extorted from the council of Bale (1431 
— 43) certain eonipads, which, being firm- 
ly maintained, proved to the fnencu of a 
reformadon in the head and members of 
the church (proposed, but without sue 
cess, at the council of B^e), what a fin 
and united opposition to the abuses of the 
Roman church might be able to effect. 
We refer the reader to the article Refor- 
nudion, and the articles relating to it, for a 
history of the causes, progress and conse- 
quences of this great event But that 
this ereat change in the church has re- 
vived primitive Christianity in the spirit 
of its Founder, the most zealous Protest- 
ants will not assert, any more than tfaQ 
reflecting Catholic will deny the necessity 
of such a reform, and the real merits of 
Protestantism in promoting it. (See TVenL 
CoimcU of, Roman Catholic Church, and 
Protestantism,) The forms under which 
Christianity appears, in our days, are very 
different The example of the south of 
Europe proves how easily this religion 
naturalizes itself but, also, how much it 
loses, under the mfiuence of sensuality 
and an over-active foncy, of the simple 
grandeur, the moral power and pure spirit 
of its original character. Protestantism 
removed from the northern nations man^ 
of the burdens vrith which the predoim- 
nance of the earthly nature had oppr^gsed 
the spirit of religion. By opening the 
Bible to all, it aroused the spirit of in- 
quiry, but also gave rise to an immense 
varied of sects, springing from the differ- 
ent views which different men were led 
to form from the study of the sacred vol- 
ume. The present moral and poKtical 
condition of Christian Europe, though 
affected by so many influences foreign to 
religion, bears the stamp of a cultivation 
springing from Christianity, and this has 
been impressed upon its colonies in distant 
lands, among which the U. States of 
North America alone have advanced to 
the {vincif^ of universal toleration. But 
if we look amon^ our contemporaries for 
Christianity as it dwelt and operated in 
Christ, we shall find it pure m no nation 
and in no religious party, but we pereeivo 
its features in the conduct of the enligbt* 

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ened and pious among all natSons, who 
love Christ, and are penetrated "with his 
Spirit. How Christianity will develope 
itself in North America, where all sects 
are tolerated, what will be the resuh of 
this immense variety of opinions and 
creeds, is, as yet, a matter or specuktion. 
The general views of the great body of 
Protestant sects in this comitiy, however, 
have so much in common, that they may 
still be considered as forminff one great 
family among the principal divisions of 
the Christian world. Whether this will 
be true after a considerable time has 
elapsed, is at least doubtful, as the Unita- 
rians and Trinitarians seem to be taking 
essentially different directions. 

Christians ; the general name of the 
followers of Christ (See Christianity,) 

Christians ; tlie name of a denomina- 
tion, in the U. States, adopted to express 
their renunciation of all sectarianism. 
They have become numerous in all parts 
of the country, the number of their 
churches, in 1827, b^ng estimated at 
about 1000. Each church is an indepen- 
dent body : they recognise no creed, no 
authority in matters of doctrine : the Scrip- 
tures, which every individual must inter- 
pret for himself) are their only rule of 
feith : admission to the church is obtained 
by a simple profession of belief in Chris- 
tianity : speculative belief they treat as of 
little importance, compared with virtue 
of character. In New England, they sep- 
arated principally from the Calvinistic 
Baptists ; in the Southern States, from the 
Methodists ; and in the Western, fiom the 
Presbyterians. There was, therefore, at 
first, a great diversity of opinion and prac- 
tice among them, each church retaining 
some of the peculiarities of the sect from 
which it seceded. In New England, the 
churches were established on the princi- 
ple of close communion, which was soon 
abandoned. In the South and West, they 
were Pedobaptists, but have since become 
Baptists. Nearly all were, at first, Trini- 
tarians ; but tlr -^ doctrine of the Trinity, and 
its concomitant doctrines, are now univer- 
sally rejected by them. To maintain a 
connexion bf Jtween the different churches, 
one or mo/e cot^trmtet are formed in 
each state, consisting of members dele- 
gated fmrcL each church. In 1827, there 
were 23 uf these conferences, which again 
form, by delegation, the United States 
ijeneral Christian Conference. They have 
several periodical woite (Christian Her- 
ald, Portsmouth, N. H. ; Gospel Lumina- 
ry, N. Y. ; Christian Messenger, Ky.), but 
no theological seminaiy, considering that 

whoever understands tfie gospel maj 
teach it They coni^der Christ as the 
Son of God, miraculously conceived, 
whose death was a ratification of the 
new covenant, not a propitiatoiy sacrifice; 
and the Holy Ghost or spirit as the pow- 
er or energy of God, exerted in convert- 
ing the wicked and strengthening the 


Christians of St. Thomas ; the name 
of a sect of Christians on the coast of Mal- 
abar, in the East Indies, to which region 
the aposde St Thomas is said to have 
carried the gospel. They belong to those 
Christians who, in the year 499, united to 
form a Syrian and Chaldaic church in 
Central and Eastern Ana, and are, like 
them, Nestorians. (^et Syrian Chrigiian».) 
They have, however, retained rather more 
strongly than the latter the features of 
their descent firom the earliest Christian 
communities. Like these, they still cele- 
brate the agaptSy or love-feasts, portion 
maidens fit)in the property of ^e church, 
and provide for their poor. Their notions 
respecting the Lord% supper incline to 
those of the Protestants, but, in celebrating 
it, they use bread with salt and oil. At 
the time of baptism, they anoint the body 
of the infant with oil. These two cere> 
monies, with the consecration of 
priests, are the only sacraments which 
they acknowledge Their priests are difi^ 
tinguished by the tonsure, are allowed to 
marry, and were, imtil the 16th century, 
under a Nestorian patriarch at Babylon, 
now at Mosul, fit)m whom they received 
their bishop, and upon whom they are 
also dependent for the consecration of 
their priests. Their churches contain, 
except the cross, no symbols nor pictures. 
Their liturgy is similar to the Syrian, and 
the S}Tian language is used in it When 
the Portuguese occupied the East Indies, 
the Roman Catholic cleigy endeavored to 
subject the Christians of St Thomas to 
the govemment of the pope. The arch- 
bishop of Goa succeeded, in 1599, in per- 
suading them to submit, and form a nait 
of liis diocese. They were obliged to 
renounce the Nestorian faith, adopt a few 
Catholic ceremonies, and obey a Jesuit, 
who became their bishop. But, after the 
Portuguese were supplanted by the Dutch 
on the coast of Malanar, this union of the 
Christians of St Thomas with the Roman 
church ceased, and they returned to their 
old forms. At present, they are, under 
the British government, fi-ee fix»m any ec- 
clesiastical restraint, and form among 
themselves a kind of spiritual republic, 
under a htshop chosen by themselves, and 

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in which the piiests and eldeais administer 
justice, using excommunication as a 
means of punishmenL In their political 
relations to the natives, they belong to the 
class of the Mtiriy or nobUitv of the 
second rank, are allowed to ride on el»- 
I^ants, and to cany on commerce and 
agriculture, instead of practising mechan- 
ic trades, Uke the lower classes. Trav- 
ellers describe them as very isnorant, but, 
at the same time, of veiy good morals. 

Christiaitsand ; a government and 
bishopric of Norway, occupying the S. 
W. part of the countiy. The population 
of this division of the kingdom is esti- 
mated at 134,000; square miles, 14,800. 
Though one of the most fertile parts of 
the countiy, the grain produced is not ad- 
equate to the consumption of the inhab- 
itants, and grain \b therefore one of the 
chief imports. The inhabitants are prin- 
cipally employed in the fisheries and in 
cutting trees. Timber forms the chief 
article of their exports. — ^The capital is 
also called Christiansandy and is situated 
on the S. coast The streets are broad 
and straight, and the houses have exten- 
sive gardens. It is considered as the 
fourth town in the kingdom. It contains 
about 5000 inhabitants. Its harbor is one 
of the best in Norway. It derives some 
support irom the trade in timber, but de- 
pends chiefly on the repair of vessels 
which put in there to refit. Lon. 8° d' £.; 

Christians-Oe, or Ert-Holm ; a group 
of islands, in the Baltic, belonging to Den- 
maric, named fiom the cliief island, which 
has a much-fi:equented port, a light-house 
and a castle : Ion. 14^ 47' £. ; kt 55P 

CHRisTTfTA, queen of Sweden, bom 
Dec 9, 1626, daughter of Gustavus Adol- 
dius and the {mncess Maria Eleonore of 
Brandenburg, was distinguished for beau^ 
ty, and taste for the liberal aits. Gusta^ 
TUB, who beheld in Christma the only 
support of his throne, took the greatest 
care of her education, which was con- 
ducted in a masculine manner. She vras 
instructed in all the sciences adapted to 
improve her mind and strengthen her 
character. Afler the death of Gustavus, 
at Liitzen, in 1632, the states-general ap- 
pointed guardians to the oueen Christina, 
then but six years old. These were the 
five highest officers of the crovm, who 
were intrusted, at the same time, with tlie 
administration of the kingdom. The ed- 
ucation of Christina was continued ac- 
cording to the plan of Gustavus Adolphus. 
Endowed with a lively imagination^ a 

good memory, and unecMmnon intelli- 
gence, she made the most rapid prosres& 
She learned the ancient languages, histo- 
ry, geography, peptics, and renounced the 
plee^res of her age in order to devote 
herself entirely to study. She already 
betrayed those peculiarities which charac- 
terized her whole lifo, and which were, 
perhaps, as much the consequence of her 
education as of her natural disposition. 
She did not like to appear in the female 
dress, made long journeys on foot or on 
horseback, and delighted in the fatigues 
and even the dangers of the chase. She 
submitted reluctantly to the customs of 
the court, alternately treating those who 
surrounded her widi the greatest iamiliar- 
i^ and with haughtiness or commanding 
dignity. She honored the chancellor 
Oxenstiem as a father, and learned fiom 
him the art of governing. She soon 
showed, in the assembly* of the stateis, a 
maturity of under8tandui|; which a8ton<> 
ished her guardians. In 1642, the states- 
{l^neral proposed to her to take the admin- 
istration into her own hands ; but she ex- 
cused herself on the ground of her youth. 
Only two years after, she took upon her- 
self the government A great talent for 
business, and great firmness of purpose^ 
distinguished her first steps. She termi- 
nated the war with Denmark, begun in 

1644, and obtained several provinces by 
the treaty concluded at Bromsebro, in 

1645. She then, contrarv to the advice 
of Oxenstiem, who hoped to gain, by the 
continuance of the war, still greater ad- 
vantages for Sweden, labored to reestab- 
lish peace in Germany, in order to be able 
to devote herself uninterruptedly to the 
sciences and the arts of peace. Christina 
was fitted, by her talents and the circum- 
stances in which she was placed, to plav 
the most distinguished part in the Nortn 
of Europe, and, for some time, seemed 
sensible of the charms of her lofty station. 
On many occasions, she maintained the 
dignity of her crown and the honor of her 
country. France, Spam, Holland and 
England sought her fiiendship. She pro- 
moted commerce by wise legislation, and 
patronised the learned and literaiY institu- 
tions. The nation was devoted to her, 
and rejoiced to see the daughter of Gus- 
tavus at the head of the government, sur- 
rounded by generals and statesmen ^rm- 
ed by that great prince. It was the oni 
versal v^ish Siat the queen should choose 
a husband ; but her love of independence 
rendered her averse to such a connexion* 
Among the princes who sued for her 
hand, her cousin, Charles Grustavus o# 

Digitized by 




Deuxponts, yns disdnguished for his in- 
telligence, noble character, and extensive 
knowledge. She declined his offer, but 
induced the states-general, in 1649, to 
designate him for her successor. In 1650, 
she caused herself to be crowned, with 
great pomp, and with the title of king. 
From that time, a striking change in her 
conduct was jierceptible. She neglected 
her ancient ministers, and listened to the 
advice of ambitious favorites. Intrigues 
and base passions succeeded to her for- 
mer noble and useful views. The public 
treasure was squandered with extrava- 
gant profusion. Distinctions were con- 
' ferred upon the undeserving, and jealousy 
|)roduced murmurs, complaints and fac- 
tions. In this state of confusion, the 
Sueen declared her intention of abdicating 
le crown. The old ministers, honoring 
the memory of Gustavus Adolphus, re- 
monstrated in the strongest terms, and, 
above all, Oxenstiem expressed himself 
with BO much energy, that the queen de- 
sisted from her resolution. She now 
grasped with more firmness the reins of 

S^vemment, and dissipated, for a time, 
e clouds which had daritened her 
throne. She occupied herself again with 
study, boueht paintings, medals, manu- 
scripts, books, maintained a correspond- 
ence with many learned men, and invited 
several to her court. Descartes, Grotius, 
SaJmasius, Bochart, Huet, Chevreau, Nau- 
d6, Vossius, Conring, Meibom, appeared 
in Stockholm, and me queen conversed 
familiarly with them on literary and phi- 
losophical subjects. Amon^ the literaij 
amusements which she united with sen- 
ous studies, was the Grecian dance, which 
she caused to be exhibited by Meibom 
(q. V.) and Naud^. But new troubles oc- 
curred ; and the conspiracy of Messenius 
threatened not only the mvorites of the 
queen, but the queen herself. Christina, 
who loved whatever was uncommon, re- 
sumed the determination to resign the 
crown. In 1654, at the age of ^, she 
assembled the states-generaratUp6al,and, 
in their presence, laid aside the insignia of 
royalty, to surrender them into the hands 
of'^prince Charles Gustavus. She reserv- 
ed to herself a certain income, entire in- 
dependence, and full power over her suite 
and household. A few days afler, she left 
Sweden, and went throu^ Deninark and 
Gemiany to Brussels, where she made a 
public entry, and remained for some time. 
There she niade a secret profession of the 
Catholic reliffion, which she afterwards 
imblicl^ confirmed in Inspruck — a step 
which excited great astonishment, and of 

the causes of which nothing eert&di » 
known. Christina went from Iiwpruck 
to Rome, which she entered on horse- 
back, in the costume of an Amazon, with 
ereat pomp. When tlie pope Alexander 
VII confirmed her, she adopted the sur- 
name of AUssandra, She visited the 
monuments of the city, and attentively 
examined every thing which could awak- 
en historical recollections. In 1656, she 
visited France, and remained at Fontaine- 
bleau, at Compiegne, where the court was 
then held, and at Paris. Her dress and 
manners produced an unfavorable impres- 
sion, but ner talents and knowledge were 
generally admired. She offered to medi- 
ate between France and Spain ; but Maz- 
arin declined the offer, and succeeded in 
accelerating her departure from France, 
under various pretexts. In the following 
year, she returned. This second residence 
in France was rendered remarkable by 
the execution of her grand equeny, Mo- 
naldeschi, who had enjoyed her entire con- 
fidence, but whom she accused of treason. 
This act of vengeance, though defended 
by Leibnitz, is a stain on the memory of 
Christina. The French court testified its 
displeasure, and two months passed be« 
fore the queen showed herself publicly in 
Paris. In 1658, she returned to Rome, 
where she received very unpleasing news 
fix>m Sweden. Her revenue was not 
transmitted to her, and nobody would 
make her advances. Alexander VII re- 
lieved her from this embarrassment bv a 
pension of 12,000 scudi (dollars). Alter 
the death of Charles Gustavus, in 1660, 
the queen made a viat to Sweden, under 
pretence of wishing to arrange her private 
affairs; but it was soon perceived that 
she had other views. As the crown- 
prince was very younff, she declared, that, 
m case of his death, Sie should lay claim 
to the throne. This project was unfavor- 
ably received, and she was compelled to 
sign a formal act of abdication. Other 
unpleasant circumstances induced her to 
abandon Stockholm. She visited Sweden 
a second time in 1666, but returned to 
Hamburg without reaching the capital, 
having heard that the pubEc exercise of 
her religion would not be allowed her. 
About this time, she ai^ired to the Polish 
crown, but the Poles took no notice of her 
wishes. Finally, she returned to Italy, 
where she passed the remainder of her 
life, at Rome, in the cultivation of the arts 
and sciences. She fi>unded an academy, 
collected valuable manuscripts, medals 
and paintings, and died, after having ex- 
perienced many vexations, April 19, 1689 

Digitized by 




She wafl mterred in the church of St 
Peter, and the pope erected a monument 
to her with a long inscription. She had 
asked only fur these few words: Vixit 
Christina annas LXIIL Her principal 
heir was the cardinal Azzolini, her intend- 
ant. Her library was bought by pope 
Alexander VUI, who placed 900 manu- 
scripts of this coUecdon in the Vatican, 
and gave the remainder of the books to 
his family. Odescalchi, the nephew of 
Innocent XI, purchased the paintings and 
antiquities. The duke of Orleans, resent 
of France, bouffht a part of the paintmgs 
for 90,000 scudi, in 1722. The value of 
these collections may be learned from the 
two works which give a description of 
them, namely, Havercamp's J^ummoph^ 
lacium lUgimt ChrisHna, and the Must" 
vm Odescalcunu The life of Christina 
presents a series of inconsistencies and 
contradictions: we see, on one side, mag- 
nanimity, frankness, mildness ; on the 
other, vanity, severity, revenge and dis- 
simuladon. Her knowledge of the world, 
her acutenees and penetration, did not 
preserve her from visionary projects, from 
the dreams of alchemy and astrology, and 
other illusions. She left some small works, 
in which her character and manner of 
thinking are perceptible, and ^v^ich, for 
the most part, are contained in Archen- 
holz*s Memoirs of this princess {1751, 4 
vols. 4to.). The authenticity of the let- 
ters which appeared in 1762, under her 
name, is not proved. 

Christmas, the feast of Christ's birth, 
wasi, accordinff to many critics, not cele- 
brated in the nrst centuries of the Chris- 
tian church, as the Christian usage, in 
general, was, to celebrate the death of re- 
markable persons rather than their birth. 
The death of the martyr Stephen, and the 
massacre of the innocents at Bethlehem, 
had been alr^dy long celebrated, when, 
perhaps in opposition to the doctrine of 
the Manichseans respecting the birth of 
the Savior, a feast was established, in 
memory of this event, in the 4th century. 
In the 5th century, the Western church 
ordered it to be celebrated for ever on the 
day of the old Roman feast of the birth 
of Sol, on the 25th of December, though 
no information respecting the day of 
Chiist's birth existed. In me East, Christ- 
mas was celebrated on the 6th of January. 
From the gospel of St Luke, it was 
known that Christ was bom during the 
night, and therefore divine service was 
pmbrmed in the night of Dec 24-425, 
from which circumstance Christmas is 
called, in Gera[ian, fFeihnaehien, I e. Holy 

or Consecrated Night The feasts of the 
martyr Stephen and the evangelist Sl 
John were united vrith it, and a feast of 
three days* continuance was thus formed. 
In the ecclesiastical year, this festival gives 
name to a period extending from the first 
Sunday of Advent to the feast of Epipha- 
ny, Jan. 6. Some say that Christmas 
has always been celebrated in the church. 
In the Catholic church, three masses are 
performed— one at midnight, one at dav- 
break, and one in the morning. In the 
Greek and Roman churches, tlie manger, 
the holy &milv, &c., are sometimes rep- 
resented at large. Some convents m 
Rome, chiefly the Franciscans, are fa^ 
mous for attracting many people by such 
exhibitions. The church of Enrfand 
celebrates this feast, as do the great w)dy 
of European Protestants, fii the U. 
States, it is litUe regarded, except by the 
Episcopalians. The custom of making 
presents on Christmas-eve is derived from 
an old heathen usage, practised at the 
feast of the birth of Sol, or, in Germany, 
on the occasion of some feast peculiar to 
that country (at least the Ruprecht seems 
to have had such an origin); but it has 
become consecrated by ages, and con- 
tributes a great deal to make this festival 
an interesting event to femilles. In the 
north of Germany, tijis custom prevails 
most, pervading all the classes and relations 
of society. In some German churches, 
sermons are delivered on Christmas-eve 
fbr the benefit of children, who attend, 
canying each a little taper. In the Cath- 
olic church, the offidum jtastarum is sung 
in which a chorus of children respond to 
the priest 

Christophe, Henri, king of Hayti, was 
bom Oct 6, 1767, in the island of Grena- 
da, as stated by some, but, as others say, 
in that of St Christopher. According to 
the latter account, he was carried to St 
Domingo, at the age of twehre, sold as a 
slave, and employed by his new master in 
the business of a cook, which calling he 
exercised at the Cape. Othera relate tiiat, 
afler having served in the American war, 
and received a wound at the siege of Sa- 
vannah, he went to St Domingo, and was 
employed on the nlantatioip of Limonade, 
in me capacity of^an overseer, wherein he 
displayeo his characteristic severity. From 
the conmiencement of the troubles among 
the blacks, he took a decided part in favor 
of independence, and signalized himself 
by his energy, boldness and activity, in 
many bloody engacements. Toussaint- 
Louvertura, the acknowledged chief of 
the blacks, at length gave him the corn- 

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mitnion of brigadieivgenLeFB], and employ* 
ed him to suppress an iiu^urrection head- 
ed by his nephew Moyse. This object 
was speedily accomplished by Christophe, 
who made himself master of the person 
of Movse, and succeeded him as ffovem- 
or of the province of the North. The ex- 
ecution of Moyse excited new troubles at 
the Cape, which the activity and intrepid- 

Sr of Christophe completely suppressed. 
8 commanded there in 1802, when Le- 
clerc arrived with a French army, des- 
tined for the subjugation of the Negroes. 
Most of them, deceived by the promises 
of Leclerc, at first gave wav to his de- 
signs ; but Dessalines and Christophe re- 
sided from the beginning, and were de- 
clared outlaws. Christophe veas compeU 
led to make his peace, but resumed arms 
again upon the perfidious seizure of the 
person of Toussaint. The climate aided 
the heroic efforts of Dessalines and Chris- 
tophe, and, at the close of 1805, there was 
no longer a French force in Hay ti, — for so 
the island was now denominated by the 
insurgent chiefs. During the short-lived 
government of Dessalines, Christophe was 
eeneral-in-chief of the Haytian army ; and, 
being the senior officer, and most distin- 
guished amonff the blacks, possessed, of 
course, powemil claims to succeed him 
in authority. But the popularity of Pe- 
tion in the South balanced that of Chris- 
tophe in the North. In Februaiy, 1807, 
an assembly convened at the Cape ap- 
pointed Christophe president for life of 
the state of Hayti ; and, about the same 
time, a republic was organized at Port-au- 
Prince, with Petion at its head. A civil 
war between the two chiefs ensued, but 
did not prevent Christophe fiY)m taking 
judicious measures to establish public or- 
der in the territory which he governed. 
He organized the administration, the tri- 
bunal^ the^ marine, and the army, made 
suitable regulations for the encourage- 
ment of agriculture, commerce, and otlier 
branches of industry among his people, 
and, by his enei^, attained the most nat- 
tering results. His military force was 
placed on a respectable footing, and his 
finances were brought into a flourishing 
condition. He^ constructed fortifications, 
and was enabled to set the French at de* 
fiance. Following the example of Napo- 
leon, whom he imitated, he abolished the 
republican forms, March 28, 1811, and 
was proclaimed king of Hayti, by the 
name of Henri L The digmty and title 
were made hereditary in his fiunily; a 
hereditary nobility was created, to give 
lustre and strength to the newin8titation% 

with an appropriate order of knighthood*, 
and, to complete the imitation of feudal 
sovereignties, he was solemnlv crowned 
at the Cape, June 2, 1812, with the cere- 
monies customary in Europe. He atso 
sought to perpetuate his name by the 
compilation of the Code Henri — a digest 
founded upon the Code JVapolioUy but not 
servilely copied. On the contrary, it waa 
judiciously adapted to the situation of 
Hayti. In 1813, some cases of defection 
occuired among his subjects, which tend- 
ed to exasperate the violent and suspicious 
temper of^ Christophe, and prompted him 
to impolitic acts of cruelty. In 1814, he 
and Petion suspended hostilities, not by a 
formal agreement, but, as it were, by tacit 
consent. For several years in succession, 
afler this, the efforts of the French to re- 
gain tlieir authority in the island gave a new 
turn to the policy of Christophe's govern- 
ment He constantly reflised to hear any 
proposition fit)m the ex-colonists, short of 
an acknowledgment of the imqualified in« 
dependence of the island ; and he adopted 
tlie most decided measures to counteract 
the attempts made by France. Beside his 
military preparations for defence against ag- 
gression, he multiplied, through the agency 
of the press, writmgs calculated to render 
the vievsrs of the ex-colonists odious, and 
to maintain the spirit of independence 
among the emancipated blacks. To fur- 
ther the same object, he conceived, and^ 
at one period, seriously set about effecting^ 
the plan of substituting the English Ian- 

fua^ in the island in place of the French ; 
is intercourse with the English and 
American merchants having communica- 
ted to him a partiality for their language. 
This project entered into a system of gen- 
eral education, which he devised for the 
Haytians. Things continued to proceed 
in this way until the death of Petion, in 
1818, and the accession of Boyer. Dis- 
contents had increased, meanwhile, amons 
the subjects of Christophe, who contrasted 
the mild and easy rule of Boyer with the 
iron despotism under which they groaned ; 
and the army itself was ripe for a change. 
Insurrection began lunons die ffarrison of 
St Marc, which mutinied in a body, kill- 
ed the ^vemor of the town, and sent a 
deputation to Boyer, eognifying their de- 
sure to join the republic. Boyer hastily 
assembled a force of 15,000 men, and 
marched to the 'support of the insurgent 
garrison. At this time, Christophe waa 
confined, by iUness, in his fortified palace 
of Sans Souci, where he commonly resid- 
ed. The insurrection soon spread to the 
Cape, where Richard, due de Mamudadei 

Digitized by 




md one of the fint ^gnitaries of the king- 
domu proclaimed the abolition of royalty 
at the bead of the troops. The diU of 
Christophe'a anny, compoainff his guard 
of about 1500 men, continued &ithnil to 
him for a while, but, when marched up 
to oppose the insurgents from the Cape, 
joined with the latter in demanding the 
deposition of Christophe. Perceiving his 
case to be desperate, and resolved not to 
gratify the insurgents by becoming tbeir 
priaooer, Christophe shot himself with a 
fMStol, October 8, 1820. His corpse re- 
mained exposed several days on the high* 
way, and his oldest son was massacred; 
but Boyer protected his widow and daugh- 
ters from injury, and enabled them to re- 
tire to Europe in the possession of a com- 
petent fortune. A Wse treasure was 
mund in fort Henri, iimch Christophe 
had amassed from the customs on mer- 
chandise. His nalace was dismantled by 
the populace, wno seemed to take pleas- 
OTB in defacing what had cost them so 
much toil to construct. Thus ended a 
reign, from which the friends of the blaclu 
anticipated much and with justice. Chris- 
tophers policy was probably better calcu- 
lated than that of Petion and Boyer to 
advance the prosperity of Hayti. Agri- 
culture and commerce flourished under 
him, and declined under the latter; but, 
his government being purely a military 
despotism, in which he himself was every 
thinff, and the wishes of his people were 
totally disregarded, the administration de- 
generated into a svstem of tyranny which 
proved insupportable, (^n. Necrol^ 1821 ; 
Franklin's Hcnfti; Male, Hi». (PHayti) 

Christopher, duke of Wurtemberg; 
bom in 1515; one of the wisest rulers 
mentioned in history. His youth was a 
constant scene of adversity. When he 
was but four years old, the confederated 
Suabian cities expelled his father, the 
duke of Wurtemberg, from his dominions, 
and sold the dukedom to Austria. Chris- 
topher was brought to Vienna, and was 
hardly saved by ms tutor, Tyfiemi, from 
the hands of die Turks, when that city 
was besieged by Solvman. He was a 
second time preserved from captivity, by 
the same individual, in 1532, when Charles 
V intended to bury his person and his 
claims on Wurtemberg in a Spanish con- 
vent. Christopher had l)een conveyed 
almost to the frontiers of Spain, when he 
fled, and safely reached Bavaria, the duke 
of which was his uncle, and, together with 
Philip of Hesse, now commenced a war 
against Austria, to compel her to resign 
her claims to Wurtembei^. Frsncis I 

sui^lied than with nooney to cany on 
the contest. The battle of Laufen, in 
1534, restored the father of Christopher to 
the government of Wurtemberg. Chris* 
topher himself, whom his father disliked, 
went into the French service. Afler eieht 
years, he was recalled. In 1550, his father 
died ; but he could not consider himself 
securely possessed of the dukedom until 
1552, when he immediately began to devote 
hima^ in eveiy way to the improvement 
of his subjects. He reestablished the Lu- 
theran religion, which had been prohibited 
during the interregnum, and, in so doing, 
mtified the wishes of bis subjects. But 
he did not appropriate the possessions of 
convents, and other ecclesiastical establish- 
ments, to himself, as so many or most of 
the Protestant princes did, but formed out 
of it a great fund, called the fFurUmbergi- 
tm church property, to be used for supply- 
ing the wants of the church, and for other 
beneficent purposes. The Wurtembei^i- 
an cloister sckoola, for the education of 
young clergymen, and the great theologi- 
cal seminaiy at Tiibingen, are his wonc. 
He improved the schools, so that educit- 
tion in Wurtemberg, even at the present 
time, is, perhaps, in a more fiouriahinff 
state than in any other part of the world. 
He extended the liberdes of his subjects, 
and established a civil code, which sdU 
exists. At the same time, he was contin- 
ually attentive to the state of Europe. 
The fate of Protestantism in Germany 
was a subject in which he took great in- 
teresL lie had an interview with Catha- 
rine of Medicis and the Guises, in order to 
alleviate the fate of the Huguenots, and 
contributed much to the religious peace 
at Augsburg in 1555. He endeavored to 
unite the Protestant princes of Germany, 
and was intrusted with many highly hon- 
orable conunissions by the empire. He 
ruled 18 years, and died in December, 
1568 ; but lives still in the memory of the 
people of Wurtemberg, who regard him 
as the model of a ruler. J. C. Pfister has 
well described the life of Christopher. 

Christopher, St. ; a sunt whose name 
and worship are celebrated, but whose 
history is little known. He is reported to 
have been a native of Syria or Cilicia,' 
who was baptized by St Babylas, bishop 
of Antioch, and received the crown of 
martyrdom, in Asia Minor, a)x)ut the mid- 
dle of the third century. Relics of hirn 
are found in several places, principally in 
Spain. Tlie Eastern church celebrates 
his festival on the Dth of May ; the Western, 
on the 25th of July. His intercession wa» 
perticulariy sought in the time of thi^ 

Digitized by 




plague. Ckristojika-j or CMHophd, liter- 
ally means hearer of Christ. He is repre- 
sented as a giant, liearing the child Jesus 
upon his shoulders through the sea, which 
refers to a legend of this saint The St. 
Christopher of Hemmling is one of the 
finest pictures in the gallery of Boisser&e. 
{q, V.) 

CHRisTbPiTER, St. (commonly called Sit. 
KUVs) ; an island in the West Indies, be- 
longing to Great Britain, discovered by 
Columbus in 1493, about 15 miles in 
length, and, in general, about 4 in breadth, 
but towards the eastern extremity, not 
more than 3. Between that nart and the 
rest of the island is a strip of land 3 miles 
in length, which does not measure half a 
mile across. This island contains 43,726 
. acres, of which about 17,000 acres are ap- 
propriated to the growth of sugar, and 4000 
to pasturage. As sugar is the only com- 
modity of any consequence that is raised, 
except the necessary articles of food, and 
a little cotton, it is probable that nearly 
one half of the whoje island is unfit for 
cultivation. The interior part of the coun- 
ty consists, indeed, of many rugged preci- 
pices and barren mountams. Of these 
the loftiest is mount Misery (evidently 
an extinguished volcano), which rises 
3711 feet in perpendicumr height fix>m 
the sea. The general average produce of 
sugar for a series of yesas is 1d,000 hogs- 
bettds of 16 cwt., which, as one half ontpr 
of the whole cane land, or 8500 acres, is 
annually cut (the remainder being young 
canes), gives neariy .two hogshe^ of 16 
cwt per acre for the whole of the land in 
ripe canes. This island is divided into 
nme parishes, and contains four towns and 
hamlets, viz. Basseterre, the present capi- 
tal, as it was formeriy that of the French, 
containinff about 600 houses, Sandy Point, 
Old Road and Deep Bay. Of these, the 
two first are ports of entr^, established 
by law. The fi)rtifications consist of 
Charles Fort and Brimstone Hill, both 
near Sandy Point, three batteries at Bas- 
seterre, one at Fig-tree Bay, another at 
Palmetto Point, and some smaller ones of 
DO great importance. Population, in 1823 
—4, according to Humlwldt, 523,000, of 
whom 3500 were free persons, and 19,500 
slaves. Official value of imports and ex- 
ports *— Imports. Errx^s. 

In 1809 £266,064 132,845 

1810 253,611 89,362 

\M.&IP4af W.; lat. VP 19 N. 

Chromate or laow, or Chromeiseic- 
STEiN, is a mineral substance of very con- 
nderable interest, as affording one of the 

most beautiful and dunUe pi(|meiit8 in 
the arts. It is found dissenunated in 
grains and imperfectly crystallized mass- 
es,— HMscasionally in regular octoedrol 
crystals, its primary form,— of a black 
color, a shinmg and somewhat metallic 
lustre. It scratches glass, is opaque, and 
has a specific gravity of 4.03. According 
to Vauquelin, tbatoi^^France consists of 43 
chromic acid, 34.7 oxide of iron, 20.3 alu- 
mine, silex 2. But chemists, at the pres 
ent day, consider the chrome in this min 
end in the state of an oxide, and not of an 
acid; accordingly the mineral is now- 
more correctly denominated the ferrvgi-' 
funu oxide of chrome. It is found in K^at 
abundance in Maryland, at the Bare nills^ 
near Baltimore, and is contained in a 
steatitic or serpentine rock. It also oc- 
curs in small quantities at numerous other 
places in the U. States, and has many lo- 
calities in other countries. 

Chromatic, in music ; one of the three 
ancient genera— -diatonic, chromatic and 
enharmonic. The word chromaHc has 
been adopted, as it is believed^ because 
the Greeks were in the habit of designat- 
ing this genus by characters of various 
colors, or, as some say, because the chro- 
matic genus is a mean between the other 
two, as color is a mean between white 
and black (this seems to be a veiy poor 
explanation) ; or, lastly, because tbe chro- 
matic ^nus, by its semitones, varies and 
embellishes the diatonic, thus producing 
an effect similar to that of coloring. In 
modem music, the word ehromaiic simply 
means a succession of semitones, ascend- 
ing or descending. Thus the expressions 
ehromaiic semiioiie (the interval which is 
found between anv given note and that 
same note raised by a sharp or lowered 
by a flat), chromatic scaU^ ehrwnatic modu" 
lotion^ are terms in use. 

Chrome ; the name of a metal, which, 
combined with oxygen so as to be in the 
state of an acid, was discovered Iw Vau- 
quelin, in an ore of lead from Siberia. 
This metal has ^ce been found combin- 
ed with iron in the U. States, and at Unst, 
one of the Shetland ides. It appears also 
to be the coloring principle of the emerald 
and the ruby, and has received its name 
from its property of assuming brilliant 
colore in tbe combinations into which it 
enters. Chrome, which has hitherto been 
procured in very small quantities, owing 
to its powerful attraction for oxygen^ may 
be obtained bv mixing the oxide of chrome 
with charcoaJ, and exposing the mixture 
to the <nost intense heat of a smith's forge. 
It is brittle^ of a grayish-white cokr^ and 

Digitized by 




iratj infiuible. Its specific ^vity is 5^. 
Ghrmne unites with oxygen in three pro* 
portions, forming two oxides and one 
add. The protoxide is of a ereen color, 
tsxceedingly infusible by itseO^ but with 
borax, or vitreous substances, it melts, and 
communicates to them a beautiful emerald- 
green color. Indeed, the emerald owes its 
color to this oxide. The protoxide is 
employed at the manufactory of Sevres, 
in France, to give a fine deep-green to 
ihe enamel of porcelain. It is applied 
without a flux, and melted with tlie en- 
ameL Chromic acid, however, is the most 
ifnportant of the compounds formed by 
this metal alone with oxygen. It is usu- 
ally prepared tor chemical purposes by 
mixing solutions of nitrate of barytes and 
chromate of potash, and digesting the 
chromate of baiytes that is formed m di- 
lute sulphuric acid. This abstracts the 
barytes, and the chromic acid is inrocured, 
by evaporation, in crystals of a nne ruby- 
red color. It is very soluble in water, has 
a sour, metallic taste, and all the charac- 
lers of a strong acicL It combines with 
the alkalies, embs and metallic oxides, 
fbrminff sAts, many of which have very 
rich colors. The alkaline chromates are 
soluble and crystallizable. They are of a 
yellow or red color, the neutral chromates 
being commonly yellow, and the bl-chro- 
mates, red or deep orange. The best known 
oi these is the bi-ciuromate of potash, 
which is one of the most splendid, and, 
at the same time, one of the most useful 
salts. Tlie manner in which it is formed 
is as follows : — Chromate of iron, or rather 
ferruginous oxide of chrome, reduced to 
fine powder, is mixed with half its weight 
of mtrate of potash, and heated strongly 
for an hour or two in crucibles. The re- 
mihjnf masses are then repeatedly digest- 
ed with water, and the colored liquids, 
which are slightly alkaline, saturated with 
nitric acid, and concentrated by evapora- 
tion, till no more crystals of nitre can be 
obtuned fin>m them. The yellow liquid, 
oeing now set aside for a week or two, 
deposits a copious crop of crystals, whose 
form is that of a four-sided prism, termi- 
nated by dihedral summits. Their color 
IS an intense lemon-yellow, with a slight 
shade of orange. 100 parts of water at 
fiCP dissolves about 48 parts ; but boiling 
water dissolves almost any quantity. Its 
solution in water decomposes most of the 
metallic salts; those of mercuiy, of a fine 
red ; cop|)er and iron, of a reddish brown ; 
silver, dark red , and lead, of a beautiful 
ydlo w color, now much used as a pigment, 
luidcrthenameof dkrom«yettow. Chrome 

yellow IS largely miHiu&ctured in the U» 
States, at Baltimore, near which place is 
found one of the most remari^able depos* 
its of ferruginous oxide of chrome in the 
world. The process consists in adding a 
solution of acetate of lead (or sugar of 
lead) to the rough solution of chromate of 
potash, fi^m which the nitrate of potash 
has been just separated by crystallization. 
The acetate of lead is added as long as 
any sediment falls. The liquid is men 
filtered, and the yellow precipitate left on 
the filters, dried for sale. 
Chromic Acin. (See Chrome.) 
CHRomc (from xp*^^^ time); a term 
applied to diseases which are of long du- 
ration, and mosdy without fever. It is 
used in opposition to the term acute, which 
is applied Doth to a pungent pain, and to a 
disease which is attended with violent 
symptoms, terminates in a few days, and 
is attended with danger. On the other 
hand, a chronic disease is slow in its prog- 
ress, and not so generally dangerous. 

Chronicle, strictly speaking, is a his* 
toxy digested according to the order of 
time. In this sense, it difiera but little 
from anruds. The term is mosdv used in 
reference to the old histories of nationsi 
vnitten when they were comparatively 
rude. Chronicles belong to the sources 
of history, and many have been handed 
down from early ages ; for instance, the 
two books of the Chronicles of the He- 
brews, which belong to tlie Old Testa- 
ment With many nations, such chroni'' 
cles were vmtten under the authority of 
government, and priests, being the only 
men of learning among uncultivated tribes^ 
were intrusted with this ofiice. In the 
early Christian ages, also, clergymen were 
generally the authors of the chronicles ; 
e. g., Eusebius, bishop of Coesarea, collect- 
ed from other historical works hisChroni-* 
cle of ancient liistoiy. Hieronymus of 
Stridon translated it mto Latin, in the 
fourth century, and others continued it» 
Many historical worics of the Byzantines 
(q. V.) are also chronicles. \Ve might 
mention, likewise, the Alexandrine chroni- 
cle [Chronicon paschdU), published by Du 
Fresne ; also the chronicles vmtten by 
monks, particularly by the diligent Bene- 
dictines, in the middle ages, sonie of which 
embraced the whole histoiy of the world, 
fit)m its beginning to their own time (as 
the Chronicle of Rhegino, of Otto of Freis» 
ingen, &c.] ; others, the histoiy of a ceiv 
tain period (as liu^rand's Histoiy of his 
Tim^ from 891 to 946), or of a single nar 
tion (as the Histoiy of the Franks, by 
Giegoiy of Tours ; that of the LombardH» 

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hv Paulus Diaconufl ; the English Chroni- 
cles, by Stow, &c.), or the histoiy of single 
provinces, cities and institutions (as the 
Chronicle of the Abbey of St Denis ; the 
Chronicle of Coloene) ; also the history of 
individuals (as Eginhard's Histoiy of 
Charlemagne), and of single events. They 
have been published partly in large col- 
iections (for instance, Scriptorea Herum 
Gerinanic€trum)f and, until the 13th and 
14th centuries, were mostly written in 
Latin. Of many of them the authors are 
not known. In this case, they are called 
after the place where they were written 
or where tney virere found. 

These chronicles bear the impression of 
their time, displaying the ignorance and 
credulity of their authors, and abounding 
in religious and moral reflectiona We 
must admit, in their favor, however, that 
they are not filled with political disquisi- 
tions and superficial reasoning, of which 
modem liistories afford so many instances. 
The cluronicles of the middle ages were 
not written vnth the purpose of supportmg 
certain principles, but generallv give sim- 
ple facts ; on account of which they are 
^ preferable, as historical records, to many 
* modem works. Of course, they do not 
equal in value the result of the deep re- 
searches of a Gibbon or a Niebuhr. Young 
men, in search of historical knowledge, 
ought to apply themselves more frequent- 
ly to these sources, and not trust so much 
to die writers who drew from them ; and we 
can say, from experience, that they would 
find them very interesting reading. (For 
information respecting tlie chronicles of 
the middle agjes, we would refer the read- 
er to the treatises by Rosier, in Latin, par- 
ticularly the preface to his Chronica Medii 
JEvi (1/98), and the directories of Freher 
and Adeiung.) Chronicle is also often 
used as tlie title of newspapers. The 
most important of these is the (London] 
Morning Chronicle, an excellent paper or 
the whig party. (See JVewspaper.) 

Chronodistich, Chronogram ; averse 
in which certain of the letters used signify 
Roman numbers, and indicate the year in 
which the event happened to which the 
verse relates ; e. g., reges ConCeDant 
paCeM, where CCDCM make the num- 
Der 1600. It is little used at present. 

Chronologt (compounded of x:P^y<K, 
time, and >&yot, aiscx>urBe) is the art of 
measuring time (see T^me), distinguish- 
ing its several constituent parts, such 
as centuries, years, &c., by appropriate 
irarks and characters, and adjusting these 
IMUta, in an orderly manner, to past trans- 
iictions, by means of eros. opochs and 

cycles, for the illustration of histonr. The 
principal means for maridng the cuvisiona 
of time are afforded by the motions of 
the heavenly bodies, particularly the sun 
and the moon, which produce the natural 
division of time into years, months and 
davs. The necessities of life, requirinir 
still smaller and more precise divisions of 
time (which can be measured only by ar- 
tificiai means), gave rise to hours, minutes 
and seconds. This division of time is 
called the artificiaL Even in the natural 
division, however, there is something ar- 
bitrary, as it depends solely on the will 
what point in the motions of the heavenly 
bodies shall be taken as the point of b&- 
girining; for example, in the annual ro- 
tation of the earth, whether we shall take 
the longest day of summer or the shortest 
day of winter. The first lawgivers, there- 
fore, fixed the civil beginning and end of 
the month, day and year, and, at the sc^e 
time also, the smaUer divisions of these 
larger portions of time. From this separ- 
ation of the natural and artificial or civil 
division of time, arises a division of chro- 
nology into mathematical, astronomical 
and mstorical. Astronomical Chronology 
determines the duration of the natural 

Eortions of time by the revolutions of the 
eavenly bodies; historical chronology 
treats of the civil divisions of time, of the 
methods of reckoning time among differ- 
ent nations, of ancient periods or remark- 
able epochs, &c. It is obvious that each 
of these divisions of chronology requires 
the assistance of the others. All histori- 
cal chronology is grounded on the astro- 
nomical, which cannot determine the du- 
ration of the periods of time without the 
aid of the civil division. Mathematicians 
and astronomers determine the natural 
periods of time as they are indicated by 
the motions of the sun and moon. It is 
left to legislators to determine by law on 
what day the year shall begin, how many 
days shall constitute a month, how many 
a week, &c. This civil regulation is the 
foundation of the calendar (q. v.) or alma- 
nac Thus far must astronomical chro- 
nology be connected with historical ; but 
the latter only can teach us the divisions 
adopted by different people. Historical 
chronology explains, 1. the form of the 
year among different nations, as it is reg- 
ulated by lawgivers, founders of religions, 
and other founders of civil society: St 
those events which are selected by dinerent 
nations as eras, that is, as points finom which 
they begin their reckoning ; e. g., the Yugs 
of the Hindoos, the era of Nabonassar, the 
en of the Seleucidse, among the Chaldeans 

Digitized by 




> Peraiam, Egyptians; the creation 
fthe wcnrld, among the Jews ; the birth of 
Chiia^ among Christians ; the Olyn^iads, 
among the Greeks ; the building of Rome 
and t^ consular era, among tiie Romans ; 
the Hesiiik, or flight of Moh^nmed, amon^ 
the Mcmammeduis, &c. As so many di^ 
fercnt eras render the reckoning of time 
difficult, it, 3d]y, selects a ibrm or the year 
and an era to which it refers those of other 
nations, and by which it arranges the his- 
toiy of all uations and times. The Euro- 
pean chnmologist and historian must refer 
the eras and years of all p^ple to those 
used in modem Europe. Mathematical 
and astronomical chronology is taught in 
the manuals of astronomy. Among these 
may be mentioned the Aatronomie of Jjb^ 
knde (2d voL p. 270, 2d ed.) The Man- 
oal of Aiitronomical and Technical Chro- 
noiogy (fiom the sources) of D. L. Ideler 
{w6L 1, Berlin, 1825, voL 2, 1826) is an 
eiceflmt work. This sawtnt has done 
much for the advancement of this sci- 
caice by his extensive researches. (See 
Epoch and History,) 

CaaoNOMETER ; a time-piece of a pe- 
culiar construction, at present much em- 
ployed by navigators in determining the 
longimde at sea. In general, chronom- 
eiera are much larger than common 
watchee, and are hung in gimbals, in 
boxes six or eight inches square; but 
tiiere are also many pocket chronometers^ 
which, externally, have all the appearance 
of the better sort of pocket watches, and 
internally difier fiom these only in the 
omscniction of the balance. The balance 
•nd hair-spring are the principal agents 
in regulating the rate of going in a com- 
mon watch, being to tiiis what the pen- 
dulum is tn a common clock; and this 
spring, in the former, like the pendulum 
in the latter, is subject to expansions and 
eootractions, under diife^nt degrees of 
heat and cold, which, of course, affect the 
speed or rate of the machine ; and the 
uethods of correcting this inaccuracy 
rauk the ^fference l^tween the watch 
and chronometer. These are very nu- 
merous. (See Horology.) With Ameri- 
eui navigaton, chronometers are more 
eomnKm than with those of any other na- 
*ioiL All the lines of packets between 
die U. States and Europe have them. — 
An instrument under the name of chro- 
nomder is also used by musicians for the 
accnntte measurement of time. Two sorts 
hafe b^m invented fer different purposes. 
The tint supplies the motion of a con- 
ductor, and i^ularly beats time. In the 
8ritiah Maga^e (ii. 283) may be found 

an account of a graduated pendulum for 
this pm-pose, [nroposed by aoctor Robin- 
son ; and others have since been sold at 
the principal music-shops in London. 
The second is used by tuners of instru- 
ments, to measure the velocity of beats. 
On this point, the reader mav consult doc- 
tor Smims HdrmomcSy p. 210. 

Chrysalis. (See PapUio.) 

Chrtseis. (See ^chuUs,) 

Chrtsippus, a Stoic philosopher of Ci- 
licia, distinguished for his skill in dis- 
puting. He was the principal oppoeer of 
the Epicureans, and is said to have writ- 
ten 700 difierent worics, mosdy of a dia- 
lectical character ; but of these no com- 
plete work is extant He died, at a great 
age, about 206 years R C. 

Crrtsobeatl (sometimes called ofmo- 
phoney and, T)y the jewellers, Ontntcd 
chrysoHte) was, for a long time, only 
known as occurring in semi-transparent, 
rounded pieces, in me alluvial deposits of 
rivers, along with other species of gems. 
Thus, in Brazil, it was found along with 
the diamond and topaz, and with rubies 
and sapphires in Ceylon. Distinct crys- 
tals were afterwards brought from Siberia, 
but tiieir original situation still remains 
unknown. It is now known to exist, in 
beautifully distinct crystals, at two plaices 
in the U. States — at Haddam (Conn.) and 
Saratoga (N. Y.) They are found, at both 
these localities, in a granitic rock. The 
fonn of the crystal is, for the most part, a 
right rectangular prism, and a low, six- 
sided table (with reentering angles), form- 
ed by the crossing of three prismatic crys- 
tals. Chrysoberyl scratches quartz ; is of 
an olive-jpreen color, and vitreous lustre, 
and is often possessed of a bluish opales- 
cence. Specific gravity, 3.754. It is 
composed of alumine 68.66, glucine 16.00, 
silex 5.99, protoxide of iron 4.73, and ox- 
ide of titanium 2.66. 

Chrysolite ; a greenish, yellowish or 
brownish stone, sometimes transparent, 
sometimes only translucent, which pos- 
sesses the power of double refraction m a 
high degn^. It is composed of silex and 
magnesia. The chnrsolite employed in 
the arts comes chiefly firom the Levant, 
and is sometimes used in jewellery, but is 
not highly esteemed. Werner thinks that 
the yellow chrysolite of the ancients is 
the modem topaz. 

Chrysoloras, Emanuel ; a distinguish- 
ed Greek of Constantinople, bom about 
the middle of tiie 14th centuiy, the 
first who, in modem times, transplanted 
Greek literature into Italv. Tlie emperor 
John PaleeologuB sent him, in 1391, to 

Digitized by 




Italv and England, to ask for assistance 
4gainst the Turks. Having thus become 
Known in Italy, he returned there, about 
the- year 1395, and was appointed profes- 
sor of Greek literature at Florence. He 
remained about three years in Florence, 
where he collected around hun a great 
number of scholars, of all ages and ranks, 
and excited univeraal enthusiasm as much 
by his dignity, and the grace of his elocu- 
tion, as oy the extent of his learning. 
From his school proceeded Leonardo 
Bruno, PoggiuB, Francis Philelphus, and 
other distingui^ed revivers of classical 
studies. He afterwards taught with equal 
imccess in Milan, whence the Greek em- 
peror Manuel, who, in 1400, had come to 
Italy, sent for him to Pavia, Venice, and 
lastly to Rome. Pope Gregoiy XII em- 
ployed him in public affairs, and sent hun, 
with others, to the council of Constance, 
where he died in 1415. He should not 
be confounded with his nephew and com- 
panion in Italy, John Chiysoloras. 

Chrtsostom, John, St; a celebrated 
&ther of the church, bom in Antioch, in 
the year 344. Secimdus, his Either, had 
the command of the imperial troops in 
S}Tia. In those times, eloquence was still 
the means of obtaining the highest honors 
in Greece. Cbrysostom studied this art, 
with Libanius, the most famous orator of 
his time, and soon excelled his master. 
After having studied philosophy with An- 
dragathius, he devoted himself to the Holy 
Scriptures, and determined upon quitting 
the world, and on consecrating his life to 
€rod in the deserts of Syria. At the age 
of 20, he conducted a legal case with ex- 
traordinanr success; but he soon retired 
fix>m public buaness, and, by lasting and 
pfinance, endeavored to obtain the mastery 
of his passions. He remained three years 
in Antioch. He was imited, by the ties 
of an Intimate friendship, with Basil, The- 
odore, afterwards bishop of Mopsuesta, 
and with Maximus, subsequently bishop 
of Seleucia. Theodore having quitted 
for a time his holy vocation, Chrysostom 
wrote two beautiful exhortations, in order to 
recall him to his duty. The bishoiis of the 
provinces had determined on electing him 
or Basil as bishop ; but Chrysostom fled, 
and concealed himself; consequently Ba- 
al was elected, who complained, however, 
much of his friend's witlidrawaL Chiys- 
ostora defended himself in his beautiful 
work on the office of priests. He was 
then only 26 yeara old. In 374, he retired 
to the anchorites who dwelt on the moun- 
tiiins in the vicinity of Antioch. He de- 
6cril)ed the life which he led with them in 

the following manner:— ^ They rise ^ridt 
the first crowing of the cock, or at mid- 
night After having read nsalms and 
hymns in common, each, in nis separate 
cell, is occupied in reading the Holy Scrip- 
tures, or in copying books. Then they 
proceed to churcn, and, after mass, return 
quietly to their habitations. They never 
speak to each other ; their nourislunent » 
bread and salt ; some add oil to it, and the 
invalids vegetables. After meals, they rest 
a few moments, and then return to their 
usual occupations. They till the ground, 
foil wood, make baskets and c]otfaea,#nd 
wash the foet of travellers. Their bed ia 
a mat spread on the ground ; their dress 
consists of skins, or cloths made of the 
hair of goats and camels. They go bare- 
footed, nave no property, and never pro- 
nounce the words mine and Vdne. Undis- 
turbed peace dwells in their habitations^ 
and a cheerfulness scarcely known in the 
world." After four years, Chnrsostom 
quitted these hermits to seek a still greater 
seclusion. He dwelt in a cavern, where 
he remained two years without lying 
down. His penance and wakefulness, to- 
gether with the dampness of his abode, 
threw him into a severe illness, which 
forced him to return to Antioch (Sfel). In 
the same year, he was appointed deacon 
by the bishop of Antioch, and, in 386, 
consecrated priest He was chosen vica» 
by the same dignitary, and commissioned 
to preach the word of God to the people. 
TiU then, the bishops only had instructed 
the people in the gospel. His eloquence 
attracted Jevra, heathens and heretics 
He was, says Sozoinenes, the ornament 
of his church, and of the whole Eas^ 
when the emperor Arcadius determined, 
in 397, to place him in the episcopal see 
of Constantinople. To prevent the inhab- 
itants of Antioch from opposing his inten- 
tions, tlie emperor causeo him to be se- 
cretly conveyed to Constantinople, ivhen 
Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, or- 
dained him. He commenced his official 
labora by limiting the expenses of }ua 
house, founded and supported many hos- 
pitals, improved the morals of the clei|^, 
and converted a number of heathens and 
heretics. He gave so generoiisly to the 
poor, tliat he was universally called John 
the almsgiver. He devoted himself to at- 
tendance on the sick. He sent bishops as 
missionaries to the Goths, to the Scythians^ 
and to Persia and Palestine. His elo- 

Juence twice prevented an insurrection, 
n 399, Chnrsostom held a council in 
Constantinople, at which several Asiatic 
bishops were deposed as guilty ofamaaf 

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Ssverin, bishop of Gabola, in Syria, dai«d 
to attack Cbiysoetom from the pulpit, and 
fo stir up the people against him; but 
his charges were reject^ as calumnies. 
Chrysostom had two dangerous enemies — 
the empress Eudoxia, whose injustice and 
extortious gave cause to many complaints ; 
and Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, 
who was jealous of his influence. The 
latter assembled several bishops at Chal- 
cedon, who were to mvestigate the com* 
plaints made against Chi ysostom. But he 
refused to appear, alleging that they had 
acted against the laws of the church ; and, 
on his part, assembled 40 bishops at Con- 
stantinople. His enemies, however, pre- 
vailed. His removal was determined upon, 
and sanctioned by Arcadius, who banished 
him from the countzy. Chrysostom quit- 
ted the city secretly, that he mifht not be 
prevented by his adherents, and purposed 
retiring to Bithynia; but the people 
threatened a revolt In the followmg 
night, an earthquake gave general alarm. 
In this dilemma, Arcadius recalled his or- 
ders, and Eudoxia herself invited Chiys- 
ostom to return. The people accompap 
nied him triumphantly to the city, his 
enemies fled, and peace was restored, but 
only for a short time. A feast, attended 
with many heathen ceremonies, for the 
consecration of a statue, given by the em- 
press, roused the zeal of the archbishop, 
who publicly exclaimed against it; and 
Eudoxia, violently incensed, recalled the 
prelates devoted to her will, and Chrysos- 
tom was condemned, although 40 bishops 
declared themselves in his uivor. Arca- 
dius ordered the soldiers to force him 
from the church, which was pro&ned and 
stained with blood. Pope Innocent I 
and the emperor Honorius declared them- 
selves in &vor of Chrysostom, but Arca- 
Aus reflised to assemble the council, on 
which the others iusisted, and commanded 
Chrysostom peremptorily to retire to the 
place of his banishment. He obeyed, and 
was conveyed to Nice, in Bithynia (404). 
Soon after his departure, the church and 
&e palace where the senate used to as- 
semble became a prey to the flames. 
Bfany works of art were lost in this con- 
flagration, which the emperor attributed 
to the finends of Chrysostom. The Isaur 
rians and Huns laid waste the empire. 
Chiysostom's return was universally de- 
fliirea; Arcadius remained inflexible. Eu- 
doxia died soon after Chrysostom's ban- 
ishment, after having flxed upon the little 
Armenian town Cucusus, in the wilds of 
Taurus, for his abode. Exhausted by 
ciicknees, deprivations, and the fluigues of 
VOL. Hi. 16 

his journey, he eirived lliere, and eoiiti»- 
ued to exert his pious zeal He sent mis* 
sionaries to Persia and Phoenicia, and 
wrote 17 letters to Olympias, all of which 
are moral dissertations. He likewise ad- 
dressed to her his work entided, <^ None 
can injure him who does not injure him- 
eelf." All Christendom beheld the pious 
suflerer with love and admiration; at 
which the emperor, exasperated, com* 
manded him to be conveyed to the shores 
of the Pontus Euxinus, to the town of 
Pityont, situated on its most distant bw- 
ders. The ofiScen who had him in charge 
obliged the old man to perform this jomv 
ney on foot, with his head uncovered, in 
the burning heat of the sun ; but he fell a 
prey to exhaustion. In Comana, in Pon* 
tus, he was brought to the oratory of the 
martyr St BasiL He put on white gar* 
mentB, received the eucharist, utterS a 
^rvent prayer, which he cloeed, as usual^ 
with the w(Mti8. ^ Praise be to God for all 
things," crossed himself^ and expired (407)^ 
63 years old. His body was mterred at 
the side of that of St Beail ; but, in 438, it 
was conveyed solemnly to Constantinople, 
and there interred in the church of the 
apostles, in the sepulchre of the emperor. 
At a later period, his remains were placed 
in the Vatican at Rome. The Greek 
church celebrates his feast on the 13th of 
November, the Roman on the 27th of 
January. The name of CArym^tom (gold- 
en-mouthed) was assigned to him, after 
his death, to express the eloquence which 
he possessed in so much greater a degree 
than the other fitthers of the church. 
He never repeats himself^ and is alvirajm 
original The vivacity and power of Ins 
imagination, the .force of his logic, his 
power of arounng' the passions, the beauty 
and accuracy of his comparisons, the neat* 
ness and piuity of his style, bis cleameea 
and sublimi^r, place him on a level with 
the most celebrated Greek authors: the 
Christian church has not a more accom* 
plished orator. — ^The most accurate Greek 
edition of his works is that of Heniy Sa- 
ville (1612, 9 vols. foL); the most com- 
plete Greek and Latin, is that of Mont&u- 
Qon (Paris, 1618, 13 vols, fol.) Professor 
Neander, at Beiiin, has written a biogra- 
phy of this father of the church, or rather 
a lustory of him and his time, entitled SL 
Chrv809tomf a highly esteemed woik, full 
of tne important results of the deep re* 
searches of its learned author. 

Chubb, Thomas; a writer in humble 
life, who obtained great temporary dis- 
tinction as a controversialist He wai 
bom at East Hadharaynear Salisbury, and 

Digitized by 




was instructed only in reading, writing 
and accounts. He was apprenticed to a 
glover, but, at length, became jouraeyman 
to a tallow-chandler, and employed his 
leisure in the acquisition of knowledge, 
fiom the best English books which he 
could procure. In 1715, he published 
The Supremacy of the Father asserted, 
&C., die perspicuity and argumentative 
skill of whjch obtained for it much notice. 
Of course, a production, assailing a part 
of the orthodox faith, did not pass without 
reply, and a controversial wwr&re com- 
menced, which lasted as long as bis life. 
In 1730, he offered to the world his 
thoughts on a variety of topics, moral and 
theological, in 34 tracts, collected in a 4to. 
volume, of which book Pope, in a letter 
to Gay, speaks with great respect Vari- 
ous publications followed, e. g., A Dis- 
course concerning Reason, The true Gos- 
pel of Jesus Christ asserted, Inquinr into 
the Ground and Foundation of Reugion, 
&C., which manifest his disposition to 
question many points of orthodoxy. He, 
however, adhered to the general con- 
chision, that Jesus was sent from God 
as an instructer to mankind, and reg- 
ularly attended public worship at his par- 
ish church until his death. Chubb seems 
never to have sought to emerse from the 
bumble condition in which fortune had 
placed him, although he met with some 
powerful patrons. He died suddenly in 
February, 1747, aged 68. 

Chulucanas ; the name of an ancient 
ruined city of Peru, on the ridge of ibe 
Cordilleras, at the height of 8943 feet above 
the level of the sea, and on the Paramo of 
Chulucanas, between the Indian villages 
of Ayavaca and Guancabamba. Hum- 
boldt says, that the great causey of the 
Incas, lined with fr^stone— one of the 
most useful and stupendous works ever 
executed by man, and which may be 
compared with the finest Roman roads— is 
BtiU m good preservation, between Chulu- 
canas, Guamani and Sagique ; and Fran- 
cisco Coreal found it perfect in two other 
places, and states that it yields in nothing 
to the most ma^ificent European road. 
It runs fiom Quito, through Cuzco, to La 
PlaUi, or from the equator to 20° of S. lat- 
itude. On the summit of the Andes^ 
wherever this road passes, ruins of great 
buildings are every where seen. Hum- 
lx>ldt counted nine in less than half a de- 
gree of latitude ; and Pedic de Cieca de 
Leon, who wrote in 1541, describes sev- 
eral which he saw in the province hi Los 
Canares. They are now called, by the 
Peruvians, po^ocef qf tht IncaSf but were 

prcAiably only iintifications to secnre the 
conquests of Quito and Chile. 

Chuquisaca, or La Pjlita ; a city of 
South America, and capita] of Bolivia; 
lat 19° 4(y S. ; Ion. 66° 46^ W. ; population, 
18,000. The mhabltants connst of In- 
dians and Spaniards. It stands on a plain, 
environed by eminences, which defend it 
fix>m all winds. The temperature of the 
air, in summer, is very mild ; nor is there 
any considerable difference throughout the 
year. The houses have one stoiy besides 
the ground floor. They are covered with 
tiles, and are very roomy and convenient^ 
with delightful gardens, planted with Eu- 
ropean fruit-trees ; but water is BO scarce as 
hardly to supply the necessary puq)oses of 
life, and is brought from the several public 
fountains dispersed in the diflerent parts 
of the city. — ^The town had the name of 
La Plata from its being built near silver 
mines. It was erected into a bishopric in 
1551, the place having then the title of 
dty, and, m 1608, was raised to an areh- 
bishopric. The cathedral is large, of good 
architecture, and finely adorned with 
paintings and gildings. The city has also 
a university, d^cated to St. Francis Xa- 
yier, the chairs of which are filled indif- 
ferently with secular clergy or laymen; 
but the rector was formerly always a 

Chur. (See Coin.) 

Church is, in the ^dest sense of the 
word, the coUective bodv of those who 
declare themselves to be followers of 
Christ In this sense, the founder of the 
church is Jesus Christ himself; for, 
though his followers did not separate 
themselves fit)m the community of the 
synagogue until after his death, yet he 
had, by preaching a doctrine essentially 
different from Judaism, aikl by collecting 
disciples and friends around him, laid the 
foundation of a new reli^ous body. 
Moreover, he ordered his disciples, at the 
time of his departure fipom the woiid, to go 
forth and preach the gospel through the 
earth, and established two religious cere- 
monies, bv which his followers were to be 
distinguished. These circumstances, ma- 
ny have thought, must be taken as indi- 
cating his intention to found a church. 
Judaism, too, may be considered as having 
paved the way for the estabtishment of a 
Christian church or organized religious 
community. — ^But the word church is not 
so oflen taken in tiie sense just described 
as in a much narrower one, in which it 
signifies a body of Christians, which dif- 
fers in doctrines, constitution and usages 
fixun the remainder. From the 11th een- 

Digitized by 




tiny, the Greek or OiwDtal Chrisdans 
"vrere separated from the XatiD Chiistiana, 
or Cbnstians of the West ; and thus oriff- 
inated the difierence between the Gre& 
Catholic church, whose chief is the patri- 
arch of Constantinople, and the Roman 
Catholic church, whose chief is the Roman 
bishop, or the pope. In the 16th cen- 
tuiy, the refoimation caused another di- 
vision in the Western church, one part of 
its members seceding from the ^vem- 
ment of the Roman see, and adoptmg dif- 
ferent doctrines from thoseprofessed by the 
rest Thus arose the diilerence between 
the Catholic and Protestant churches. It 
might reasonably be asked, whether some 
Protestant sects do not differ from each 
other as much as from the Catholic 
church ; for instance, the Quakers from 
the English Episcopal church. But, for 
the purpose of this article, it is sufficient 
that, in the common use of language, 
they are all called Protestants, There 
IS, moreover, one point which distin- 
guishes all Protestant sects, or the whole 
Protestant church, from the ttvo Catholic 
ones, namely, that the Protestants declare 
the Bible their only ground of belief, and 
permit it to be freely read and examined 
into. — In a third sense, the word church, 
is sometimes used for the whole Christian 
community of a country, e. g., die French 
church, Italian church, &c. — In a fouith 
sense, this word signifies the building in 
which Christians assemble for the woraliip 
of God. The Christians of the 1st centu- 
ly worshipped in private houses, or in the 
open air, in remote places, because they 
were not acknowledged by the state, and 
were often persecuted. It was not till die 
3d centur>', that they could venture to ffive 
more publicity to their service, and to 
build churches. Since the 4th century, 
the churches have become large and mag- 
nificent edifices. Such were erected by 
Constantine and, more particularly, by 
Theodosins and Justinian. Many heathen 
temples, also, were changed into Christian 
churches. In the miadle ages, many 
splendid edifices were erected for the per- 
formance of divine service, which, in 
loftiness and grandeur, were never sur- 
passed. Some of the most famous 
churches at present are St Peter's, at 
Rome; Notre Dame, at Paris; St Ste- 
phen's, at Vienna ; the church of Isaac, at 
8t Petersburg ; the minsters at Strasburg 
imd Cologne ; and St Paul's church, in 
London. (See Cathedrals,) Excepting 
the last mentioned edifice, Protestantism 
nas yiroduced no very splendid church. 
n &ct, the Protestants, m the construc- 

tion of their places ci wmhip^ seem to 
have had almost exclusively in view the 
Bcconunodation of the hearers, particular- 
ly in England and America. This feet is 
easily explained from the circumstance that 
the^ do not celebrate, in their churches, 
divine service, in the sense in which the 
Catholics use the phrase, but cliiefiy meet 
to hear the Bible explained to them, and 
to be instructed in their duties ; on ac* 
count of which the churches of a large 
portion of Protestants are often, or even 
usually, called meetin^hoiues^ and their 
sermons disamrses.-'-iD. New England, 
the word ckurek is used to denote the 
members of a religious society, who have 
made a public profession of the Christian 
religion, in contradistinction to the other 
individuals belonging to the same reli- 
gious society, who have not made such a 
profession. — ^There are various deriva- 
tions of the word churchy which, of c4>urBe, 
has the same origin with he German 
Kirche^ and the Scottish kirk. Some de- 
rive it from the Greek kv^oiAv, from imptot, 
lord, a l.ouse appropriated for the service 
of the Lord. Others think the German 
word is a translation of the Latin ecdesioy 
in which case it would be derived £ix>m 
kiireny to elect, and 'imply the idea of the 
elect people of God. 

As it is the natural course of things that 
the different branches, powers, or, in gen- 
eral, the component parts of every estabush- 
ment, are at tintt confounded, and separated 
only by degrees, witli the progress of im- 
provement, and after long struggles, so it 
nas been with the church and the state. 
The violent contentions which took place 
at first between the emperor of Germany 
who considered himself emperor of Chris- 
tendom, and the pope, were repeated in 
many countries, and still continue in some. 
It would far exceed our limits to give even 
a sketch of these disputes, and of the theo- 
ries which have been advanced on the 
different sides respecting this question: 
we will only mention, that, in all Protes- 
tant countries, the monarchs have usurped 
the highest ecclesiastical power, witiiout 
any support from history or Scripture. 
Three equally untenable theories have 
been advanced to justify this assumption : — 
1. the episcopal s^stem^ so called, according 
to which the episcopal rights are said to 
have been transferred to the sovereign by 
the reformation ; S. the territorial sifstem, 
which maintains that the worldly ruler is, 
ipso factoj spiritual chief of the church 
of his country ; 3. the coUegial system^ 
which considers the members of a church 
as a society, whose rights rest upon a con- 

Digitized by 




tract, by which a part of them has been 
conferred upon the sovereign. History 
and reason prove how unfounded these 
theories are, which are propeily to be con- 
sidered as defences of usurpation. The 
United States of America are the only 
Christian country in which there is no 
established religion ; but, notwithstanding 
ail the advantages fringing from this 
state of things, it is not entirely free from 
evils. — The revenue of the cnurch is a 
subject of great importance in political 
economy. The following table, showing 
the annual amount of the income of the 
clergy in all part^ of the Christian world, 
is copied from the Catliolic Miscellany. 
It will be perceived, that the revenue of 
the clergy of Great Britain, according to 
this statement, is sreater, by £44,000 ster- 
ling, than that of all the other Christian 
clergy in the known world ; while the 
number of heareis attending on their min- 
istry, compared with the aggregate num- 
ber belonging to the Christian flocks in 
other nations, is as 1 to 32. 

French Catholic and Prot- 
estant churches, £1,050,000 

United States, 
Spain, )••>*»«■ «wr( 

JKortUgal, ) goMnuneota. ( 

Hungary, Catholics, 

— Calvinists, 






German small states, 





Russia, Oreek church, 

Cath. and Lath., 480,000 

Christians in Turkey, 180,000 






























£8362,000 198,728,000 

8,896,000 6,400,000 

England, Wales, ) 

and Ireland, ) 
Income of the estab- '\ 

Hshed clerpy of f g 052,000 

the whole Chris- ( Of^w^i^w 

tian world beside, ) 
Balance in favor of > « . . ZIT 

the English clergy, J *'**»'^ 

CHtTitcH,EA8TC]iif. (See Oftek Ckurdu) 
Church op EiroLAim. (See England, 
Church of.) 
CHuacHy GassK. (See Grttk Chunk) 

Church, LA#iir, or Western. (Se^ 
Roman Caiholic ChurchJ) 

Church, Roman Catholic (See Uo- 
man Caiholic Church,] 

Church, Fathers or the {patres tc- 
dtgut\ ; teachers and writers of tlie ancient 
ehurcn, who flourished after the time of 
the apcotles and apostolic fathers (the im- 
nvMiiate disciples of the apostles), from the 
2d to the 6th centuiy. This name is also 
sometimes given to the teachers and 
writers of the following centuries, down to 
the schoolmen, who hegin with the 12tfa 
cemury. A large number of then writ- 
ings have been preserved, and have been 
puolished by modem scholars. The 
knowledge of their Kves and their works 
constitutes a particular science, called po- 
tristies. The Others of the church intro- 
duced the Greek and Roman learning into 
Christian treatises, and many of them 
were as able as they were learned. Most 
of the earlier fathers of the church, be- 
fore their converaon to Christianity, were 
rhetoricians or advocates, which accounts 
for several peculiarities, as well in theii 
method of disputing as in their style. The 
object of their writings is to defend the 
Christian religion and the Christian com- 
munity, reflite the Jews, pagans and here- 
tics, explain the Holy Scriptures, set forth 
the doctrines of their faith, and the ruleb 
of their morality, also the history of Chris- 
tiani^ and the Christian church, and im- 
part instruction to the people. The con- 
tents of these writings, therefore, are apol- 
ogetic, exegetic, dogmatic, moral, histori- 
cal, polemical, or ascetic. The fathers of 
the church are divided into two chief 
classes, Latin and Greek. The most cel- 
ebrated among the Greek fathers are, 
Clement of Alexandria, the first who phi- 
losophized on Christianity; Ori^n, dis- 
tin^iuished for his honrulies and his apolo- 
geuc and ezeeetic writings; Eusebius, 
who wrote the first histoiy of Christianity ; 
Athananus, who had a decided influence 
upon the formation of the Christian dog- 
mas ; and Chrysostom, the most admired 
of the ancient Christian orators. The 
most distinguished among the Latin fa- 
there are, Tertullian, a writer of great 
ori^ality; Augustine, a man of a pe- 
culiar and vehement n/nd, the oracle of 
the Western church; Ambrose, distin- 
guished as a Christian orator; and Jerome, 
a man of niuch learning, and particularly 
happy in explaining the Holy Scriptures, 
whose efforts, however, contributed much 
to awaken m the West an admiration for 
the renunciation of the world and the 
celibacy of priests. The fatiiers of the 

Digitized by 



ebatrh are now yery much studied by 
the Gerxnaii Protestants, and many parts 
oTtbenr works ha?e been translated. We 
do HOC hesitate to say tliat they are too 
little studied in England, as well as in the 
U. States, comainmg, as they do, great 
stores of knowledge relating to the early 
hismiy of Chfistianitv, and elucidating its 
clmracfier. The work of doctor Neander, 
Detikw^dfgkeUm aus der (hachichie des 
ChriatcmikumM und des ChrMtchen Lebena 
(Bcriin, 1825 — 6), in which great use has 
been noade of the writings of the fathers, 
affi>n]8 abundant evidence of their value. 
Church Music. (See Music, Sacred,) 
Chitrch, States of the ; the pope^s 
dominions in Italy. They originated with 
die grant of Pepin, king of the Franks, in 
754, who bestowed on Stephen II, bishop 
of Some, some districts, which the Lom- 
batds, against whom Stephen II sohcited 
Pepin's assistance, had taken from the 
exuchate. Charlemagne confirmed this 
grant in 774, and, in return, received the 
title of Roman emperor fix)m Leo III, in 
8001 The suspicious charters of Louis-le- 
I>6boonaire, Otho I and Henry II, the 
genuineness of which the papal chamber* 
bin, Marino Marini, has lately (Rome, 
1822] endeavored to establish, are the only 
proora of these grants of Pepin and Charle- 
magne to the popes. The temporal POW« 
er of the popes over the States or the 
Church, or the dominion of St Peter, is 
founded on these documents, of which 
there only eadsts a copy, received of the 
papal chamberlain Cancio, towards the 
end of the 12th century. The wise policy 
of the popes, in conferring fevors on the 
Nonnans in Lower Italy, secured to them, 
in these vassals, stanch protectors of the 
holy aee. The structure of the papal 
power WB fiiUy completed in 1075, under 
Giegoiy VIL The crusades contributed 
more to promote the views of the popes in 
the oonmaencement than in the sequel. 
The dominions of Mathilda (q. v.> were 
added to the States of the Church, and 
the popes maintained possession of them 
tgainst all the claims of the German em- 
perora. The papal chair removed a dan- 
geiDus neighbor belon^ng to the house 
of Uohen^ufen, by raising the house of 
Anpu to the throne of Naples, in the 
year 1265i. The t3rrBnny of the heads of 
the church, added to their corrupt life, at 
fast provoked the Romans to opposition, 
and the popes were obliged to transfer 
their residence, from 1305 till 1376, to 
Avignon, winch Clement VI bought of 
Joanna, queen of Naples and countess of 
iVovence, in 1348. As the choice of the 

popes made under the influence of the 
king of France sekiom or never obtained 
the assent of the Romans and Germans, 
antipopes we»e elected by the latter, and 
the welfare of the church, as well as of the 
state, suffered by their mutual hostilities. 
The iretum of the popes to Rome was &- 
vorable to the aggrandizement of their 
power, although the German councils of- 
ten expressed themselves in bold and in- 
dependent language. Julius II added 
Bologna to the papal dominions in 1513, 
and Ancona in 1532. The Venetians 
were obliged to cede Ravenna. Ferrara 
was wrested from Modena in 1598, and 
Urbino was bequeathed to the papal chair, 
in 1626, by its last duke, Francis Maria, of 
the house of Rovera. At the same time, 
the popes lost a grdat part of their tempo- 
ral ana spiritual influence, to the diminu- 
tion of which the r^id procress of the 
reformation fix)m the year 1517, greatly 
contributed. The wise administration of 
Sixtus V restored imemal order towards 
the end of the 16th century ; but the ex- 
travagance and &mily partialities of his 
successofs created fresh disorder. Clem- 
ent XIV was forced to abolish the order 
of the Jesuits, in 1773. Subsequently, 
Naples renounced her feudal obhgations 
to the papal chair, and even the journey 
of Pius VI to Vienna, in 1782, could not 
prevent the great changes which Joseph II 
vras making in the ecclesiasticai affiiirs of 
his kingdom. After the successes of the 
French in Italy, the pope was forced, at the 
peace of Tolentino, FeK 13, 1797, to cede 
Avignon to France, and Romagna, Bologna 
and Ferrara to the Cisalpine republic. An 
insurrection in Rome against the French, 
Dec. 28, 1797, caused tne occupation of 
the city, Feb. 10, 1798, and the annexa- 
tion of the States of the Church to the Ro- 
man republic. Pius VI died in France. 
The victories of the Russians and Austri- 
ans in Italy favored the election of pope 
Pius VII, March 14, 1800, who, under 
the protection of Austrian troops, took 
possession of Rome. By the concordat 
concluded, in 1801, with the first consul 
of the French republic, the pope 'agii''T 
lost B, great part of his temporal power. 
In 1807, the holy father was urged to in- 
troduce the Code Mtpol^on, and to declare 
war against England. He refused ; and, on 
the 3d of April, France was declared to be 
at war. with the pope, and the provinces 
of Ancona, Uri^ino, Macerata and Came 
rino were added to the kingdom of Italy. 
The possessions of the church beyond the 
Apennines were all that remained to the 
pope. (See the correspondence of Pius 

Digitized by 




y n with Napoleon, in Staudlin's HUtorieal 
Archives of the Stales of the Churchy 

1 vol^ 1815.] Feb. 2, 1808, a French 
coips of 8000 men entered Rome; the 
remainder of the papal states were added 
to France, and a pension of 2,000,000 of 
fi^ancs settled on the pope, whose ecclesi- 
astical power was to continue. The de* 
cree of May 17, 1809, at lensth put an end 
to the ecclesiastical state. The pope was 
detained in France until the events of 
1814 again permitted him to take posses- 
sion of his states. (See Piu9 VU) The 
States of the Church {Staio della Chiesa) — 
17,185 square miles, with 2,460,000 inhab- 
itants, occupying 90 towns, 212 market- 
places, and 3500 villages — are situated in 
the centre of Italy, between Lombardy, 
Tuscany, Naples, and the Tuscan and 
Adriatic seas. The Apennines (which 
include the Sonmia, 6800 ft;, and Velino, 
7872 ft. high) traverse the countiy finom 
N. W. to S. E. The rivers are small, with 
the excepdon of the Po (which touches the 
northern boundary, and forms the marshes 
of Commachio) and its branche& The 
most considerable is the Tiber, navigable 
from Perugia. Pope Leo XII (Genga) 
reigned fix>m 1823 till Feb. 15, 1829. 
Pius VIII (cardinal Casti^Hone) succeed- 
ed him. The revenue is estimated at 
12 millions, and the national debt at 200 
millions of florins. There is a standing 
arm^ of 9000 men. The navy consists of 

2 fiigates and a few small vessels. The 
emperor of Austria has the right to garri- 
son the citadel of Ferrara. Internal tran- 
quillity is not yet restored. In 1816, 
the States of the Church, with the excep- 
tion of Rome, Tivoli and Subiaco, which 
are under the inmiediate administration of 
the pope, were divided into 17 delegations, 
which, when under the government of 
cardinals, are called legations. Protes- 
tants, Greeks and Jews are tolerated. The 
religious orders and the Jesuits have been 
reestablished, as was also, in 1826, the 
miiversity of Urbino. This fertile coun- 
try is not very well governed. It pro- 
duces all kinds of com, the finest firuits, 
such as oranges, lemons, figs, dates, &c. ; 
a great quantity of oil, good wines, and 
mulberries, &c. The lulls are covered 
with tlilck forests; the finest marble is 
found here ; and there are, likewise, traces 
of various metals ; but these advantages 
are not sufficiently estimated. Mining is 
not known ; agriculture is neglected ; but 
the breeding of cattle and sheep is more 
carefully attended to. Manu&ctures are 
Imited to Rome, Bologna, Ancona and 
Konao. lu 1824, 3630 vessels entered 

the five portflp Rome, Civit^ Veccbia, 
Ancio, Terracino and Ancona, of which 
1052 belonged to the papal, and 2267 to 
the other Italian states. The &ir of Sini- 
ga^ia is much frequented. 

Church, Benjamin, who distinguished 
himself in the Lidian wars of New Eng- 
land, was bom at Duxburv, Massachusetts^ 
in 1639. He was one of the most active 
and indefatigable opponents of the Indian 
king Philip, and was once very near losing 
his life, while in pursuit of him. He com- 
manded the party which killed Philip, in 
August, 1676. In 1704, the spuit or the 
old warrior was roused by the burning of 
Deerfield, and he immediately rode 70 miles 
on horseback, to tender his services to sov- 
emor Dudley. The offer being accepted, he 
undertook an expedition agamst the east- 
em shore of New England, and inflicted 
considerable injury upon the French and 
Indians. The mpture of a blood-vessel, 
occasioned by a &11 from his horse, put an 
end to his hfe, Jan. 17, 1718, m the 78th 
year of his age. He published a narrative 
of king PhOip's war, 1716 ; and left a 
character of great integrity and piety. 

Churchill, John, duke ofMarlborough, 
a distinguished general and statesman, was 
the son of sir Winston Churchill, and was 
l)om at Ashe, in Devonshire, in 1650. He 
received his education at home, under a 
clergyman, from whom he derived litde 
instmction, but imbibed a strong attach- 
ment for the church of England. At the 
age of 12, he was taken to court, and 
became page to the duke of York, and, at 
16, receiv^ from him a pair of colors. 
The first engagement at which he was 
present was me siege of Tangier, which 
seems to have deciaed him in his choice 
of a profession. On his return, he re- 
mained for some time about the couit^ 
and, being very handsome, was a great 
favorite with the ladies there. The 
king's mistress, the duchess of Cleveland, 
in particular, vras much attached to him, 
and presented bun with £5,000, with 
which he purchased a life annuity. In 
167^ he accompanied the duke of Mon- 
mouth, as captam of grenadiers, when the 
duke went with a body of auxiliaries to the 
continent, to asost the French agamst the 
Dutch. He there fought under the great 
Turenne, with whom he went by the 
name of the handsome Englishman. At 
the fficffe of Maestricht, he distmguished 
himself so highly as to obtain the pubho 
thanks of the king of France. On his re* 
tum to England, he was made lieutenant- 
colonel ; also gentieinan of the bed-cham- 
ber and master of the robes to the duka 

Digitized by 




of Yoik, whom, in 1679, he accompanied 
to the Netherlands, and aflenvaraa, in 
1680, to Scodand, where he was much 
noticed by those who i^oshed to pay their 
court to the duke. In 1680, he had a 
regiment of dragoons presented to him, 
and married miss Sarah Jennings, a lady 
of great beauty and good fanuk, an at- 
tendant upon the princess, afterwards 
queen, Anne. B;^ thk union he materially 
strengthened his interest at court, his lad^ 
proving a valuable helpmate in all his 
schemes for advancement In 1682, he 
was shipwrecked, with the duke of York, 
in their pessap to Scotland ; on which 
event he received a great proof of the 
duke's regard, who used every effort to 
save him, while many persons of quahty 
perished. In the same year, through the 
mterest of his master, he obtained the tide 
of haron of I^emouthy and a colonelcy in 
the guards. On the accession of James 
n, he was sent ambassador to France, and, 
soon after his remm, was created baron 
Churchill of Sundridffe, and, the same 
year, suppressed the rebellion of tlie duke 
of Monmouth. During the remainder of 
this reign, he acted vnth great prudence 
and a strict attention to his own interest, 
and, on the arrival of the prince of Oranse, 
joined him at Axminster, with the di&e 
of Grafton, and some other officers. His 
conduct in this aftair has been severelv 
censured as ungrateful ; but his owrn apol- 
ogy (and there is no reason to dispute it) 
was his attachment to the Protestant 
cause, and the dictates of his conscience. 
On the accesaon of William and Maiv, 
in 1689, he was rewarded for his zeal m 
their cause by the earldom of Marlborough, 
and appointed commander-in-chief of Uie 
English army in the Low Countries. The 
following year, he served in Ireland, where 
he reduced Cork, and other places. In 
1692, he experienced a great reverse in his 
sudden dismissal from all his employ- 
ments, followed by his commitment to the 
Tower on the charge of high treason. He 
soon obtained his release; but the evi- 
dence against him was never legally pro- 
duced, and the author of the accusations, 
then a prisoner, being convicted of perju- 
ly, he was entirely acquitted. By the 
publication of Mr. Macpherson's state-pa- 
]iera, however, it appears that the suspi- 
cions were not altogether without founda- 
tion, and that a correspondence probablv 
exiiMed between the earl of Marlborough 
and lord Grodolphin, having for its object 
the restoration of the banished king. How- 
ever this may have been, during the fife 
of queen Maiy, the earl seems to have 

kept away from court ; and, aided by his 
countess, exerted sreat influence over the 
princess Anne, which circumstance, {>er- 
naps, prevented his intrigues from being 
Btncdy examined. On the death of queen 
Mary, he was made a privy counsellor, and 
appointed governor to the young duke of 
Gloucester ; and, in 1700, was created by 
king William commander-in-chief of the 
English forces in Holland, and also ambas- 
sador plenipotentiary to the States-Gen- 
eral. Still greater honors awaited him on 
the accession of queen Anne, in 1702, 
when he was created captain-general of 
all the forces at home and abroad, and 
sent plenipotentiaiy to the Hague, where 
he was also made captain-general by the 
States. In the campaign of the same 
year, he took several strong towns, amonfip 
which was Liege, for which he received 
the thanks of bom houses, and was created 
duke of Marlborough, with a pension 
granted, by the queen, for his lite; and. 
moreover, carried a motion for the aug- 
mentation of the army abroad, b^ taking 
10,000 foreign soldiers into Briush pay. 
The famous battle of Hochstddt, or Blen- 
heim, was fought on the 2d of August, 
1704, between the allied army, com- 
manded by the duke of Marlborough and 
prince Eugene, and the French and Ba- 
varians, headed by marshal Tallard and 
the elector of Bavaria^ The victory was 
complete; Tallard was taken prisoner, 
and the electorate of Bavaria became the 
prize of the conquerors. The nation tes- 
tified its gratitude to the duke by the gifbs 
of the honorof Woodstock and hundred of 
Wotton, and erected a palace for him, one 
of the finest seats in the kingdom. Med- 
als were struck in honor of the event, 
which Addison also celebrated in his 
poem of the Campai^. After the next 
campaign, which was inactive, he visited 
the courts of Berlin, Hanover and Venice, 
and his concihadng manners, great pru- 
dence, and perfect command of himself 
contributed to render him as successful in 
his negotiations as m the field. The new 
emperor, Joseph, invested him with the 
title oi prince of tht empire, which was 
accompanied bv a present of the princi- 
mlity of Mindelheim. On the victory of 
Ramillies, a bill was passed to settie his 
honors upon the male and female issue 
of his daughters. He next visited the 
German courts in tlie alliance, and waited 
upon Charles XII of Sweden, then in Saxo- 
ny. His reception was cold and reserved, 
yet he had sufficient penetration to per- 
ceive that the king would not interfers 
with the allied powers. In the caronaiga 

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of 1707, his antagonist was the fiunous 
duke de Yenddme, over whom he gaihied 
no advantage. He was also disappointed 
in his endeavors to rouse the confederacy 
into more activity. On his return to Eng- 
land, he found that the duchess was out of 
favor with the queen ; and though he was 
received with die usual attentions, yet it 
was evident his popularity at court was 
on the decline. In 1706, in conjunction 
with prince Eugene, he gained the batde 
of Oudenard, and pushed the victory so 
&r, that the French kinff entered into a 
negotiation for peace, which was of no 
ef^ct In 1709, be defeated marshal 
Villai*s at Malplaquet ; but this action was 
attended with great slaughter on both 
sides, the allies losing 18,000 men, which 
loss was but ill repaid by the capture of 
Mons. The prevalence of the tories in 
England rendered the French war unpop- 
ular and tiie preaching and prosecution 
of Sacheverel created a sensation unfa- 
vorable to its continuance. On the next 
visit of the duke to England, he found 
that the duchess, by her great arrogance, 
had so disgusted the queen, that a total 
breach had ensued ; and though he was 
still received with public honors, he could 
bv/ no means boast of his former influence. 
Early in 1710, he retiuned to the army, 
and, yfixh prince Eugene, gained another 
victory over Villans, and took the towns 
of Douay, Aire and St Venant During 
his absence, a new mimsdy was chosen, 
composed of men hostile to him and his 
views, and, on his return, he was conse- 
quently expected to resign; but this he 
would not do, and, dissembling his indig- 
nation, again repaired to the field, and sig- 
nalized himselr bv the capture of Bou- 
ehain. Findmg that he would not resign 
his command, it was taken from him; 
and a prosecution was even commenced 
against him for applying the public mon- 
ey to private purposes. Disgusted by tliis 
gross mgratitude, he repair^ to the Low 
Countries, where he was received with 
the greatest honor. He returned a short 
time before the queen's death, and, on the 
accession of George I, was restored to 
favor, and reinstated in the supreme mili- 
tary command. The last public transac- 
tion, in which he took a itart, was the de- 
feat of the rebellion, in l7l5, in which his 
advice was taken. Retiring from all pub- 
lic emplovments, his mental faculties 
grsduaUy decayed, and, fiiDing mto second 
childhood, he died at Windsor Lodge, 
hi 1722, in the 7dd year of his age, 
leaving four daughters, who married mto 
fiunilies of the nnt distiDction. He was 

rather a man of solid sense than of gemuSy 
and was gifted with great coolness and 
self-possession. He vras not even mod- 
eratelv conversant in literature, but so well 
versed in all courtiy arts, that he always 
acquitted himself with honor in the deli- 
cate negotiations in which he was em- 
ployed. His proficiency in the graces is 
said by lord Chesterfield to have oeen the 
chief cause of these successes. But bis 
fame rests chiefly upon his militazy talents, 
of which he gave most illustrious proofs. 
As regards his morals, he seems to ha\e 
been much guided by interest ; and it does 
not appear mat he ever ceased intriguing 
with tlie Stuart family, whose restoration 
seemed at one time far from improbable. 
Neither does his connexion with the 
whigs appear to have been sincere, for, 
according to Macpheison, he held a cor- 
respondence vnth lord Bolingbroke, hop- 
ing to be restored to power through the 
innuence of the tory ministry. His ava- 
rice was equally notorious with his ambi- 
tion ; yet it does not appear that he ever 
made an unjust use of his ascendency. 
His political enemy, the celebrated earl of 
Peterborough, pronounced his eulogy in 
these worcte: ''He was so great a man 
that I have forgotten his Cults'* — a sen- 
tence which, upon the whole, tolerably 
well conveys the judgment of posterity. 
His duchess has been almost equally cele- 
brated for her boundless ambition and ava- 
rice. She died in 1744, having amassed 
immense riches. She presented Mr. 
Hooke ynth £5,000 to write a book, entitled 
•^ Account of the Conduct oftkt Dowager 
Duchess of Marlborough^ -end bequeathed 
£500 to Mallet to write the tife of the 
duke! In 1788, a selection of curious 

gapers was published by lord Hailes, un-> 
er the tide of The Opinums of Sarah 
Duchess of Marlborouffh. The duchess 
was the Mossa in Pope^s Satire on Wo- 

Churchill, Charles, a poet and satirist 
of great temporary fame, was the son of 
the curate of St John's, Westminster, in 
which parish he was bom, in 1731. He was 
educated at Westminster school, but made 
so bad a use of his time, that he was 
refiised admission at the university of 
Oxford, firom his want of classical knowl- 
edge. He accordingly returned to school, 
but soon closed his eaucation by an im- 
prudent marriage with a young lady in 
the neighborh(K)d. He, however, stud- 
led in private, and was at lengtii admitted 
into holy orders by the bishop of London, 
and received a Welsh curacy of £30 a 
year. In order to increase this scanty in- 

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eome, heenga^intheaaleofcider, but, 
being little adapted for trade, soon became 
iDsolvent. Retunimg to London, on tlie 
death of hm fiither, he obtained his curacy ; 
but, owing to the smallness of his income, 
and, most likely, to his fondness for theat- 
rical amusements and the company of the 
wits of the day, he was soon overwhelmed 
with debt A composition with his credi- 
tors being effected by the humane media- 
tion of doctor Lloyd, the second master of 
Westminster school, he began to think of 
seriously exerting the talents which he 
was conscious that he possessed* Under 
the title of the Rosdady a poem, published 
first in March, 1761, without a name, he 
exanuned the excellences and defects of 
the actors in the two houses in London, 
with equal spirit, judgment and vivacity. 
The language and versification too, al- 
though sometimes careless and unequal, 
were &r superior to the ordinaiy strain of 
current poetry in strength and energy, 
and the entire production bore the stamp 
of no common talents. The celebrity of 
this poem was very great, and the players 
very weakly increased it bv the impatience 
wiui which they resented its censures. 
Pamphlets abounded on both sides of the 
question ; and the author justified himself 
in a new satire, entitled the apology, in 
which the profession of a player was 
treated with humorous contempt These 
works made him many enemies, for which 
he cared very fittle, as they brought him the 
fior more dangerous intimacy and applause 
of the men of wit and pleasure about 
the town. A course of disapation and 
intemperance followed^ which excited 
much animadversion, and elicited from 
him his next satire, entitled J^Hght, The 
Cock-lane imposture, also, formed a topic 
fur his muse, and he hesitated not to sati- 
rize doctor Johnson, in the piece entitled 
the Ghoet He next fell in with the na- 
tional ill humor against the Scotch, which 
originated in the political occurrences of 
the commencement of the reign of George 
in, by his Prophecy qf Famine^ a Scot3i 
pettonJ, being a most acrimonious, yet 
strongly-drawn caricature of Scottish dis- 
advantages. This poem was received with 
great avidity, and he immediatelv took that 
rank as a political satirist, whidb he Ions 
maintained, at the expense of candor and 
decorum, and to the deterioration of both 
his poetical and moral character. Of the 
latter, indeed, he now became utteri v care- 
leas ; and, dropping the clerical habit, he 
parted fix>m his wife, and even distin- 
guished himself in the fiishionable art of 
•eduction. Being now a par^ writer by 

profession, he cultivated an aequaiiMsnoe 
with Mr. Wilkes^ and emjiloyed his pen 
aasiduoualy in the cause of opposition, and 
for his own emolument. Besides the 
works already mentioned, he published, 
within three or fbur years, an JBpistle to 
Hogarth, the Conference, the Duellist, the 
Author, Gotham, the Candidate, the Times, 
Independence, and the Journey. Most of 
these pieces contain detached pictures, 
which display a vigorous fency and forci- 
ble sentiments, expressed with great occa- 
sional energy. In versification, Churchifl 
avowedly imitated Dryden ; and when he 
writes with care, he weU exemplifies his 
appreciation of his model ; but he wrote 
too hastily not to injure his composition 
by prosaic lines, and he fi:equentiy passed 
off his carelessness for desicn. Towards 
the end of the year 1764, he was seized 
with a fever, and died on the 4th of Novem* 
ber, the same year, at die age of 34. 

Church- Vasd. (See Bwying-Pheet 
and Cemetery,) 

Chtle. (See Chyme.) 

Chtme, in animal economy. In the 
piocess of digestion, the food is subjected 
to a temperature usually above 9GP of 
Fahrenheit It is mixed with the gastric 
juice, a Uquor secreted by the glands of 
the stomach, and is made to undergo a 
moderate and alternate pressure, by the 
contraction of the stomach itselfl It is 
thus converted mto a sofl, uniform mas^ 
of a grayish color, in which the previous 
texture or nature of the aliment can be no 
longer distinguished. The cAyme, as this 
pulpy mass into which the food in the 
stomach is resolved is termed, passes by 
the pylorus into the intestinal canal, where 
it is mixed with the pancreatic juice end 
the bile, and is still exposed to the same 
temperature and altematmg pressure. The 
thinner parts of it are absorbed by tiis 
slender tubes termed the lacteals. The 
liquor thus absorbed is of a white color: 
it passes through the glands of the mesen- 
terjr, and is at length conveyed by the tho- 
racic duct into the blood. This part of the 
lurocess is termed chyljficatwn^ and the 
white hquor thus formed, eh^ It is sn 
opaque, milky fluid, mild to the taste. By 
standing for some time, one part of it co- 
agulates; another portion is coagulated 
by heat The chvle, after mixing with the 
lymph conveyed by the absorbent vessela, 
is received into the blood, which has re»- 
tumed from the extreme vessels, befbrs 
this passes to the heart All traces of it 
are very soon lost in the blood, as it mixw 
perfoctiy with that fluid. It is probo^ 
nowever, that its nature is not immediate&f 

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c<mip1etely altered. The blood pasnng 
fiom the heart is conveyed to the lungs, 
where it circulates over a veiy extenove 
Burftce presented to the atmospheric air, 
with the intervention of a very thin mem- 
brane, which does not prevent their mu- 
tual action. During this circulation, the 
blood loses a considerable quantity of 
carbon, part of which, it is probable, is 
derived from the impeifectly assimilated 
chyle, as this, originating in' part from 
vegetable matter, must contain carbon in 
larser proportion than even the blood 

GiBBBR, Colley, a dramatic writer and 
actor, bom in London, 1671, served under 
the duke of Devonshire, in tlie revolution 
which placed the prince of Orange on the 
throne, and then made his appearance at 
Drury-lane theatre. He was not at first 
venr successful ; but, at length, die talent 
which he displayed in the character of 
Fondlewife, m the Old Bachelor of 
Congreve, brought him into notice. In 
169d, appeared his first comedy, Love's 
last Sliifl, which met with great success. 
In this piece, he played the part of 
Novelty, a fashionable fop. This charac- 
ter is found in most of his pieces, and in 
the representation of it he was likewise 
distinguished. His dramatic celebrity is 
founded chiefly on the Careless Hus- 
band, which even obtained the approba- 
tion of his declared enemy, Pope. This 
piece is, indeed, widiout novelty m the 
characters, and without invention in the 
plot, but it is a good picture of the man- 
ners and follies of the time. His comedy 
the Nonjuror, an imitation of ThrtuffCf 
adapted to English manners, appeared in 
1717, and was directed against the Jacob- 
ites. It was very successful, and procur- 
ed him a pension from the court, but 
drew upon him many enemies, whose 
number he increased by his conduct as 
director of Drury-lane theatre, from 1711. 
His appointment as poet-laureate, 1730, 
gave full play to the raillery of his ene- 
mies. Gibber had the good sense to join 
in the laugh against his own verses, and 
thus to disarm them. Pope, however, 
did not cease to ridicule him on every op- 
portunity. In 1 750, he quitted the dieatre, 
and published the Apology for the Life of 
Colley Cibber, &c^ written with spirit and 
candor, and containing many entertaining 
anecdotes and judicious remarks. He 
died in 1757. 

Cibber, Theophilus, son of the subject 
of the preceding article, was bom in 1703, 
and embraced the profession of an actor. 
With lespect to personal appearance, na- 

ture had not been more favorable to him 
than to his father ; but his intelligence and 
vivacity in his performances compensated 
forvhis deficiencies, and he would have 
been successful on die staee if his extrav- 
agance had not continualTy involved him 
in difiliculties. He was engaged, in 1757, 
to play at a Dublin theatre, but was ship- 
wrecked on his passage, and drowned. 
The Biography of fingOsh and Irish Po- 
ets, which appeared under his name, was 
irom the pen of Robert Shiels, a Scotch- 
man, who purchased, for 10 guineas, the 
right of prefixing to the work the name 
of Cibber, then in prison for debt. — Gib- 
ber's wife, Susanna Maria, bom 1716, waa 
one of the best actresses on the Enn^ifih 
stage. She was sister of the celebrated 
doctor Ame (composer of Rule Britannia), 
who taught her music, and introduced her, 
in one of his operas, at the Haymarket 
theatre. In 1734, she married Theophi- 
lus Cibber, but was soon after separated 
from him. She subsequently made her 
appearance in tragedy. Her beauty and 
her talents sained her universal admim- 
tion. She died in 1766. 

CiBORiuM ; originally, a drinking-vessel 
made from an Egyptian plant In the 
Roman church, it is the vessel in which 
the consecrated host (the venerabUe) is 

Cicada. (See Grasshopptr.) 

Cicero, Marcus TuUius. This cele- 
brated Roman was bom in the year of 
Rome 647 (106 B. C), at Arpinum. Hie 
fi&mily belonged to the order of equites^ 
but had always kept themselves aloof 
from public business and ofiSce. His fii* 
tber, who lived in retirement, devoted to 
science, was the fiiend of the first citizens 
of the republic. Amongst this number 
was the celebrated orator Crassus, who 
himself attended to the education of the 
young Cicero and his brother QuintuB, 
selected teachers for them, and directed 
their studies. The perusal of the Greek 
authors, together with poetry, oratory and 
philosophy, occupied the first years of 
Cicero's youth. He wrote a great deal in 
Greek. His versification was good, but his 
poetical merits, on the whole, only mode- 
rate. His destination was, to be the first 
orator of Rome. In his youth, he made 
one campaign under Sylla, in the Marsic 
war. After his retum, he availed himself 
of the instraction of the academician Phi- 
lo, and of the celebrated orator Molo, 
and employed several years in acquiring 
the knowledffe requisite for an orator. 
He witnessed the naibarities of Marius 
and Cinna, and the proscriptions of Sylk^ 

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aAnr which the exhaustedf blood-stained 
republic remained undistuibed under the 
race of its dictator. Cicero, at that time 
26 years old, endowed with knowledge 
and genius, appeared before the tribunals, 
at firat in civil suits, afterwards in a crhn* 
inai process, in which he defended Kos- 
cius Amerinus, who was accused of par- 
ricide bv Chrysogonus, a fieedman of 
Sylla. He conducted this defence with 
courage, confuted the accusers, and 
obli^ the judges to acquit the accused. 
After this brilliant display, he remained a 
year in Rome, and undertook another suit 
His conduct, in both instances, must have 
displeased the dictator. But his debihtat* 
ed health obliged him to travel ; and he 
went to Athena, which was still the centre 
of science. Here he readed in the house 
of an academician, was visited by the 
philosophers of all the schools, and profit- 
ed by the instruction of the masters of 
oratoiy. Thus he passed six months with 
his fnend Atticus, in the enjoyment of 
literary pursuits. Hia initiation into the 
mvsteries of Eleusls is supposed to have 
taken place about this tune. He also 
undertook a journey to Asia, and remain-* 
ed some time at Rhodes, where he like- 
wise visited the most distinguished ora- 
tors, and partook in their exercisea On 
his return to Rome, his displays of el- 
oquence proved the value of his Grecian 
instruction. Among others, he defended 
the celebrated actor Roscius, his fiiend, 
and master in the art of elocution. At 
last, at the ace of 30, he engaged in public 
business. He became ouestor of Sicily, 
during the prevalence of a great scarcity 
at Rome, and managed to convey a kurge 
quantity of com irora .thence to the capi- 
tal, though it was difficult for him so to 
do without exciting the displeasure of 
the Sicilians. He Afterwards returned to 
Rome, and appeared as an orator, defend- 
ing the causes of private individuals, mere- 
ly for the sake of fame. It was an honor- 
able day for Cicero, when the ambassadors 
from Sicily appeareit before him, with 
the request that he would conduct their 
suit against their governor Verres. He 
showed himself worthy of the confidence 
of an oppressed people, and appeared 
af;ainst this powerml robber, after naving 
himself collected proofi of his crimes in 
Sicihr. He was ^posed by the celebrat- 
ed Hortensius. Tne crimes of Verres are 
painted in the liveliest cok>rs in his im- 
mcMtal speeches. Seven are preserved, 
but only two of them were delivered. 
Hortensius was struck dumb by the fi>n» 
of truth, and Verres went into voluntary 

exile. After this suitj Cicero was elected 
to the office of edile. Thouffh possetved 
of only a moderate fortune, he managed, 
by well-timed liberality, to gain the al^ 
fections of the people whilst he held this 
office. But, for the execution of lus plans, 
he was likevrise in need of the fiiendship 
of the great, to obtain which he joined ma 
party of Pompey, the head of the nobility 
and the first citizens of Rome. He be- 
came his panegyrist and most zealous 
adherent. Catilme at that time began to 
plan his cons^nracy against the republic. 
He was accused or extortion ia his gov- 
ernment of Afiica, and Cicero was on the 
point of undertaking his defence, when 
they became rivals, being both candidates 
for the consulship. Cicero's merit pre- 
vailed over Catihne's intrigues and the 
envy of his enemies. He was chosen 
consul unanimously ; and now commences 
the most splendid period of his political 
life. He succeeded in defeating the con- 
spiracy of Catiline, (q. v.) At the same time, 
he conducted a pnvate suit, in a masterly 

rwh defending Murena, consul elect for 
ensuing year, against the accusations 
of the Stoic Cato. After Catiline's fidi, 
the Romans greeted Cicero as the fiither 
of his country. But a factious tribune 
would not consent to his rendering an ac- 
count of his administration ; and, on retir- 
ing from the consulate, Cicero was only 
able to pronounce the celebrated oath, ^1 
swear that I have saved the republic.'* 
Ceesar viras always his opponent, and 
Pompey feared a citizen who loved Uber- 
ty too much to be favorable to the trium- 
virs. Cicero saw his credit gradually de- 
creasuig, and even his safety threatened. 
He therefore occupied himself more than 
ever with science, wrote the history of his 
consulate, in Greek, and composed a 
Latin poem on the same subject, in three 
book& At last the storm broke out Clo- 
dius, Cicero's enemy, caused a law to be 
renewed, declaring every one guilty of 
treason, who comnumded the execution of 
a Roman citizen before the people had 
condenmed him. The illustrious ex-con- 
sul put on mourning, and appeared, ac- 
companied by the ejwtes and many youn^ 
patricians, demanding tlie protection of 
the people. Clodius, at the head of armed 
adherents, insulted them repeatedly, and 
ventured even to benege the senate. Ci- 
cero, upon this, went into vohmtaiy exile, 
travelled through Italy, and ultimately 
took refuge in lliessalonica, with Plancus. 
Clodius, in the mean time, procured new 
decrees, in consequence of which Cicero's 
countiy-seats were torn down, and a tsni' 

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of fivedom bvih on the rite of his 
at Koine. Cicero's wife and chi^ 
iren were exposed to ill treatment — 
Whilst the accounts of these occurrences 
drove the unhappy man almost to despair, 
a change favorable to him was preparing 
in Rome. The audacity of Ciodius be* 
came equally insupportable to alL Pom- 
pey encouraged Uicero's friends to set 
him recalled to Rome, llie senate de- 
clared that it would not attend to any 
business until the decree which ordered 
his banishment was revoked. Throufffa 
the zeal of the consul Lentulus, and at &e 
proposition of seveml tribunes, the decree 
of recall passed the assembly of the peo- 
ple, in the following year, in spite of a 
bloody tumult, in which Cicero's brother 
Quintus was dangerously wounded. In 
this honorable manner Cicero returned, 
after an absence of ten months. The as- 
sembled senate received him at the gates 
of the city, and his entry resembled a 
triumph. The republic undertook the 
charge of rebuilding his houses. From 
this period, a new epoch commences in 
Cicero's life. His republican zeal dimin- 
ished in proportion as his attachment to 
Pompey mcreased, whom he declared his 
benelactor. Ciodius opposed with arms 
the rebuil ''ng of Cicero's houses, and 
oflen attacked liim personally. Milo re- 
pelled his attacks, and accused him, at 
the same time, before the tribunaL Rome 
became frequentiy a field of battle. Cice- 
ro, meanwhile, passed several years with 
little public employment, occupied with 
his rhetorical worijcs. To oblige Pompey, 
he defended Vatinius and Gdbinius, two 
citizens of bad character, who had shown 
themselves his implacable oiemies. At 
the age of 54, he entered the college of 
the augurs. The death of the turbulent 
Ciodius, who was slain by Milo, delivered 
him fix>m his most dangerous opponent. 
He defended the perpetrator of this act, 
who was his friend and avenger, in a 
beautiful qieech; but the presence of 
Pompey's soldiers, and the tumult of the 
friends of Ciodius, confused him whilst 
delivering it. At this period, the senate 
appointed him governor of Cihda. Cice- 
ro conducted a war, while in this office, 
with good success, repulsed the Parthians, 
and was greeted by the soldiers with the 
tide of tfnpemtor. But h«) was not allow- 
ed the honor of a triumph. As soon as 
his term of office had expired, he returned 
to Rome, which was threatened with sen 
cms disturbances, owing to the rupture 
lietween Caesar and Pompey. Dreadinff 
tbn hanon of a civil war he endeavorea 

in vam to reconcile the rivakk Cesar ad- 
vanced towards Rome, and Pompey was 
forced to fly with the consuls arid the 
senate. Cicero, not anticipatinff this sud- 
den approach of Ceesar, was stul in Italy* 
Cesar saw him at Formiee, but was not 
able to gain him over; for, akliough con- 
vinced that the party of Cesar was likely 
to prevail, and although his son-in-law, 
Dolabella, was one of Caesar's confidants, 
he was prompted by his sense of honor 
to return to Pompey. Afler the battle of 
Pharsalia and the ffi^t of Pompey, he 
refused to take the command of some 
troops who had remained at Dynhachium, 
but returned to Italy, which was governed 
by CfBsar's representative, Antony. This 
return was attended with several unplea^ 
ant circumstances, until the conqueror 
wrote to him, and soon afte&received him 
graciously. Cicero now devoted himself 
entirely to literature and philosophy. He 
was divorced from his wife Terentia, to 
enable him to marry a beautiful and rich 
heiress, whose ^aidian he wa& But the 
pecuniary considerations which induced 
him to take this step could never prevail 
on him to flatter power: on the contraiy, 
he purposely kejn aloof^ and ridiculed the 
flatterers of Caesar, priding himself on his 
panegyric of Cato. But his disafiection 
was overcome by the liberality of Caesar, 
when he pardoned Marcellus. Enraptur- 
ed by this act of fiivor, which restored his 
friend to him, Cicero broke slence, and 
delivered a famous oration, which con- 
tained as much instruction as panecyrio 
for the dictator. Soon after, he sp<£e in 
defence of ligarius, and Ctesar, relenting, 
gave up his purpose of condemning the 
accused to death. X^icero now regained a 
part of his fonner consideration, when the 
death of his daughter Tullia occurred, 
and afiected him very painfully. The a»* 
sassination of Caesar opened a new career 
to the orator. He hoped to regain great 
political influence. The oonspbatorB Sbar- 
ed with him the honor of an enterprise in 
which no part had been assigned him; 
and the less he had contributed to it him- 
self, the more anxious was he to justify 
the deed, and pursue the advantara 
which it ofiiemd. But Antonv took Cae- 
sar's place. Even in this turbulent year, 
Cicero found leisure for literaiy occupa- 
tions, and, among other labors, completed 
his work De Okrioj which was lost as late 
as in the 14th centuir. He determined 
on going to Greece, where he could live 
in Mifety ; but he soon returned to Rome, 
and composed those admirable orations 
against Antony, which are known to us bf 

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the Mine of PkAmieMf and whtch are 
equaUjf disdncuiahea for eloquence and 
paaiotkai. fiis implacable enmity to- 
irards Antony induced him to favor 
young Octavius, although the pretended 
modenoion of the latter did not deceive 
him. With him originated all the enw- 
flctic resolutions of the moate in favor of 
die war which the consuls and the youne 
Cesar were conducting, in the name of 
the republic, against Antony. Octaviua 
haviitf pofis^sed himself of the consulate, 
and formed an alliance with Antony and 
Lepidua, after the death of the two con* 
suk, the power of the senate and of the 
oiator yielded to the arms of the trium- 
virs. Cicero, who had always spared Oc- 
tavius, and even pmposed to Brutus to be 
reconciled virith him, was at laat con- 
vinced that liberty was at an end. At 
Tusculum, whither he had retired with 
his brother and nephew, he learnt that his 
name, at Antonyms demand, had been 
added to the list of the proscribed. He 
repaired, in a state of indecision, to the 
sea-coast, and embarked. Contrary winds 
drove him back to the shore. At the request 
of his slaves, he embarked a second time, 
tmt soon returned again to await his fate 
at his country-seat near Formiae. ** I will 
die," exclaimed he, " in my country, which 
I have more than once saved." His slaves, 
seeing the neighliorhood already distutbed 
l^ the soldiers of the triumvirs, endeavored 
to convey him away in a Utter, but soon 
discovered the murderere at tneir heels. 
They prepared for combat; but Cicero, 
who felt mat death was unavoidable, or« 
dered them to make no resistance, bent 
his head before PopOius, the commander 
of the murderers, who had once been 
saved by his eloquence, and suffered death 
more courageously than he had borne 
misfortune. He died in his 64th year^ 
A, U. C. 711 (B. C. 43). His head and 
bands were, by the orders of Antony, af- 
fixed to the same rostrum from which the 
orator, as Livy says, had poured forth elo* 
ouence uneqiudled by any human voice* 
Cicero merited the character which Au- 
gustus gave liun in these words: *<He 
was a good citizen, who loved his country 
sincereiy.l He was {particularly consider- 
ing the ^irit of bis tunes) a virtuous man, 
for his faults were only weaknesses of 
diaracter, not vices, and he always pur- 
sued (pod for its own sake, or (what, if a 
fault, is easily forgiven) for the sake of 
fiune. His heart was open to all noble 
impresnlous, to all great and fine feelings^ 
to patriotisni, fnendsbip, gratitude, and 
love of science. Cicero's eloquence has 
vol.. III. 17 

always remaiBed a model After th0 re- 
vival of learning, he was the most adroir* 
ed of the ancient writers ; and the puriQi^. 
and elegance of his style will always plaod' 
him in the first rank of Rcmian classicii. 
The style of his philosophical writiJiga, 
without oratorical ostentation, breathes 
that pure Attic elegance* which some of 
his contemporaries wished also to see in 
his orations. The orator is seen, howev- 
er, in his prolix and comparatively unani- 
mated dialogues. His philosophical worics, 
the principal part of the contents of which 
is taken fiT>m the Greek, and which 
combine academic and Suhc doctrines 
cmd principles, posseas very unequal in 
terest for us. Thus, for example^ his 
work De JSTatiura Deorum is, for us, only 
a collection of errors: the TWctitoiMe 
%uMii(me9 are fiill of the subtilties of 
the Athenian school : his work De Fini' 
hu» Bonorum et Mdarum likevrise be- 
longs to this somewhat dry, dogmatic phi- 
losophy. On the other hand, his works 
on practical morals have maintained their 
full value. The book De Qfficns is to this 
day the finest treatise on vntue, inspired 
b^ pure human wisdom. The pleasuresof 
mendship and old a^ have likewise been, 
excellently set forth m Cicero's De Jlmici- 
Ha and De Seneciute, Of his political 
work De RepuUieaf a considerable part 
was brought to li^it by Maio, and {mb- 
lished in Kome in 1822. Cicero wrote the 
six books De Rep. in his 54th year. In 
these he endeavored to show by what 
policy, what resources and what morals 
Rome had obtained the dominion of the 
world. Steinacker published these firay- 
ments at Leipaic, in 1823. Villemam 
translated and explained them (Paris, 1823)» 
The work has ako been translated in the. 
United States (New York, 1829). Pro- 
fessor Gust Munnich, in Cracow, gives 
an account of the Sarroatian copy of Ci- 
cero De Rep^ which, in 1581, was in the- 
possesion of a Volhjmian nobleman, and 
has since disappeared, in his work, ML 
TulL Ciceronis JJJbri De RepMica noiiU 
Codicis SarmaL (Gottingen, 1825). Ac* 
cording to him, Goslicki used this copy ia 
his work De perfeUo Senaiore. Cicero's 
works De DwinaHone and De Legibu» 
are instructive monuments of anti<)uity« 
The same philosophical spirit is evident 
in all his oratorical treatises, particuloriy 
in the most important of them, De Orn^ 
tore, althou^ tlus contains as little of util-i 
it^ for us as the Ckarit Orator^mSf ^^2?^ 
ctSy De ParliUone OraUnia^ &c Tbo 
most interesting of ail Cicero's works, fov 
posterity, are hjs EpisUtUe /amUians uu4 

Digitized by 




M Micumj which gm a more exact and 
lively idea of tiie state of the republic than 
any of his other woifcs, and diisplay most 
strongly the characteristic traits of the au- 
thor. They are translated, in a masterly 
style, by Wieland. The life of Cicero 
was written, of old, by Plutarch, and 
has been also, in modem times, by Mid- 
dleton and Morabin. In the pubuGation 
and explanation of his works, Paulus and 
Aldus Manutios, Lambinus, the two Gru- 
ters, the two Gronovil, &lc^ have distin- 
guished themselves. We possess late edi- 
tions of his entire worios, by J. A. Emesti, 
Beck and Schiktz. Cicero's life, interest- 
ing on many accounts, is pardcularly so 
to the historical politician, as showing the 
consequences of the deplorable state of 
the Roman republic, in the case of so dis- 
tinguished an individual, as well as the 
impossibility of preserving its liberty. Ca- 
to, Cicero, and some others, were worthy 
of having lived in a better i^ of the re- 
public, to the corruption of which they 
fell martyrs. — In 18^ appeared a highly 
important work, edited by Maio (q. v.), 
Clameonim Auctorwn e Vaiicama Codicv- 
(i» Editorum: Tomus I ti H curanU 
Jingdo MoQOf FaHcaruB BibltoihecfB Prtt- 
fiSo* Bjom<B^ Typis Vcttkama, 1838, 8vo. 
The second volume contains ail the frag- 
ments of Cicero's orations which have 
been discovered by Maio, Niebuhr and 

CicERoiTE ; the title of the person who, 
in Italy, and particularly in Rome, shows 
and* explains to strangers curiosities and 
antiquities. The talkativeness of such 
persons has procured them the name of 
cicerone, in jocular allusion to Cicero. A 
good cicerone must possess extensive and 
accurate information ; and several distLa- 
guished archeeologists have pursued this 
business, as it gives them an opportunity, 
while serving others, to make repeated 
examinations of the works of art, and thus 
to become continually more familiar with 
them. Si^ore Nibbi is the most distin- 
guished cicerone. He explains antiqui- 
ties on the spot, in Rome, m a very inter- 
esting manner. • ' / 

CicisBEo ; a namegiv^i, since the 17th 
century, in Italy, to the professed gal- 
lant of a mairied lady. It is die &h- 
ion, among the higher ranks in Italy, for 
the husband, firom the day of matriage, to 
associate witii his wife in his ^wn £ouse 
only. In society, or places of- public 
amusement, she" is accompanifed by the 
cieisheoy who even attends at her toilet, 
to receive her commands for the day. 
This custom is the more extraordinaiy, 

from the natoial jeakkisy of the Itdian, 
who seems to change his character cona- 
pletely after marriage. Father Banri has 
made the Cicishtatura the subject of a 
moral work, and divides it into joi^ and 
ttretta ; the first kind he thinks p^ona* 
Ue, but the latter he regards with repug« 
nance. This custom is much on the de- 
cline in Italy. 

CicoGNARA, LecNpold, count of, bom at 
Ferrara, about 1780. He earhjr showed a 
great taste for the fine arts. His fiiist work 
was Memorit Storkhe dei LeUerati ed Jir^ 
tisH Ferraresi (Fenraia, 1811). Napoleon 
made him president of the academy of 
fine arts at Venice, where his house be- 
came a central point for the lovere of the 
fine arts. The Fr^ich emperor also as- 
sisted him in his enterprises, and made 
him knight of the iron crown. After the 
emperors fiiU, the Austrian government 
allowed Cicocnara to retain Ms place as 
president of the academy of fine arts. In 
1818, he accompanied the works of art 
sent by the government of Venice to Vi- 
enna as a present for the empress Caro- 
line of Austria. At the same time, he 
presented her 100 copies of his Omaggio 
delle Provincie FeneU tdla MaeM, di Car" 
dina Augusta (Venice, 1818, fol.|, with 18 
engravings. The work is splenoidly exe- 
cuted. Besides the 100 copies presented 
to the empress, only 500 were stnick ofi^ 
which never came into the book trade. 
This Omaggioj therefore, belongs to the 
great bibliographical rarities. (See the 
count's Letkra suUa Statua rappresentante 
Polimnia di C<movc^ Venice, 1817, p. 101.) 
Cicognara, having long entertained the idea 
of continuing Winckelmann's History of 
Art to the latest times, and having col- 
lected copious materials for this purpose, 
at length produced a woric which nas been 
violently attacked, both on account of its 
prolixity and its deficiencies. It is, how- 
ever, one which cannot be diffused with. 
Its title is, Storia deUa ScuUura dal svo 
Risorgimento in Italia svno al Sftcolo di 
Canowty of which vol. 1, foL, with 43 cop- 
perplate was published in Venice, at the 
expense of the authtor. It was followed, 
in 1816, by vol. 2, containing 90 engrav- 
ings. This volume had on its title, Sino 
al Secoh XIX. VoL 3 was published in 
1818, with 48 plates. Of the 2d edition, 
the 5th vol. appeared at Prato in 1824. 
When the first volume was completed, 
Ocognara presented it himself to Napo- 
leon, to wfaom^it is dedicated. On his \iittt 
to Paris for this purpose^ he was elected a 
member of the institute. He had received 
assistance fi:om the French government 

Digitized by 




'm the «xeeiitkni of his woik; but this 
wsB wididrawn on the rentoration of the 
Bouiboim, and the author became much 
embafraased, as he had epem a ereat put 
of hiB private fortune in the undertakmff. 
In consequence of having been confound* 
ed with another Cicognara, who was im- 
prisoned in Italy as a member of the 
Carbonari, he published a letter, while at 
Paris, on the subject of the political per- 
secutions in his country, and expressed 
his opinion very fireely. On his return 
from Paris, he was received at Venice 
very coolly, and, in consequence, went to 
Rome. Having spent his fortune in his 
tilenury enterprises, he was obliged to sell 
his library, which he had been 30 years in 
ecdieedng. For this purpose he published 
a CcUaiofto ragumtOo dd lAbri d^ArU 
e d*Aniianih poasedvH dal Conte Cicog- 
nara (Pisa, 2 vols.). This catalogue is a 
woife of value, as the titles are accompa- 
nied with biUiomphical notices. Amon^ 
the smallw wons of the count, of which 
there are many, is Le Ihhbricke piu casj^- 
cue di Venezia, muioYrfe, illustrate ed tn- 
tagliaU dei Membri deUa Veneta It Acea- 
demiaddU beUe Arti (Venice, 1820, 2 vols. 
fbU The work contains 250 engravings, 
ana the greater part of the critical obser- 
vations are by Cicognara himself 

CicirrA. The cicuta,or common Amer> 
ican hemlock {eortium maculaium), is one 
of the most valuable and important of 
medicinal vegetables. It is a piant indig- 
enous in most temperate climates, and is 
found commonly along walls and fences, 
and about old ruins and buildings. It is 
an annual plants of four or five feet in 
height, havmg very fine double pinnate 
leaves, of a pale-green color, and bearing 
fioweis of a greenish-white, in large, flat 
heads. It was first introduced to general 
notice, together with other vegetables of 
die same kind, by baron Storck of Vienna. 
The most common fiinn in which it is 
administered, isthe extract, which is given 
in piUs. Of this, from 12 to 60 grains per 
day may be taken for a long time. It is 
invaluable in all chronic inflammations, 
and enlargements of glandular parts, as 
the liver, the womb, &c., tumois of which 
it wUl sometimes remove in a space of 
time surprisingly short. Its use may be 
oontinuea, if necessary/ for a long time^ 
ami it is not found to debilitate or injure 
the system in the manner that mercuiy 
always does when long^-used. Its green 
leaves, stirred into a son poultice, form an 
excellent application for painful sores and 
uleen ; and the same leaves, dried and 
fnMied fine, make, when mixed with ce- 

rate or laid, a ouiital ointment for irrita* 
ble sores, vnth wnich a poultice does not 

Cm. Don Rodrigo (Ruy) Diaz, coum 
of Bivar, sumamed me CH bom in 1026^ 
the model of the heh>ic Vhtues of his age, 
and the flower of Spanish chivalry, swled 
by his enemies (the ambassadors of^^the 
Moorish kings) el mo Cid (my lord), and 
by his king and countrymen Campeadvr 
(hero vrithout an equal), continues to live 
in the poetiy of his country. We vrara 
made acquamted with the history of his 
life by the play of the great Comeille. 
Rodrigo loved and was beloved by Xime- 
ne, daughter of Lozano, count of Gormaz, 
who, with Diego, the fiither of Rodrigo, 
excelled all the knights at the court of 
Ferdinand I of Castile. The envy of 
Gormaz at Diego's superior estimation at 
court produced a dispute between the 
two, wfuch led to a duel Gormaz van- 
quished the old Diego, and, insult being 
added to this disgrace, Diego demanded 
from his son the blood of the offender. 
In the contest between honor and love, 
the former prevailed in the breast of the 
youth, und Gormaz fell. Ximene, unfor- 
tunate as a daughter and a mistress, could 
no longer listen to the voice of love : it 
became necessaiy for her to demand 
vengeance on the object of her affections^ 
and Rodrigo would willingly have rushed 
to the combat, if by so doing he could 
have alleviated the torments of a lacerated 
heart. But no champion was found to 
meet the young hero ; and nothing but the 
discharge of the important duties which 
devolved upon him could preserve him 
from sinking under his despair. Five 
Moorish kinffs appeared in Castile: de- 
vastation and death accompanied their 
progress. Rodrigo, who was not yet 20 
vears of age, threw himself upon bis noble 
horse Babieca, and, at the head of his 
vassals, went to meet the enemy, who 
soon ceased to be the terror of the country. 
The young hero sent the five captive kings 
to Ferdinand, who, as a revnird for his 
bravery, gave him Ximene, and united 
those whom the decrees of fate seemed to 
have separated forever. They were mar- 
ried in Valencia. Ferdinand afterwards 
added Galicia, Leon and Oviedo to Cas- 
tile, and posterity calls him the Great; 
but it was Rodrigo who gained him tlie 
name. A quarrel having arisen between 
Ferdinand and king Ramiro of Arragon 
concerning the possession of Calahorra, 
the latter challenged him to a single com 
bat, and appoint^ for his substimte the 
knight Majrtin Gonzalez* Ferd'uiand 

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cbose the Cid for bis champion, and, b^ 
his means, obtained Calahorra. Ferdi- 
nand, in his wil], divided his dominions 
among his sons : to Sancho he gave Cas- 
tile, to Alfonso he gave Leon and Oviedo, 
and to Garcia, Galicia, together with the 
conquered part of Portugal This divis- 
ion caused a war between the brothers, in 
which Sancho was victorious: this suo- 
eesB was owing to the Cid, to whom he 
had given the command of lus forces. Al- 
fimso was taken prisoner, Garcia brought 
ruin upon himself by his own imprudence, 
and it remained only to overcome the ob- 
stinate resistance of Zamora, where San- 
cho's sister Urraca ruled* Before the walls 
of this city Sancho was assassinated, and 
A]fonso, who, eight months before, was 
vanquished by the Cid, was called to the 
dirone. It is related, in the baUads, that 
the Cid read the oath of purification, in 
the name of the states of Castile, before 
the new king, on account of the murder 
of Sancho, vntb such impressive solem- 
nly, that Alfonso shuddered, but was also 
ofiended. It is certain that he spared 
nothing to ^pain over the Cid. The story 
of this wamor requires a critical examina- 
dbn, especially what relates to his mar- 
riage. According to history, Alfonso mar- 
ried him to donna Ximene, his niece (in 
1074) ; and consequendy it seems we must 
consider him twice married. John von 
Miiller, the German historian, supposes 
that the daughter of the proud Gormas 
may have been his first Xamene. How- 
ever that may be, it is certain that the Cid, 
notwithstanding the important services 
which he rendered to his king, often ex- 
perienced the inconstancy^ of royal favor, 
A man like him, of strict integrity and 
virtue, of an inflexible and lofty spirit, 
who despised an efteminate hfe, wbs cot 
fitted for courts. His true firiend and 
brother in arms, Alvaro Hanez Minaya, 
his wife and child, were his world. The 
gravity of his countenance excited respect 
and reverence; his retired life afforded 
rojm for the slanders of the courtiers ; and 
he was ex|)osed to frequent reproaches. 
But, in times of necessity, his assistance 
was again sought, and he was Coo gener- 
ous to remember past offences. The king 
finally took from him all that he had 
given hiui, wife and treasures; but, from 
shame or fear, he afterwards restored Xi- 
mene. Disgraced, plundered, forced to 
depend on himself alone, Rodrififo was now 
happier and greater than before. Ever 
Otie to liis country and his religion, he 
nused an army by the reputation of his 
fwme ak>9e, tp subdue th^ Moors in V«* 

kncia. In the midst of his eareop ofeoo* 
quest, he hastened to the assistance of hia 
king, who was hard pressed by Josepl^ 
the fi>uiHler of Morocco ; but the only re-» 
turn for this generosity was new in^rat-* 
imde. He therefore departed by mght, 
vrith his most trusty foilowera, said, for^ 
saken and ill provided, fied from the king. 
He, however, remained true to himself^ 
and fortune to him. His magnanimity 
again overcame the king. Penmssion was 
given to all to join the forces of the Cid, 
who still maintained the cause of Spain, 
and always with distingvished success. 
Alfonso declared aloud, in the presence 
of the envious courtiers, *^This Cid serves 
me much better than you," and could no 
longer be prevented fiiom visiting him. 
From this time, he was never estranged 
fiiom him, although he unintentionaUy 
promoted the machinations of his ene- 
mies. Two brothers, counts of Canioii^ 
had resolved, by a marriage writh the 
daughters of the Cid, to obtain possesraon 
of his wealth. The king himself pio* 
rnoted their suit, and the Cid yielded to 
his wishes. With doima Elvira and don- 
na Sol, they received likewise the greal 
treasures which the arms of the Cid had 
won. But scarcely had they dismissed 
theu* attendants, when, in a wild, moun* 
taiuous desert, they stripped the garments 
from the persons of the ladies, hound and 
beat them till pain choked their cries, taui 
departed with tlie money. A trusty ser* 
vant, whom the Cid had sent after them, 
delivered the ladies from their vnnetched 
situation, and the vile deed was brought 
to hght The Cid demanded justice. Al* 
fonso summoned all the vassals of Leon 
and Casdle to a high court of justice at 
the city of Toledo. The Cid demanded 
the restoration of his treasures, and oppor- 
tunity to take vengeance for the insult, by 
a combat between the counts of Carrion 
and the champions whom he should 
name. They sought to avoid the combai^ 
but the king insisted o